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Content for  TS 23.060  Word version:  16.0.0

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1  ScopeWord‑p. 14
The present document defines the stage 2 service description for the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) which is a packet bearer service and a main part of the packet domain. ITU-T Recommendation I.130 [29] describes a three-stage method for characterisation of telecommunication services, and ITU-T Recommendation Q.65 [31] defines stage 2 of the method. The GPRS described in the present document is also the description of the GERAN and UTRAN related functionality of the Evolved Packet System (EPS) according to TS 23.401.
The present document does not cover the Radio Access Network functionality. TS 43.064 contains an overall description of the GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN). TS 25.401 contains an overall description of the Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN). TS 43.051 contains an overall description of GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network.
The present document does not cover the functionality of the GPRS enhancements for the Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E UTRAN). This functionality and also the interoperation functionality between E UTRAN and GERAN/UTRAN accesses are described in TS 23.401.
The present document specifies functions, procedures and information which apply to GERAN Iu mode. However, functionality related to GERAN Iu mode is neither maintained nor enhanced since Rel 9.
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2  References

The following documents contain provisions, which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. For a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
[1]  Void.
[2]  TS 41.061   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS ciphering algorithm requirements".
[3]  TS 22.060   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 1".
[4]  TS 23.003   "Numbering, addressing and identification".
[5]  TS 23.007   "Restoration procedures".
[5b]  TS 23.016   "Subscriber data management; Stage 2".
[6]  TS 43.020   "Security related network functions".
[7]  GSM 03.22: "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode and group receive mode".
[7b]  TS 23.122   "Non-Access Stratum functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode".
[8]  TS 23.040   "Technical realization of the Short Message Service (SMS)".
[8b]  TS 23.078   "Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic (CAMEL) Phase 3 - Stage 2".
[9]  TR 21.905   "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
[10]  Void.
[11]  TS 43.064   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Overall description of the GPRS radio interface; Stage 2".
[12]  TS 24.007   "Mobile radio interface signalling layer 3; General aspects".
[13]  TS 24.008   "Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network Protocols; Stage 3".
[13b]  TS 24.011   "Point to Point (PP) Short Message Service (SMS) support on mobile radio interface".
[14]  Void.
[15]  TS 44.064   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Mobile Station - Serving GPRS Support Node (MS SGSN) Logical Link Control (LLC) layer specification".
[16]  TS 44.065   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Mobile Station (MS) - Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN); Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol (SNDCP)".
[16b]  TS 45.008   "Digital cellular telecommunications system (Phase 2+); Radio subsystem link control".
[17]  TS 27.060   "Packet Domain; Mobile Station (MS) supporting Packet Switched services".
[18]  TS 48.008   "Mobile-services Switching Centre Base Station System (MSC BSS) interface; Layer 3 specification".
[19]  TS 48.014   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System (BSS) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface; Gb interface layer 1".
[20]  TS 48.016   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System (BSS) Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) interface; Network Service".
[21]  Void.
[22]  TS 48.060   "In-band control of remote transcoders and rate adaptors for Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) and full rate traffic channels".
[23]  TS 29.002   "Mobile Application Part (MAP) specification".
[24]  TS 29.016   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Visitors Location Register (VLR); Gs interface network service specification".
[25]  TS 29.018   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Visitors Location Register (VLR); Gs interface layer 3 specification".
[26]  TS 29.060   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp Interface".
[27]  TS 29.061   "Interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting Packet Based services and Packet Data Networks (PDN)".
[27b]  Void.
[28]  TS 51.011   "Specification of the Subscriber Identity Module Mobile Equipment (SIM ME) interface".
[29]  ITU-T Recommendations I.130: "Method for the characterization of telecommunication services supported by an ISDN and network capabilities of an ISDN".
[30]  ITU-T Recommendation E.164: "The international public telecommunication numbering plan".
[31]  ITU-T Recommendation Q.65: "The unified functional methodology for the characterization of services and network capabilities".
[32]  ITU-T Recommendation V.42bis: "Data compression procedures for data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) using error correction procedures".
[33]  Void.
[34]  ITU-T Recommendation X.25: "Interface between Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE) for terminals operating in the packet mode and connected to public data networks by dedicated circuit".
[35]  RFC 4960:  "Stream Control Transmission Protocol".
[36]  TS 31.102   "Characteristics of the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application".
[37]  TS 36.331   "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol specification".
[38]  Void.
[39]  RFC 768  (1980): "User Datagram Protocol" (STD 6).
[40]  RFC 791  (1981): "Internet Protocol" (STD 5).
[41]  RFC 792  (1981): "Internet Control Message Protocol" (STD 5).
[42]  Void.
[43]  RFC 1034  (1987): "Domain names - concepts and facilities" (STD 13).
[44]  RFC 1661  (1994): "The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)" (STD 51).
[45]  RFC 1542  (1993): "Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol".
[46]  RFC 3344  (2002): "IP Mobility Support for IPv4".
[47]  RFC 2131  (1997): "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol".
[48]  RFC 2460  (1998): "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification".
[49]  TIA/EIA 136 (1999): "TDMA Cellular / PCS"; Arlington: Telecommunications Industry Association.
[50]  TS 25.301   "Radio Interface Protocol Architecture".
[51]  TS 25.303   "Interlayer procedures in Connected Mode".
[51b]  TS 25.304   "UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures for Call Reselection in Connected Mode".
[52]  TS 25.331   "RRC Protocol Specification".
[53]  TS 25.401   "UTRAN Overall Description".
[54]  TS 23.121   "Architectural Requirements for Release 1999".
[55]  TS 25.322   "RLC protocol specification".
[56]  TS 25.412   "UTRAN Iu interface signalling transport".
[56b]  TS 25.413   "UTRAN Iu interface Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) signalling".
[57]  TS 25.323   "Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) specification".
[58]  TS 23.107   "Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture".
[59]  ITU T Recommendation I.361: "B ISDN ATM layer specification".
[60]  TS 25.321   "Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification".
[61]  TS 33.102   "3G Security; Security architecture".
[62]  Void.
[63]  TS 25.411   "UTRAN Iu interface Layer 1".
[64]  TS 25.414   "UTRAN Iu interface data transport & transport signalling".
[65]  TS 23.271   "Functional stage 2 description of LCS".
[66]  TS 23.015   "Technical realization of Operator Determined Barring (ODB)".
[67]  ITU T Recommendation I.363.5: "B ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) specification: Type 5 AAL".
[68]  Void.
[69]  Void.
[70]  TS 32.251   "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Packet Switched (PS) domain charging".
[71]  Void.
[72]  TS 29.202   "Signalling System No. 7 (SS7) signalling transport in core network; Stage 3".
[73]  TS 23.236   "Intra Domain Connection of RAN Nodes to Multiple CN Nodes".
[74]  TS 43.051   "Radio Access Network; Overall description - Stage 2".
[75]  TS 24.229   IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol based on SIP and SDP.
[76]  TS 23.195   "Provision of UE Specific Behaviour Information to Network Entities".
[77]  TS 44.060   General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Mobile Station (MS) - Base Station System (BSS) interface; Radio Link Control/Medium Access Control (RLC/MAC) protocol".
[78]  TS 48.018   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Base Station System (BSS) - Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN); BSS GPRS Protocol (BSSGP)".
[79]  TS 23.008   "Organization of subscriber data".
[80]  TS 23.221   "Architectural requirements".
[81]  TS 23.012   "Location Management Procedures".
[82]  TS 22.101   "Service Principles".
[83]  TS 23.251   " Network Sharing; Architecture and Functional Description".
[84]  TS 32.422   "Subscriber and equipment trace; Trace control and Configuration Management (CM)".
[85]  TS 44.018   "Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification; Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol".
[86]  Void.
[87]  TS 43.129   "Packet-switched handover for GERAN A/Gb mode; Stage 2".
[88]  TS 23.203   "Policy and charging control architecture; Stage 2".
[89]  TS 23.401   "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) enhancements for Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN) access".
[90]  TS 23.402   "Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses".
[91]  TS 33.401   "3GPP System Architecture Evolution: Security Architecture".
[92]  TS 29.274   "3GPP Evolved Packet System; Evolved General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) Tunnelling Protocol for Control plane (GTPv2-C); Stage 3".
[93]  TS 23.272   "Circuit Switched Fallback in Evolved Packet System; Stage 2".
[94]  TS 32.240   "Charging architecture and principles".
[95]  TS 25.423   "UTRAN Iur interface Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP) signalling".
[96]  RFC 3588:  "Diameter Base Protocol" (STD 1).
[97]  Void.
[98]  RFC 4861  (2007): "Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6)".
[99]  RFC 4862  (2007): "IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration".
[100]  TS 29.303   "Domain Name System Procedures; Stage 3".
[101]  TS 23.216   "Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC); Stage 2".
[102]  TS 24.301   "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System (EPS); Stage 3".
[103]  TS 25.467   "UTRAN architecture for 3G Home NodeB; Stage 2".
[104]  TS 23.292   "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) centralized services; Stage 2".
[105]  RFC 3633:  "IPv6 Prefix Options for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) version 6".
[106]  RFC 3376:  "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3".
[107]  RFC 3810:  "Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6".
[108]  RFC 3927:  "Dynamic Configuration of IPv4 Link-Local Addresses".
[109]  RFC 4291:  "IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture".
[110]  TS 22.368   "Service requirements for Machine-Type Communications (MTC)".
[111]  TS 24.368   "Non-Access Stratum (NAS) configuration Management Object (MO)".
[112]  TS 22.011   "Service Accessibility".
[113]  RFC 6603:  "Prefix Exclude Option for DHCPv6-based Prefix Delegation".
[114]  TS 33.210   "Network Domain Security (NDS); IP network layer security".
[115]  RFC 3168:  "The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to IP".
[116]  TS 26.114   "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Multimedia Telephony; Media handling and interaction".
[117]  RFC 4039:  "Rapid Commit Option for the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 4 (DHCPv4)".
[118]  RFC 3736:  "Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6".
[119]  TS 23.682   "Architecture Enhancements to facilitate communications with Packet Data Networks and Applications".
[120]  TS 29.281   "GPRS Tunnelling Protocol User Plane (GTPv1-U)".
[121]  TS 22.173   "IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services; Stage 1".
[122]  TS 36.300   "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2".
[123]  TS 23.228   "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage 2".
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3  Definitions, abbreviations and symbolsWord‑p. 19

3.1  Definitions

Definitions can be found in TS 22.060 and TS 25.401. For the purposes of the present document, the following terms and definitions apply:
GERAN/UTRAN PS coverage:
an MS is defined to be in GERAN/UTRAN PS coverage if it can access GPRS services via GERAN or UTRAN. These services may be provided in A/Gb mode or in Iu mode. According to this definition, an MS camped on an E UTRAN cell is not in GERAN/UTRAN PS coverage.
GPRS:
packet bearer service of the packet domain.
A/Gb mode:
indicates that this clause or paragraph applies only to a system or sub-system which operate in A/Gb mode of operation, i.e. with a functional division that is in accordance with the use of an A or a Gb interface between the radio access network and the core network. This definition is consistent with the A/Gb mode definition for the RAN in TS 43.051.
Iu mode:
indicates that this clause or paragraph applies only to a system or a sub-system which operates in Iu mode of operation, i.e. with a functional division that is in accordance with the use of an Iu-CS or Iu-PS interface between the radio access network and the core network. This definition is consistent with the Iu mode definition for the RAN in TS 43.051. Note that Iu mode is independent of the support of both parts of the Iu interface, e.g. an SGSN in Iu mode uses only the Iu-PS interface.
Inter-system change:
change of an MS from A/Gb mode to Iu mode of operation and vice versa.
MS:
this specification makes no distinction between MS and UE
2G / 3G :
prefixes 2G and 3G refer to systems or sub-systems, that support A/Gb mode or Iu mode, respectively, e.g. 2G SGSN refers to all functionality of an SGSN which serves an MS in A/Gb mode.
Pool area:
refers to a grouping of one or more RA(s) that, from a RAN perspective, are served by a certain group of CN nodes, as defined for the Intra Domain Connection of RAN Nodes to Multiple CN Nodes.
Emergency attached MS:
An MS which only has PDP context(s) related to emergency bearer service.
LIPA PDN connection:
a PDN connection for local IP access for a UE connected to a HNB.
SIPTO at local network PDN connection:
a PDN connection for SIPTO at local network for a UE connected to a HNB.
Correlation ID:
For a LIPA PDN connection, Correlation ID is a parameter that enables direct user plane path between the HNB and L-GW.
SIPTO Correlation ID:
For a SIPTO at local network PDN connection, SIPTO Correlation ID is a parameter that enables direct user plane path between the HNB and L-GW when they are collocated.
Local Home Network:
A set of (H)NBs/RNCs and L-GWs in the standalone GW architecture, where the HNB-GWs/RNCs have IP connectivity for SIPTO at the Local Network via all the L-GWs.
Local Home Network ID:
An identifier that uniquely identifies a Local Home Network within a PLMN.
Presence Reporting Area:
An area defined within 3GPP Packet Domain for the purposes of reporting of UE presence within that area due to policy control and/or charging reasons. A Presence Reporting Area may consist in a set of neighbour or non-neighbor cells/Service Areas or Routing Areas. There are two types of Presence Reporting Areas: "UE-dedicated Presence Reporting Areas" and "Core Network pre-configured Presence Reporting Areas".
RAN user plane congestion:
RAN user plane congestion occurs when the demand for RAN resources exceeds the available RAN capacity to deliver the user data for a prolonged period of time.
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3.2  AbbreviationsWord‑p. 20
Applicable abbreviations can be found in TR 21.905. For the purposes of the present document the following abbreviations apply:
AAL5
ATM Adaptation Layer type 5
ADD
Automatic Device Detection
APN
Access Point Name
APN-AMBR
APN-Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AUTN
Authentication Token
BCM
Bearer Control Mode
BG
Border Gateway
BSSAP+
Base Station System Application Part +
BSSGP
Base Station System GPRS Protocol
BVCI
BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier
CCU
Channel Codec Unit
CDR
Call Detail Record
CGF
Charging Gateway Functionality
CGI
Cell Global Identification
CIoT
Cellular IoT
CK
Cipher Key
CMM
Circuit Mobility Management
CS
Circuit Switched
CSG
Closed Subscriber Group
CSG-ID
Closed Subscriber Group Identity
CSS
CSG Subscriber Server
DCN
Dedicated Core Network
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DNS
Domain Name System
DTI
Direct Tunnel Indicator
DTM
Dual Transfer Mode
EGPRS
Enhanced GPRS
EPS
Evolved Packet System
ESP
Encapsulating Security Payload
ETFTN
Extended TFT Support Network
ETFTU
Extended TFT Support UE
E-UTRAN
Evolved UTRAN
GCSI
GPRS CAMEL Subscription Information indicator
GEA
GPRS Encryption Algorithm
GERAN
GSM EDGE Radio Access Network
GGSN
Gateway GPRS Support Node
GMM/SM
GPRS Mobility Management and Session Management
GPRS-SSF
GPRS Service Switching Function
GPRS-CSI
GPRS CAMEL Subscription Information
GRA
GERAN Registration Area
GSM SCF
GSM Service Control Function
GSIM
GSM Service Identity Module
GSN
GPRS Support Node
GTP
GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
GTP-C
GTP Control Plane
GTP-U
GTP User Plane
GW
Gateway
HNB
Home Node B
HNB-GW
Home Node B Gateway
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IK
Integrity Key
IoT
Internet of Things
IP
Internet Protocol
IPv4
Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6
IPX
Internet Packet eXchange
ISP
Internet Service Provider
KSI
Key Set Identifier
L2TP
Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol
L-GW
Local Gateway
LIPA
Local IP Access
LL PDU
LLC PDU
LLC
Logical Link Control
MAC
Medium Access Control
MIP
Mobile IP
MNRF
Mobile station Not Reachable Flag
MNRG
Mobile station Not Reachable for GPRS flag
MNRR
Mobile station Not Reachable Reason
MOCN
Multi-Operator Core Network
MTC
Machine Type Communications
MTP2
Message Transfer Part layer 2
MTP3
Message Transfer Part layer 3
MTU
Maximum Transfer Unit
NACC
Network Assisted Cell Change
NGAF
Non-GPRS Alert Flag
N-PDU
Network Protocol Data Unit
NRSU
Network Request Support UE
NRSN
Network Request Support Network
NS
Network Service
NSAPI
Network layer Service Access Point Identifier
NSS
Network SubSystem
OCS
Online Charging System
ODB
Operator Determined Barring
OFCS
Offline Charging System
P-TMSI
Packet TMSI
PCC
Policy and Charging Control
PCRF
Policy and Charging Rules Function
PCU
Packet Control Unit
PDCH
Packet Data CHannel
PDCP
Packet Data Convergence Protocol
PDN
Packet Data Network
PDN-GW
Packet Data Network Gateway
PDP
Packet Data Protocol, e.g. IP
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
P-GW
PDN Gateway
PMM
Packet Mobility Management
PPF
Paging Proceed Flag
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
PSM
Power Saving Mode
PTP
Point To Point
PVC
Permanent Virtual Circuit
RA
Routeing Area
RAB
Radio Access Bearer
RAC
Routeing Area Code
RAI
Routeing Area Identity
RANAP
Radio Access Network Application Protocol
RAU
Routeing Area Update
RCAF
RAN Congestion Awareness Function
RLC
Radio Link Control
RNC
Radio Network Controller
RNS
Radio Network Subsystem
RNTI
Radio Network Temporary Identity
RRC
Radio Resource Control
RUCI
RAN User Plane Congestion Information
SBSC
Serving Base Station Controller
SBSS
Serving BSS
SGSN
Serving GPRS Support Node
S-GW
Serving Gateway
SIPTO
Selected IP Traffic Offload
SM
Short Message
SM SC
Short Message service Service Centre
SMS-GMSC
Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC
Short Message Service Interworking MSC
SN-PDU
SNDCP PDU
SNDC
SubNetwork Dependent Convergence
SNDCP
SubNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol
SPI
Security Parameter Index
SRNC
Serving RNC
SRNS
Serving RNS
TCAP
Transaction Capabilities Application Part
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
TFT
Traffic Flow Template
TEID
Tunnel Endpoint IDentifier
TLLI
Temporary Logical Link Identity
TOM
Tunnelling Of Messages
TOS
Type of Service
TRAU
Transcoder and Rate Adaptor Unit
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
UE-AMBR
UE-Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate
UEA
UMTS Encryption Algorithm
UESBI-Iu
UE Specific Behaviour Information - Iu
UESBI-Uu
UE Specific Behaviour Information - Uu
UIA
UMTS Integrity Algorithm
URA
UTRAN Registration Area
URRP-SGSN
UE Reachability Request Parameter for SGSN
USIM
User Service Identity Module
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3.3  SymbolsWord‑p. 22
For the purposes of the present document, the following symbols apply:
Ga
Charging data collection interface between a CDR transmitting unit (e.g. an SGSN, S-GW, PDN GW or a GGSN) and a CDR receiving functionality (a CGF).
Gb
Interface between an SGSN and a BSS.
Gc
Interface between a GGSN and an HLR.
Gd
Interface between an SMS GMSC and an SGSN, and between an SMS IWMSC and an SGSN (MAP based).
Gdd
Interface between an SMS GMSC and an SGSN, and between an SMS IWMSC and an SGSN (Diameter based).
Gf
Interface between an SGSN and an EIR.
Gi
Reference point between a GGSN and a packet data network.
Gn
Interface between two SGSNs within the same or different PLMNs or between an SGSN and a GGSN within the same PLMN.
Gp
Interface between a SGSN and a P-GW/GGSN in different PLMNs. The Gp interface allows support of GPRS network services across areas served by the co-operating GPRS PLMNs.
Gr
Interface between an SGSN and an HLR.
Gs
Interface between an SGSN and an MSC/VLR.
Iu
Interface between the RNS and the core network. It is also considered as a reference point.
kbit/s
Kilobits per second.
Mbit/s
Megabits per second. 1 Mbit/s = 1 million bits per second.
Np
Interface between an RCAF and the PCRF.
Nq'
Interface between an S4-SGSN and an RCAF.
R
Reference point between a non-ISDN compatible TE and MT. Typically this reference point supports a standard serial interface.
Reporting Area
The service area for which the location of an MS is reported.
Service Area
The location accuracy level needed for service management purposes in the 3G SGSN, e.g. a routeing area or a cell. The 3G SGSN can request the SRNC to report: i) the MS's current service area; ii) when the MS moves into a given service area; or iii) when the MS moves out of a given service area.
S4
Interface between a SGSN and a S-GW within the same PLMN.
S5
Interface between a S-GW and a P-GW within the same PLMN.
S6d
Interface between a SGSN and a HSS.
S8
Interface between a S-GW and a P-GW in different PLMNs. The S8 interface allows support of GPRS network services across areas served by the co operating GPRS PLMNs
S12
User plane interface between the RNS and a S-GW for Direct Tunnel.
S16
Interface between two SGSNs within the same or different PLMNs when those SGSNs support S4.
SGi
Reference point between a P-GW and a packet data network.
SGs
Interface between MME and an MSC/VLR.
Um
Interface between the mobile station (MS) and the A/Gb mode network. The Um interface is the MS to network interface for providing GPRS services over the GERAN radio to the MS in A/Gb mode.
Uu
Interface between the mobile station (MS) and the Iu mode network. The Uu interface is the Iu mode network interface for providing GPRS services over the UTRAN radio (and in Iu mode, over the GERAN radio) to the MS.
S13'
Interface between a SGSN and an EIR within the same or different PLMNs.
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4  Main ConceptWord‑p. 23
The packet domain uses packet-mode techniques to transfer high-speed and low-speed data and signalling in an efficient manner. The packet domain optimises the use of network and radio resources. Strict separation between the radio subsystem and network subsystem is maintained, allowing the network subsystem to be reused with other radio access technologies.
A common packet domain Core Network is used for both Radio Access Networks (RAN) the GERAN and the UTRAN. This common Core Network provides together with these RANs GPRS services. It is designed to support several quality of service levels to allow efficient transfer of non real-time traffic (e.g. intermittent and bursty data transfers, occasional transmission of large volumes of data) and real-time traffic (e.g. voice, video). Applications based on standard data protocols and SMS are supported, and interworking is defined with IP networks. Charging should be flexible and allow to bill according to the amount of data transferred, the QoS supported, and the duration of the connection.
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) keeps track of the location of an individual MS and performs security functions and access control. The SGSN is connected to the GERAN base station system through the Gb or Iu interface and/or to the UTRAN through the Iu interface. The SGSN also interfaces via the GPRS Service Switching Function with the GSM Service Control Function for optional CAMEL session and cost control service support.
The Gateway Node (P-GW/GGSN) provides interworking with packet data networks, and is connected with other core network nodes via an IP-based packet domain PLMN backbone network.
The Serving Gateway is user plane node that provides a common anchor for interoperation between GERAN/UTRAN and E UTRAN accesses and when S4 is used it permits Direct Tunnel usage in roaming scenarios.
The Offline Charging System (OFCS) collects charging records from SGSNs, S-GWs and P-GW/GGSNs.
The HSS/HLR contains subscriber information.
The SMS GMSCs and SMS IWMSCs support SMS transmission via the SGSN.
Optionally, the MSC/VLR can be enhanced for more-efficient co-ordination of packet-switched and circuit-switched services and functionality: e.g. combined GPRS and non-GPRS location updates.
In order to use GPRS services, an MS shall first make its presence known to the network by performing a GPRS attach. This makes the MS available for SMS over GPRS and SMS over IMS, paging via the SGSN, and notification of incoming packet data. If the UE is already PS attached due to an attach via E UTRAN it makes its presence known to an SGSN by a Routeing Area Update.
In order to send and receive packet data by means of GPRS services, the MS shall activate the Packet Data Protocol context that it wants to use. This operation makes the MS known in the corresponding P-GW/GGSN, and interworking with data networks can commence.
User data are transferred transparently between the MS and the packet data networks with a method known as encapsulation and tunnelling: data packets are equipped with GPRS-specific protocol information and transferred between the MS and the P-GW/GGSN. This transparent transfer method lessens the requirement for the PLMN to interpret external data protocols, and it enables easy introduction of additional interworking protocols in the future.
Packet Switched (PS) handover is introduced in order to support real-time packet-switched service with strict QoS requirements on low latency and packet loss. PS handover reduces the service interruption of the user plane information at cell change compared to the cell-reselection and enables methods to improve buffer handling of user plane data in order to reduce packet loss at cell-change. PS handover is the handover between GERAN PS and UTRAN PS. The complete specification of the PS handover procedures for A/Gb mode and between Iu mode and A/Gb mode are described in TS 43.129.
Earlier release versions of this specification described a Network Mode Operation III, which is not available for deployment as GERAN specifications forbid deploying Packet Common Control Channels since Release 9 in TS 44.060.
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