NR Radio Access operating with shared spectrum channel access can operate in different modes where either PCell, PSCell, or SCells can be in shared spectrum and an SCell may or may not be configured with uplink. The applicable deployment scenarios are described in Annex B.3.
The gNB operates in either dynamic or semi-static channel access mode as described in TS 37.213
. In both channel access modes, the gNB and UE may apply Listen-Before-Talk (LBT) before performing a transmission on a cell configured with shared spectrum channel access. When LBT is applied, the transmitter listens to/senses the channel to determine whether the channel is free or busy and performs transmission only if the channel is sensed free.
When the UE detects consistent uplink LBT failures, it takes actions as specified in TS 38.321
. The detection is per Bandwidth Part (BWP) and based on all uplink transmissions within this BWP. When consistent uplink LBT failures are detected on SCell(s), the UE reports this to the corresponding gNB (MN for MCG, SN for SCG) via MAC CE on a different serving cell than the SCell(s) where the failures were detected. If no resources are available to transmit the MAC CE, a Scheduling Request (SR) can be transmitted by the UE. When consistent uplink LBT failures are detected on SpCell, the UE switches to another UL BWP with configured RACH resources on that cell, initiates RACH, and reports the failure via MAC CE. When multiple UL BWPs are available for switching, it is up to the UE implementation which one to select. For PSCell, if consistent uplink LBT failures are detected on all the UL BWPs with configured RACH resources, the UE declares SCG RLF and reports the failure to the MN via SCGFailureInformation. For PCell, if the uplink LBT failures are detected on all the UL BWP(s) with configured RACH resources, the UE declares RLF.