N26 interface is used to provide seamless session continuity for single registration mode UE.
Interworking between EPS and 5GS is supported with IP address preservation by assuming SSC mode 1.
When the UE is served by the 5GC, during PDU Session establishment and GBR QoS Flow establishment, PGW-C+SMF performs EPS QoS mappings, from the 5G QoS parameters obtained from the PCF, and allocates TFT with the PCC rules obtained from the PCF if PCC is deployed. Otherwise, EPS QoS mappings and TFT allocation are mapped by the PGW-C+SMF locally. The PGW+SMF ignores 5G QoS parameters that are not applicable to EPC (e.g. QoS Notification control). If a TFT is to be allocated for a downlink unidirectional EPS bearer mapped from a downlink only QoS Flow, the PGW-C+SMF shall allocate a TFT packet filter that effectively disallows any useful uplink packet as specified in TS 23.401
. EPS Bearer IDs are allocated by the serving AMF requested by the SMF if the SMF determines that EPS Bearer IDs need to be assigned to the QoS Flows. For each PDU Session, EPS bearer IDs are allocated to the default EPS bearer and dedicated bearers. The SMF shall be able to determine the QoS flows that require EPS Bearer IDs, based on the QoS profile and operator policies.
Based on operator policies, an SMF can map all non-GBR QoS flows to default EPS bearer in which case it requests only one EBI for all the non-GBR QoS flows. Alternatively, an SMF can also map one non-GBR QoS flow to one dedicated EPS bearer in which case it requests a dedicated EBI for non-GBR QoS flow that should be mapped to dedicated EPS bearer. In between these two extreme cases, the SMF can also map more than one (but not all) non-GBR QoS Flow to the same EPS bearer (either default EPS bearer or dedicated EPS bearer).
To reduce the probability of AMF revoking the EBI corresponding to the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS rule, ARP priority level of dedicated QoS Flows can be set to higher value than that of the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS rule within the same PDU Session.
When a new QoS Flow needs to be mapped to an EPS Bearer ID that has already been assigned for an existing QoS Flow, the SMF includes the already assigned EPS Bearer ID in the QoS Flow description sent to the UE.
For Ethernet and Unstructured PDU Session Types, only EPS Bearer ID for the default EPS Bearer is allocated. The EPS Bearer IDs for these EPS bearers are provided to the PGW-C+SMF by the AMF, and are provided to the UE and NG-RAN by the PGW-C+SMF using N1 SM NAS message and N2 SM message. The UE is also provided with the mapped QoS parameters. The UE and the PGW-C+SMF store the association between the QoS Flow and the corresponding EBI and the EPS QoS parameters. When the QoS Flow is deleted e.g. due to PDU Session status synchronization or PDU Session Modification, the UE and the PGW-C+SMF delete any possibly existing EPS QoS parameters associated with the deleted QoS Flow.
In this release, for a PDU Session for a LADN or for Multi-homed IPv6 PDU Session, the SMF doesn't allocate any EBI or mapped QoS parameters.
For PDU Sessions with UP integrity protection of UP Security Enforcement Information set to Required, the SMF does not allocate any EBI or mapped QoS parameters.
When the UE is served by the EPC, during PDN connection establishment, the UE allocates the PDU Session ID and sends it to the PGW-C+SMF via PCO. During PDN Connection establishment and dedicated bearer establishment, PGW-C+SMF performs EPS QoS mappings, from the 5G QoS parameters obtained from the PCF, and allocates TFT with the PCC rules obtained from the PCF if PCC is deployed. Otherwise, EPS QoS mappings and TFT allocation are mapped by the PGW-C+SMF locally. Other 5G QoS parameters corresponding to the PDN connection, e.g. Session AMBR, and QoS rules and QoS Flow level QoS parameters if needed for the QoS Flow(s) associated with the QoS rule(s), are sent to UE in PCO. The UE and the PGW-C+SMF store the association between the EPS Context and the PDU Session Context to use it in the case of handover from EPS to 5GS. During the EPS bearer establishment/modification procedure, QoS rules corresponding to the related EPS bearers are allocated and sent to UE in PCO. The 5G QoS parameters are stored in the UE and are to be used when the UE is handed over from EPS to the 5GS. The 5G QoS parameters may be provided to PGW-C+SMF by the PCF, if PCC is deployed. On mobility from EPS to 5GS, the UE sets the SSC mode of the mapped PDU Session to SSC mode 1. The UE and the PGW-C+SMF store the association between the EPS bearer and the corresponding 5G QoS Rules and QoS Flow level QoS parameters if needed for the QoS Flow(s) associated with the QoS rule(s). When the EPS bearer is deleted e.g. due to EPS bearer status synchronization or bearer deactivation, the UE and the PGW-C+SMF delete any possibly existing 5G QoS Rule(s) and QoS Flow level QoS parameters if any for the QoS Flow(s) associated with the QoS rule(s) associated with the deleted EPS bearer.
In the roaming case, if the VPLMN supports interworking with N26, the UE shall operate in Single Registration mode.
During the 5GS-EPS handover, indirect forwarding may apply for the downlink data forwarding performed as part of the handover. From its configuration data the AMF knows whether indirect forwarding applies and it requests to allocate downlink data forwarding paths on UPFs for indirect forwarding. From its configuration data the MME knows whether indirect forwarding applies and it requests to allocate downlink data forwarding paths on Serving GWs for indirect forwarding. It is configured on AMF and MME whether indirect downlink data forwarding does not apply, applies always or applies only for inter PLMN inter RAT handovers.
During the 5GS-EPS handover, direct forwarding may apply for the downlink data forwarding performed as part of the handover. From its configuration data the source RAN node knows whether direct forwarding applies and indicates to source CN the direct data forwarding is available.
During 5GS-EPS handover, on the target side, the CN informs the target RAN node whether data forwarding is possible or not.
During interworking from EPS to 5GS, as the PGW-C+SMF may have different IP addresses when being accessed over S5/S8 and N11/N16 respectively, the AMF shall discover the SMF instance by an NF/NF service discovery procedure using the FQDN for the S5/S8 interface received from the MME as a query parameter.
This is required for both non-roaming and roaming with local breakout, as well as for home routed roaming.
As the AMF is not aware of the S-NSSAI assigned for the PDN Connection, the NF/NF service discovery used to find the SMF instance can use PLMN level NRF.
During interworking from 5GS to EPS, as a PDU Session may be released while the UE is served by EPS, if Small Data Rate Control is used the PGW-C+SMF obtains the Small Data Rate Control Status from the PGW-U+UPF in the N4 Session Modification procedure and passes it in the PDU Session Context Response to the AMF, for the AMF to store. The time to store the Small Data Rate Control Statuses is implementation specific. If the UE and PGW-U+UPF have stored APN Rate Control parameters and optionally APN Rate Control Status they are only applied when the UE is served by EPS.
During interworking from EPS to 5GS the UE and PGW-U+UPF store the APN Rate Control parameters and APN Rate Control Status while the UE is served by 5GS, so they can be used if the UE moves back to EPS.
22.214.171.124.1 5GS to EPS handover using N26 interface
Figure 126.96.36.199.1-1 describes the handover procedure from 5GS to EPS when N26 is supported.
In the case of handover to a shared EPS network, the source NG-RAN determines a PLMN to be used in the target network as specified by TS 23.501
. The source NG-RAN shall indicate the selected PLMN ID to be used in the target network to the AMF as part of the TAI sent in the HO Required message.
In the case of handover from a shared NG-RAN, the AMF may provide the MME with an indication that the 5GS PLMN is a preferred PLMN at later change of the UE to a 5GS shared networks.
During the handover procedure, as specified in clause 188.8.131.52.1
, the source AMF shall reject any PGW-C+SMF initiated N2 request received since handover procedure started and shall include an indication that the request has been temporarily rejected due to handover procedure in progress.
Upon reception of a rejection for an PGW-C+SMF initiated N2 request(s) with an indication that the request has been temporarily rejected due to handover procedure in progress, the PGW-C+SMF behaves as specified in TS 23.401
The procedure involves a handover to EPC and setup of default EPS bearer and dedicated bearers for QoS Flows that have EBI assigned, in EPC in steps 1-16 and re-activation, if required, of dedicated EPS bearers for non-GBR QoS Flows that have no EBI assigned, in step 19. This procedure can be triggered, for example, due to new radio conditions, load balancing or in the presence of QoS Flow for normal voice or IMS emergency voice, the source NG-RAN node may trigger handover to EPC.
For Ethernet and Unstructured PDU Session Types, the PDN Type Ethernet and non-IP respectively are used, when supported, in EPS.
When EPS supports PDN Type non-IP but not PDN type Ethernet, PDN type non-IP is used also for Ethernet PDU sessions. The SMF shall also set the PDN Type of the EPS Bearer Context to non-IP in this case. After the handover to EPS, the PDN Connection will have PDN Type non-IP, but it shall be locally associated in UE and SMF to PDU Session Type Ethernet or Unstructured respectively.
In the roaming home routed case, the PGW-C+SMF always provides the EPS Bearer ID and the mapped QoS parameters to UE. The V-SMF caches the EPS Bearer ID and the mapped QoS parameters obtained from H-SMF for this PDU session. This also applies in the case that the HPLMN operates the interworking procedure without N26.
The IP address preservation cannot be supported, if PGW-C+SMF in the HPLMN doesn't provide the mapped QoS parameters.
NG-RAN decides that the UE should be handed over to the E-UTRAN. If NG-RAN is configured to perform Inter RAT mobility due to IMS voice fallback triggered by QoS flow setup and request to setup QoS flow for IMS voice was received, NG-RAN responds indicating rejection of the QoS flow establishment because of mobility due to fallback for IMS voice via N2 SM information and triggers handover to E-UTRAN. The NG-RAN sends a Handover Required (Target eNB ID, Direct Forwarding Path Availability, Source to Target Transparent Container, inter system handover indication) message to the AMF. NG-RAN indicates bearers corresponding to the 5G QoS Flows for data forwarding in Source to Target Transparent Container.
Direct Forwarding Path Availability indicates whether direct forwarding is available from the NG-RAN to the E-UTRAN. This indication from NG-RAN can be based on e.g. the presence of IP connectivity and security association(s) between the NG-RAN and the E-UTRAN.
If the handover is triggered due to Emergency fallback, the NG-RAN may forward the Emergency indication to the target eNB in the Source to Target Transparent Container, and the target eNB allocates radio bearer resources taking received indication into account.
The AMF determines from the 'Target eNB Identifier' IE that the type of handover is Handover to E-UTRAN. The AMF selects an MME as described in TS 23.401, clause 184.108.40.206
The AMF determines for a PDU Session whether to retrieve context including mapped UE EPS PDN Connection from the V-SMF (in the case of HR roaming) or the PGW-C+SMF (in the case of non roaming or LBO roaming) as follows:
If the AMF determines that one or more of the EBI(s) can be transferred, the AMF sends Nsmf_PDUSession_ContextRequest to the V-SMF or PGW-C+SMF and includes in the message EBI value(s) if any that cannot be transferred.
The EBI values(s) that cannot be transferred is determined by the AMF if the target MME does not support 15 EPS bearers, i.e. the AMF determines the EBI values in range 1-4 as not to be transferred to EPS, and if there are still more than 8 EBI values associated with PDU Sessions, the AMF then determines EBI value(s) not to be transferred to EPS based on S-NSSAI and ARP as specified in clause 220.127.116.11.1 of TS 23.501.
The AMF does not retrieve the conext for a PDU Session that cannot be transferred to EPS due to no EBI allocated, or allocated EBIs not transferrable, or combination of the two.
When the AMF sends Nsmf_PDUSession_ContextRequest
the AMF provides also the target MME capability to the V-SMF or the PGW-C+SMF to allow it to determine whether to include EPS Bearer context for Ethernet PDN Type or non-IP PDN Type or not.
Request is received in the V-SMF or the PGW-C+SMF, the V-SMF or the PGW-C+SMF provides context that includes the mapped EPS PDN Connection as follows:
If there is EBI list not to be transferred, and the EBI value of the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS Rule is included in that list, the V-SMF or the PGW-C+SMF shall not return the PDN Connection context (which implies the whole PDU Session is not transferred to EPS), otherwise if the EBI value of the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS Rule is not included in EBI list not to be transferred, the V-SMF or PGW C+SMF shall not provide the EPS bearer context(s) mapped from QoS Flow(s) associated with the EBI list not to be transferred.
For PDU Sessions with PDU Session Type Ethernet, if the UE and target MME supports Ethernet PDN type, the V-SMF or the PGW C+SMF provides Context for Ethernet PDN Type, otherwise if the target MME does not support Ethernet Type but support non-IP Type, the V-SMF or the PGW C+SMF provides Context for non-IP PDN Type. For PDU Sessions with PDU Session Type Unstructured, the V-SMF or the PGW-C+SMF provides Context for non-IP PDN Type.
In the case of non roaming or LBO roaming, when Nsmf_PDUSession_ContextRequest
is received in PGW C+SMF, if the PGW-C+SMF determines that EPS Bearer Context can be transferred to EPS, the PGW-C+SMF sends N4 Session modification to the PGW-U+UPF to establish the CN tunnel for each EPS bearer and provides EPS Bearer Contexts to AMF, as described in step 8 of clause 18.104.22.168.1
. The PGW-U+UPF is ready to receive the uplink packet from E-UTRAN.
This step is performed with all the PGW-C+SMFs corresponding to PDU Sessions of the UE which are associated with 3GPP access and have at leaset one EBI(s) determined to be transferred to EPS.
The AMF knows the MME capability to support 15 EPS bearers, Ethernet PDN type and/or non-IP PDN type or not through local configuration.
In home routed roaming scenario, the UE's EPS PDN Contexts are obtained from the V-SMF. If Small Data Rate Control applies on PDU Session, the V-SMF retrieves the SM Context, including Small Rate Control Status information from the H-SMF using Nsmf_PDUSession_Context
The AMF sends a Forward Relocation Request as in step 3 in clause 22.214.171.124.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
, with the following modifications and clarifications:
Parameter "Return preferred" may be included. Return preferred is an optional indication by the MME of a preferred return of the UE to the 5GS PLMN at a later access change to a 5GS shared network. An MME may use this information as specified by TS 23.501.
The SGW address and TEID for both the control-plane or EPS bearers in the message are such that target MME selects a new SGW.
The AMF determines, based on configuration and the Direct Forwarding Path Availability, the Direct Forwarding Flag to inform the target MME whether direct data forwarding is applicable.
The AMF includes the mapped SM EPS UE Contexts for PDU Sessions with and without active UP connections.
Subject to operator policy if the secondary RAT access restriction condition is the same for EPS and 5GS, the AMF may set EPS secondary RAT access restriction condition based on the UE's subscription data.
Step 5 (Handover Request) in clause 126.96.36.199.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
with the following modification:
Handover Request may contain information Handover Restriction List with information about PLMN IDs as specified by TS 23.251, clause 5.2a for eNodeB functions.
The target eNB should establish E-RABs indicated by the list of EPS bearer to be setup provided by the MME, even if they are not included in the source to target container.
If data forwarding applies, the AMF sends the Nsmf_PDUSession_UpdateSMContext Request (data forwarding information) to the PGW-C+SMF. If multiple PGW-C+SMFs serves the UE, the AMF maps the EPS bearers for Data forwarding to the PGW-C+SMF address(es) based on the association between the EPS bearer ID(s) and PDU Session ID(s). In home-routed roaming case, the AMF requests the V-SMF to create indirect forwarding tunnel if indirect forwarding applies.
If indirect data forwarding applies, the PGW-C+SMF may select an intermediate PGW-U+UPF for data forwarding. The PGW-C+SMF maps the EPS bearers for Data forwarding to the 5G QoS flows based on the association between the EPS bearer ID(s) and QFI(s) for the QoS flow(s) in the PGW-C+SMF, and then sends the QFIs, Serving GW Address(es) and TEID(s) for data forwarding to the PGW-U+UPF. The CN Tunnel Info is provided by the PGW-U+UPF to PGW-C+SMF in this response. In home-routed roaming case, the V-SMF selects the V-UPF for data forwarding.
The PGW-C+SMF returns an Nsmf_PDUSession_UpdateSMContext Response (Cause, Data Forwarding tunnel Info, QoS flows for Data Forwarding). Based on the correlation between QFI(s) and Serving GW Address(es) and TEID(s) for data forwarding, the PGW-U+UPF maps the QoS flow(s) into the data forwarding tunnel(s) in EPC.
The AMF sends the Handover Command to the source NG-RAN (Transparent container (radio aspect parameters that the target eNB has set-up in the preparation phase), Data forwarding tunnel info, QoS flows for Data Forwarding). The source NG-RAN commands the UE to handover to the target access network by sending the HO Command. The UE correlates the ongoing QoS Flows with the indicated EPS Bearer IDs to be setup in the HO command. The UE locally deletes the PDU Session if the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS rule in the PDU Session does not have an EPS Bearer ID assigned. If the QoS Flow associated with the default QoS rule has an EPS Bearer ID assigned, the UE keeps the PDU Session (PDN connection) and for the remaining QoS Flow(s) that do not have EPS bearer ID(s) assigned, the UE locally deletes the QoS rule(s) and the QoS Flow level QoS parameters if any associated with those QoS Flow(s) and notifies the impacted applications that the dedicated QoS resource has been released. The UE deletes any UE derived QoS rules. The EPS Bearer ID that was assigned for the QoS flow of the default QoS rule in the PDU Session becomes the EPS Bearer ID of the default bearer in the corresponding PDN connection.
If indirect data forwarding is applied, Data forwarding tunnel info includes CN tunnel info for data forwarding per PDU session. For the QoS Flows indicated in the "QoS Flows for Data Forwarding", NG-RAN initiate data forwarding via to the PGW-U+UPF based on the CN Tunnel Info for Data Forwarding per PDU Session. Then the PGW-U+UPF maps data received from the data forwarding tunnel(s) in the 5GS to the data forwarding tunnel(s) in EPS, and sends the data to the target eNodeB via the Serving GW.
If direct data forwarding is applied, Data forwarding tunnel info includes E-UTRAN tunnel info for data forwarding per EPS bearer. NG-RAN initiate data forwarding to the target E-UTRAN based on the Data Forwarding Tunnel Info for Data Forwarding per EPS bearer.
Step 13 to step 14 from clause 188.8.131.52.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
with the following clarification:
The AMF requests the release of the PDU Session which is associated with 3GPP access and not expected to be transferred to EPC, i.e. the AMF requests the release of:
PDU Session(s) whose corresponding PGW-C+SMF(s) are not contacted by AMF for SM context because the AMF determines that none of EBI(s) for the PDU Session can be transferred to EPS at step 2a; and
PDU Session(s) for which the SM context retrieval failed at step 2c.
The AMF acknowledges MME with Relocation Complete Ack message. A timer in AMF is started to supervise when resource inNG-RAN shall be released.
In the case of home routed roaming, the AMF invokes Nsmf_PDUSession_ReleaseSMContext
Request (V-SMF only indication) to the V-SMF. This service operation request the V-SMF to remove only the SM context in V-SMF, i.e. not release PDU Session context in the PGW-C+SMF.
If indirect forwarding tunnel(s) were previously established, the V-SMF starts a timer and releases the SM context on expiry of the timer. If no indirect forwarding tunnel has been established, the V-SMF immediately releases the SM context and its UP resources for this PDU Sesssion in V-UPF locally.
Step 16 (Modify Bearer Request) from clause 184.108.40.206.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
with the following clarification:
If the PDU Session (PDN connection) has QoS Flows that do not have EPS bearer ID(s) assigned, or QoS Flow(s) for which the mapped EPS bearers are not included in Modify Bearer Request, the PGW-C+SMF deletes the PCC rule(s) associated with those QoS Flows and informs the PCF about the removed PCC rule(s).
If the QoS flow is deleted, the IP flows of the deleted QoS rules will continue flowing on the default EPS bearer if it does not have an assigned TFT. If the default EPS bearer has an assigned TFT, the IP flows of the deleted QoS Flow may be interrupted until step 19 when dedicated bearer activation is triggered by a request from the PCF.
The PGW-C+SMF may need to report some subscribed event to the PCF by performing an SMF initiated SM Policy Association Modification procedure as defined in clause 4.16.5
The PGW-C+SMF initiates a N4 Session Modification procedure towards the UPF+PGW-U to update the User Plane path, i.e. the downlink User Plane for the indicated PDU Session is switched to E-UTRAN. The PGW-C+SMF releases the resource of the CN tunnel for PDU Session in UPF+PGW-U.
Step 16a (Modify Bearer Response) from clause 220.127.116.11.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
. At this stage the User Plane path is established for the default bearer and the dedicated EPS bearers between the UE, target eNodeB, Serving GW and the PGW-U+UPF. The PGW-C+SMF uses the EPS QoS parameters as assigned for the dedicated EPS bearers during the QoS Flow establishment. PGW-C+SMF maps all the other IP flows to the default EPS bearer (see NOTE 4).
If indirect forwarding tunnel(s) were previously established, the PGW-C+SMF starts a timer, to be used to release the resource used for indirect data forwarding.
The UE initiates a Tracking Area Update procedure as specified in step 11 of clause 18.104.22.168.2
(S1-based handover, normal) in TS 23.401
This includes the deregistration of the old AMF for 3GPP access from the HSS+UDM as specified in clause 22.214.171.124.3
. Any registration associated with the non-3GPP access in the old AMF is not removed (i.e. an AMF that was serving the UE over both 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses does not consider the UE as deregistered over non 3GPP access and will remain registered and subscribed to subscription data updates in UDM).
The behavior whereby the HSS+UDM cancels location of CN node of the another type, i.e. AMF, is similar to HSS behavior for MME and Gn/Gp SGSN registration (see TS 23.401
). The target AMF that receives the cancel location from the HSS+UDM is the one associated with 3GPP access.
When the UE decides to deregister over non-3GPP access or the old AMF decides not to maintain a UE registration for non-3GPP access anymore, the old AMF then deregisters from UDM by sending a Nudm_UECM_Deregistration
service operation, unsubscribes from Subscription Data updates by sending an Nudm_SDM_Unsubscribe
service operation to UDM and releases all the AMF and AN resources related to the UE.
If PCC is deployed, the PCF may decide to provide the previously removed PCC rules to the PGW-C+SMF again thus triggering the PGW-C+SMF to initiate dedicated bearer activation procedure. This procedure is specified in TS 23.401, clause 5.4.1
with modification captured in clause 126.96.36.199.4
. This step is applicable for PDN Type IP or Ethernet, but not for non-IP PDN Type.
In the case of home routed roaming, at the expiry of the timer at V-SMF started at step 12e, the V-SMF locally releases the SM context and the UP resource for the PDU Session including the resources used for indirect forwarding tunnel(s) that were allocated at step 10.
In non-roaming or local breakout roaming, if PGW-C+SMF has started a timer in step 16, at the expiry of the timer, the PGW-C+SMF sends N4 Session Modification Request to PGW-U+UPF to release the resources used for the indirect forwarding tunnel(s) that were allocated at step 10.
When the timer set in step 12d expires, AMF also sends a UE Context Release Command message to the source NG RAN. The source NG RAN releases its resources related to the UE and responds with a UE Context Release Complete message.