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full Table of Contents for  TS 23.501  Word version:   16.3.0

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5.7  QoS model
5.7.1  General Overview
5.7.1.1  QoS Flow
5.7.1.2  QoS ProfileWord-p. 126
5.7.1.2a  Alternative QoS Profile [R16]
5.7.1.3  Control of QoS FlowsWord-p. 127
5.7.1.4  QoS Rules
5.7.1.5  QoS Flow mappingWord-p. 128
Reproduction of 3GPP TS 23.501, Figure 5.7.1.5-1: The principle for classification and User Plane marking for QoS Flows and mapping to AN Resources
Figure 5.7.1.5-1: The principle for classification and User Plane marking for QoS Flows and mapping to AN Resources
5.7.1.6  DL trafficWord-p. 129
5.7.1.7  UL TrafficWord-p. 130
5.7.1.8  AMBR/MFBR enforcement and rate limitation
5.7.1.9  Precedence ValueWord-p. 131
5.7.2  5G QoS Parameters
5.7.3  5G QoS characteristics
5.7.3.1  General
This clause specifies the 5G QoS characteristics associated with 5QI. The characteristics describe the packet forwarding treatment that a QoS Flow receives edge-to-edge between the UE and the UPF in terms of the following performance characteristics:
  1. Resource Type (GBR, Delay critical GBR or Non-GBR);
  2. Priority Level;
  3. Packet Delay Budget (including Core Network Packet Delay Budget);
  4. Packet Error Rate;
  5. Averaging window (for GBR and Delay-critical GBR resource type only);
  6. Maximum Data Burst Volume (for Delay-critical GBR resource type only).
The 5G QoS characteristics should be understood as guidelines for setting node specific parameters for each QoS Flow e.g. for 3GPP radio access link layer protocol configurations.
Standardized or pre-configured 5G QoS characteristics, are indicated through the 5QI value, and are not signalled on any interface, unless certain 5G QoS characteristics are modified as specified in clauses 5.7.3.3, 5.7.3.4, 5.7.3.6, and 5.7.3.7.
NOTE: As there are no default values specified, pre-configured 5G QoS characteristics have to include all of the characteristics listed above.
Signalled 5G QoS characteristics are provided as part of the QoS profile and shall include all of the characteristics listed above.
5.7.3.2  Resource Type
The Resource Type determines if dedicated network resources related to a QoS Flow-level Guaranteed Flow Bit Rate (GFBR) value are permanently allocated (e.g. by an admission control function in a radio base station).
GBR QoS Flows are therefore typically authorized "on demand" which requires dynamic policy and charging control. A GBR QoS Flow uses either the GBR resource type or the Delay-critical GBR resource type. The definition of PDB and PER are different for GBR and Delay-critical GBR resource types, and the MDBV parameter applies only to the Delay-critical GBR resource type.
A Non-GBR QoS Flow may be pre-authorized through static policy and charging control. A Non-GBR QoS Flow uses only the Non-GBR resource type.
5.7.3.3  Priority Level
The Priority Level associated with 5G QoS characteristics indicates a priority in scheduling resources among QoS Flows. The lowest Priority Level value corresponds to the highest priority.
The Priority Level shall be used to differentiate between QoS Flows of the same UE, and it shall also be used to differentiate between QoS Flows from different UEs.
In the case of congestion, when all QoS requirements cannot be fulfilled for one or more QoS Flows, the Priority Level shall be used to select for which QoS Flows the QoS requirements are prioritised such that a QoS Flow with Priority Level value N is priorized over QoS Flows with higher Priority Level values (i.e. N+1, N+2, etc).In the case of no congestion, the Priority Level should be used to define the resource distribution between QoS Flows. In addition, the scheduler may prioritize QoS Flows based on other parameters (e.g. resource type, radio condition) in order to optimize application performance and network capacity.
Every standardized 5QI is associated with a default value for the Priority Level -specified in QoS characteristics Table 5.7.4.1). Priority Level may also be signalled together with a standardized 5QI to the -R)AN, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the default value.
Priority Level may also be signalled together with a pre-configured 5QI to the (R)AN, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the pre-configured value.
5.7.3.4  Packet Delay BudgetWord-p. 136
The Packet Delay Budget (PDB) defines an upper bound for the time that a packet may be delayed between the UE and the UPF that terminates the N6 interface. For a certain 5QI the value of the PDB is the same in UL and DL. In the case of 3GPP access, the PDB is used to support the configuration of scheduling and link layer functions (e.g. the setting of scheduling priority weights and HARQ target operating points). For GBR QoS Flows using the Delay-critical resource type, a packet delayed more than PDB is counted as lost if the data burst is not exceeding the MDBV within the period of PDB and the QoS Flow is not exceeding the GFBR. For GBR QoS Flows with GBR resource type not exceeding GFBR, 98 percent of the packets shall not experience a delay exceeding the 5QI's PDB.
The delay budget that applies to the radio interface is determined by subtracting a static value for the Core Network Packet Delay Budget (CN PDB), which represents the delay between any UPF terminating N6 (that may possibly be selected for the PDU Session) and the 5G-AN from a given PDB.
NOTE 1: For a standardized 5QI, the static value for the CN PDB is specified in the QoS characteristics Table 5.7.4-1.
NOTE 2: For a non-standardized 5QI, the static value for the CN PDB is homogeneously configured in the network.
For GBR QoS Flows using the Delay-critical resource type, in order to obtain a more accurate delay budget PDB available for the NG-RAN, a dynamic value for the CN PDB, which represents the delay between the UPF terminating N6 for the QoS Flow and the 5G-AN, can be used. If used for a QoS Flow, the NG-RAN shall apply the dynamic value for the CN PDB instead of the static value for the CN PDB (which is only related to the 5QI).
The dynamic value for the CN PDB of a Delay-critical GBR 5QI may be configured in the network in two ways:
  • Configured in each NG-RAN node, based on a variety of inputs such as different IP address(es) or TEID range of UPF terminating the N3 tunnel and based on different combinations of PSA UPF to NG-RAN under consideration of any potential I-UPF, etc;
  • Configured in the SMF, based on different combinations of PSA UPF to NG-RAN under consideration of any potential I-UPF. The dynamic value for the CN PDB for a particular QoS Flow shall be signalled to NG-RAN (during PDU Session Establishment, PDU Session Modification, Xn/N2 handover and the Service Request procedures) when the QoS Flow is established or the dynamic value for the CN PDB of a QoS Flow changes, e.g. when an I-UPF is inserted by the SMF.
If the NG-RAN node is configured locally with a dynamic value for the CN PDB for a Delay-critical GBR 5QI, and receives a different value via N2 signalling for a QoS Flow with the same 5QI, local configuration in RAN node determines which value takes precedence.
Services using a GBR QoS Flow and sending at a rate smaller than or equal to the GFBR can in general assume that congestion related packet drops will not occur.
NOTE: Exceptions (e.g. transient link outages) can always occur in a radio access system which may then lead to congestion related packet drops. Packets surviving congestion related packet dropping may still be subject to non-congestion related packet losses (see PER below).
Services using Non-GBR QoS Flows should be prepared to experience congestion-related packet drops and delays. In uncongested scenarios, 98 percent of the packets should not experience a delay exceeding the 5QI's PDB.
The PDB for Non-GBR and GBR resource types denotes a "soft upper bound" in the sense that an "expired" packet, e.g. a link layer SDU that has exceeded the PDB, does not need to be discarded and is not added to the PER. However, for a Delay critical GBR resource type, packets delayed more than the PDB are added to the PER and can be discarded or delivered depending on local decision.
5.7.3.5  Packet Error RateWord-p. 137
The Packet Error Rate (PER) defines an upper bound for the rate of PDUs (e.g. IP packets) that have been processed by the sender of a link layer protocol (e.g. RLC in RAN of a 3GPP access) but that are not successfully delivered by the corresponding receiver to the upper layer (e.g. PDCP in RAN of a 3GPP access). Thus, the PER defines an upper bound for a rate of non-congestion related packet losses. The purpose of the PER is to allow for appropriate link layer protocol configurations (e.g. RLC and HARQ in RAN of a 3GPP access). For every 5QI the value of the PER is the same in UL and DL. For GBR QoS Flows with Delay critical GBR resource type, a packet which is delayed more than PDB is counted as lost, and included in the PER unless the data burst is exceeding the MDBV within the period of PDB or the QoS Flow is exceeding the GFBR.
5.7.3.6  Averaging Window
Each GBR QoS Flow shall be associated with an Averaging window. The Averaging window represents the duration over which the GFBR and MFBR shall be calculated (e.g. in the (R)AN, UPF, UE).
Every standardized 5QI (of GBR and Delay-critical GBR resource type) is associated with a default value for the Averaging window (specified in QoS characteristics Table 5.7.4.1). The averaging window may also be signalled together with a standardized 5QI to the (R)AN and UPF, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the default value.
The Averaging window may also be signalled together with a pre-configured 5QI to the (R)AN, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the pre-configured value.
5.7.3.7  Maximum Data Burst Volume
Each GBR QoS Flow with Delay-critical resource type shall be associated with a Maximum Data Burst Volume (MDBV).
MDBV denotes the largest amount of data that the 5G-AN is required to serve within a period of 5G-AN PDB (i.e. 5G-AN part of the PDB).
Every standardized 5QI (of Delay-critical GBR resource type) is associated with a default value for the MDBV (specified in QoS characteristics Table 5.7.4.1). The MDBV may also be signalled together with a standardized 5QI to the (R)AN, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the default value.
The MDBV may also be signalled together with a pre-configured 5QI to the (R)AN, and if it is received, it shall be used instead of the pre-configured value.
5.7.4  Standardized 5QI to QoS characteristics mapping
Packet Delay Budget (Note 3)
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume (Note 2)
GBR Resource Type (Note 1)
5QI Value 1
Default Priority Level 20
Packet Delay Budget 100 ms (Note 11, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-2
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Conversational Voice

5QI Value 2
Default Priority Level 40
Packet Delay Budget 150 ms (Note 11, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-3
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Conversational Video (Live Streaming)

5QI Value 3 (Note 14)
Default Priority Level 30
Packet Delay Budget 50 ms (Note 11, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-3
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Real Time Gaming, V2X messages Electricity distribution - medium voltage, Process automation - monitoring

5QI Value 4
Default Priority Level 50
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 11, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Non-Conversational Video (Buffered Streaming)

5QI Value 65 (Note 9, Note 12)
Default Priority Level 7
Packet Delay Budget 75 ms (Note 7, Note 8)
Packet Error Rate 10-2
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Mission Critical user plane Push To Talk voice (e.g., MCPTT)

5QI Value 66 (Note 12)
Default Priority Level 20
Packet Delay Budget 100 ms (Note 10, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-2
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Non-Mission-Critical user plane Push To Talk voice

5QI Value 67 (Note 12)
Default Priority Level 15
Packet Delay Budget 100 ms (Note 11, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-3
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Mission Critical Video user plane

5QI Value 71
Default Priority Level 56
Packet Delay Budget 150 ms (Note 11, Note 13, Note 15)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services "Live" Uplink Streaming (e.g. TS 26.238)

5QI Value 72
Default Priority Level 56
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 11, Note 13, Note 15)
Packet Error Rate 10-4
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services "Live" Uplink Streaming (e.g. TS 26.238)

5QI Value 73
Default Priority Level 56
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 11, Note 13, Note 15)
Packet Error Rate 10-8
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services "Live" Uplink Streaming (e.g. TS 26.238)

5QI Value 74
Default Priority Level 56
Packet Delay Budget 500 ms (Note 11, Note 15)
Packet Error Rate 10-8
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services "Live" Uplink Streaming (e.g. TS 26.238)

5QI Value 76
Default Priority Level 56
Packet Delay Budget 500 ms (Note 11, Note 13, Note 15)
Packet Error Rate 10-4
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services "Live" Uplink Streaming (e.g. TS 26.238)

Non-GBR Resource Type (Note 1)
5QI Value 5
Default Priority Level 10
Packet Delay Budget 100 ms (Note 10, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services IMS Signalling
5QI Value 6
Default Priority Level 60
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 10, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Video (Buffered Streaming) TCP-based (e.g., www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing, progressive video, etc.)
5QI Value 7
Default Priority Level 70
Packet Delay Budget 100 ms (Note 10, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-3
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Voice, Video (Live Streaming) Interactive Gaming
5QI Value 8
Default Priority Level 80
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Video (Buffered Streaming) TCP-based (e.g., www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing, progressive video, etc.)
5QI Value 9
Default Priority Level 90
Packet Delay Budget 300 ms (Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Video (Buffered Streaming) TCP-based (e.g., www, e-mail, chat, ftp, p2p file sharing, progressive video, etc.)
5QI Value 69 (Note 9, Note 12)
Default Priority Level 5
Packet Delay Budget 60 ms (Note 7, Note 8)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Mission Critical delay sensitive signalling (e.g., MC-PTT signalling)
5QI Value 70 (Note 12)
Default Priority Level 55
Packet Delay Budget 200 ms (Note 7, Note 10)
Packet Error Rate 10-6
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Mission Critical Data (e.g. example services are the same as 5QI 6/8/9)
5QI Value 79
Default Priority Level 65
Packet Delay Budget 50 ms (Note 10, Note 13)
Packet Error Rate 10-2
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services V2X messages
5QI Value 80
Default Priority Level 68
Packet Delay Budget 10 ms (Note 5, Note 10)
Packet Error Rate 10-2
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume N/A
Default Averaging Window N/A
Example Services Low Latency eMBB applications Augmented Reality

Delay Critical GBR Resource Type
5QI Value 82
Default Priority Level 19
Packet Delay Budget 10 ms (Note 4)
Packet Error Rate 10-4
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume 255 bytes
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Discrete Automation (see TS 22.261)
5QI Value 83
Default Priority Level 22
Packet Delay Budget 10 ms (Note 4)
Packet Error Rate 10-4
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume 1354 bytes
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Discrete Automation (see TS 22.261); V2X messages (UE - RSU Platooning, Advanced Driving: Cooperative Lane Change with low LoA. See TS 22.186)
5QI Value 84
Default Priority Level 24
Packet Delay Budget 30 ms (Note 6)
Packet Error Rate 10-5
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume 1354 bytes
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Intelligent transport systems (see TS 22.261)
5QI Value 85
Default Priority Level 21
Packet Delay Budget 5 ms (Note 5)
Packet Error Rate 10-5
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume 255 bytes
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services Electricity Distribution- high voltage (see TS 22.261). V2X messages (Remote Driving. See TS 22.186, NOTE 16)
5QI Value 86
Default Priority Level 18
Packet Delay Budget 5 ms (Note 5)
Packet Error Rate 10-4
Default Maximum Data Burst Volume 1354 bytes
Default Averaging Window 2000 ms
Example Services V2X messages (Advanced Driving: Collision Avoidance, Platooning with high LoA. See TS 22.186)


Note 1: A packet which is delayed more than PDB is not counted as lost, thus not included in the PER.
Note 2: It is required that default MDBV is supported by a PLMN supporting the related 5QIs.
Note 3: The Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) size considerations in clause 9.3 and Annex C of TS 23.060 are also applicable. IP fragmentation may have impacts to CN PDB, and details are provided in clause 5.6.10.
Note 4: A static value for the CN PDB of 1 ms for the delay between a UPF terminating N6 and a 5G-AN should be subtracted from a given PDB to derive the packet delay budget that applies to the radio interface. When a dynamic CN PDB is used, see clause 5.7.3.4.
Note 5: A static value for the CN PDB of 2 ms for the delay between a UPF terminating N6 and a 5G-AN should be subtracted from a given PDB to derive the packet delay budget that applies to the radio interface. When a dynamic CN PDB is used, see clause clause 5.7.3.4.
Note 6: A static value for the CN PDB of 5 ms for the delay between a UPF terminating N6 and a 5G-AN should be subtracted from a given PDB to derive the packet delay budget that applies to the radio interface. When a dynamic CN PDB is used, see clause clause 5.7.3.4.
Note 7: For Mission Critical services, it may be assumed that the UPF terminating N6 is located "close" to the 5G_AN (roughly 10 ms) and is not normally used in a long distance, home routed roaming situation. Hence a static value for the CN PDBof 10 ms for the delay between a UPF terminating N6 and a 5G_AN should be subtracted from this PDB to derive the packet delay budget that applies to the radio interface.
Note 8: In both RRC Idle and RRC Connected mode, the PDB requirement for these 5QIs can be relaxed (but not to a value greater than 320 ms) for the first packet(s) in a downlink data or signalling burst in order to permit reasonable battery saving (DRX) techniques.
Note 9: It is expected that 5QI-65 and 5QI-69 are used together to provide Mission Critical Push to Talk service (e.g., 5QI-5 is not used for signalling). It is expected that the amount of traffic per UE will be similar or less compared to the IMS signalling.
Note 10: In both RRC Idle and RRC Connected mode, the PDB requirement for these 5QIs can be relaxed for the first packet(s) in a downlink data or signalling burst in order to permit battery saving (DRX) techniques.
Note 11: In RRC Idle mode, the PDB requirement for these 5QIs can be relaxed for the first packet(s) in a downlink data or signalling burst in order to permit battery saving (DRX) techniques.
Note 12: This 5QI value can only be assigned upon request from the network side. The UE and any application running on the UE is not allowed to request this 5QI value.
Note 13: A static value for the CN PDB of 20 ms for the delay between a UPF terminating N6 and a 5G-AN should be subtracted from a given PDB to derive the packet delay budget that applies to the radio interface.
Note 14: This 5QI is not supported in this Release of the specification as it is only used for transmission of V2X messages over MBMS bearers as defined in TS 23.285 but the value is reserved for future use.
Note 15: For "live" uplink streaming (see TS 26.238), guidelines for PDB values of the different 5QIs correspond to the latency configurations defined in TR 26.939. In order to support higher latency reliable streaming services (above 500ms PDB), if different PDB and PER combinations are needed these configurations will have to use non-standardised 5QIs.
Note 16: These services are expected to need much larger MDBV values to be signalled to the RAN. Support for such larger MDBV values with low latency and high reliability is likely to require a suitable RAN configuration, for which, the simulation scenarios in TR 38.824 may contain some guidance.
5.7.5  Reflective QoSWord-p. 141
5.7.6  Packet Filter SetWord-p. 143

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