Content for  TS 22.261  Word version:  19.6.0

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0  Introductionp. 10

The need to support different kinds of UEs (e.g. for the Internet of Things (IoT)), services, and technologies is driving the technology revolution to a high-performance and highly efficient 3GPP system. The drivers include IoT, Virtual Reality (VR), industrial control, ubiquitous on-demand coverage, as well as the opportunity to meet customized market needs. These drivers require enhancements to the devices, services, and technologies well established by 3GPP. The key objective with the 5G system is to be able to support new deployment scenarios to address diverse market segments.
This document compiles requirements that define a 5G system.
The 5G system is characterised, for example, by:
  • Support for multiple access technologies
  • Scalable and customizable network
  • Advanced Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) (e.g. availability, latency, reliability, user experienced data rates, area traffic capacity)
  • Flexibility and programmability (e.g. network slicing, diverse mobility management, Network Function Virtualization)
  • Resource efficiency (both user plane and control plane)
  • Seamless mobility in densely populated and heterogeneous environment
  • Support for real time and non-real time multimedia services and applications with advanced Quality of Experience (QoE)

1  Scopep. 11

The present document describes the service and operational requirements for a 5G system, including a UE, NG-RAN, and 5G Core network. Requirements for a 5G E-UTRA-NR Dual Connectivity in E-UTRAN connected to EPC are found in TS 22.278.

2  Referencesp. 11

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non-specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
NGMN 5G White Paper v1.0: February 2015.
TS 22.011: "Service accessibility".
[4]  Void
TS 22.278: "Service requirements for the Evolved Packet System (EPS)".
TS 22.101: "Service aspects; Service principles".
TS 22.146: "Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS)".
TS 22.246: "Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) user services".
TS 22.186: "Enhancement of 3GPP support for V2X scenarios".
NGMN, "Recommendations for NGMN KPIs and Requirements for 5G": June 2016
TS 22.115: "Service aspects; Charging and billing".
[12]  Void
Soriano, R., Alberto, M., Collazo, J., Gonzales, I., Kupzo, F., Moreno, L., & Lorenzo, J. OpenNode: Open Architecture for Secondary Nodes of the Electricity Smartgrid. In Proceedings CIRED 2011 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CD1. June 2011.
North American Electric Reliability Council. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Cyber Security Standards CIP-002-1 through CIP-009-1. Available: 2006.
McTaggart, Craig, et al. "Improvements in power system integrity protection schemes": Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP 2010). Managing the Change, 10th IET International Conference on. IET, 2010.
IEEE Power Engineering Society: Power System Relaying Committee - System Protection Subcommittee Working Group C-6. Wide Area Protection and Emergency Control.
Begovic, Miroslav, et al. "Wide-area protection and emergency control": Proceedings of the IEEE 93.5, pp. 876-891, 2005.
ITU-T Recommendation G.1000: "Communications quality of service: A framework and definitions".
IEC 61907: "Communication network dependability engineering".
NIST, "Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems": 2016.
TS 22.104: "Service requirements for cyber-physical control applications in vertical domains".
TS 22.262: "Message Service within the 5G System".
TS 22.289: "Mobile Communication System for Railways".
TS 22.071: "Location Services".
TS 23.122: "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode".
TS 22.125: "Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) support in 3GPP".
[27]  Void
TS 22.263: "Service requirements for Video, Imaging and Audio for Professional Applications (VIAPA)".
[29]  Void
TS 22.179: "Mission Critical Push to Talk (MCPTT)".
IEEE 1588-2019, IEEE Standard for a Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems.
IEC 61850-9-3-2016 - IEC/IEEE International Standard - Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 9-3: Precision time protocol profile for power utility automation.
TS 38.305: "NG Radio Access Network (NG-RAN); Stage 2 functional specification of User Equipment (UE) positioning in NG-RAN"
ATIS-0900005: "Technical Report on GPS Vulnerability",
5G-ACIA, "Exposure of 5G capabilities for Connected Industries and Automation Applications", 5G-ACIA white pater, February 2021,
TS 22.173: "IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services".
ITU-T, "Technology Watch Report: The Tactile Internet", August 2014.
D. Soldani, Y. Guo, B. Barani, P. Mogensen, I. Chih-Lin, S. Das, "5G for ultra-reliable low-latency communications". IEEE Network. 2018 Apr 2; 32(2):6-7.
O. Holland et al., "The IEEE 1918.1 "Tactile Internet" Standards Working Group and its Standards," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 2, Feb. 2019.
Altinsoy, M. E., Blauert, J., & Treier, C., "Inter-Modal Effects of Non-Simultaneous Stimulus Presentation," A. Alippi (Ed.), Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Acoustics, Rome, Italy, 2001.
Hirsh I.J., and Sherrrick C.E, 1961. J. Exp. Psychol 62, 423-432
Altinsoy, M.E. (2012). "The Quality of Auditory-Tactile Virtual Environments," Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Vol. 60, No. 1/2, pp. 38-46, Jan.-Feb. 2012.
M. Di Luca and A. Mahnan, "Perceptual Limits of Visual-Haptic Simultaneity in Virtual Reality Interactions," 2019 IEEE World Haptics Conference (WHC), 2019, pp. 67-72, doi: 10.1109/WHC.2019.8816173.
K. Antonakoglou et al., "Toward Haptic Communications Over the 5G Tactile Internet", IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 20 (4), 2018.
ETSI GS OEU 020 (v1.1.1): "Operational energy Efficiency for Users (OEU); Carbon equivalent Intensity measurement; Operational infrastructures; Global KPIs; Global KPIs for ICT Sites".
TS 28.310: "Management and orchestration; Energy efficiency of 5G".
ETSI EN 303 472: "Environmental Engineering (EE); Energy Efficiency measurement methodology and metrics for RAN equipment".
TS 32.299: "Telecommunication management; Charging management; Diameter charging applications".
N. Nonaka et al., "Experimental Trial aboard Shinkansen Test Train Running at 360 km/h for 5G Evolution," 2022 IEEE 95th Vehicular Technology Conference: (VTC2022-Spring), Helsinki, Finland, 2022.
TS 22.137: "Service requirements for Integrated Sensing and Communication".
TS 22.369: "Service requirements for ambient power-enabled IoT".
TS 22.156: "Mobile Metaverse Services".
IEEE Std 802.1Q: "IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks---Bridges and Bridged Networks".
TS 22.369: "Service requirements for ambient power-enabled IoT".

3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviationsp. 13

3.1  Definitionsp. 13

For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
5G enhanced positioning area:
a subset of the 5G positioning service area that is assumed to be provided with additional infrastructure or deploy a particular set of positioning technologies to enhance positioning services.
5G LAN-type service:
a service over the 5G system offering private communication using IP and/or non-, i.e. UEs that are members of the same 5G LAN-VN IP type communications.
5G LAN-virtual network:
a virtual network capable of supporting 5G LAN-type service.
5G satellite access network:
5G access network using at least one satellite.
5G positioning service area:
a service area where positioning services would solely rely on infrastructures and positioning technologies that can be assumed to be present anywhere where 5G is present (e.g. a country-wide operator-supplied 5G network, GNSS, position/motion sensors).
active communication:
a UE is in active communication when it has one or more connections established. A UE may have any combination of PS connections (e.g. PDP contexts, active PDN connections).
activity factor:
percentage value of the amount of simultaneous active UEs to the total number of UEs where active means the UEs are exchanging data with the network.
Ambient IoT device:
An ambient power-enabled Internet of Things device is an IoT device powered by energy harvesting, being either battery-less or with limited energy storage capability (e.g., using a capacitor).
aggregated QoS:
QoS requirement(s) that apply to the traffic of a group of UEs.
area traffic capacity:
total traffic throughput served per geographic area.
authorised administrator:
a user or other entity authorised to partially configure and manage a network node in a CPN (e.g. a PRAS, or eRG) or a PIN element in a PIN.
carbon emission:
quantity of equivalent carbon dioxide emitted (e.g. kg of CO2 equivalent).
communication service availability:
percentage value of the amount of time the end-to-end communication service is delivered according to a specified QoS, divided by the amount of time the system is expected to deliver the end-to-end service.
Customer Premises Network:
a network located within a premise (e.g. a residence, office or shop), which is owned, installed and/or (at least partially) configured by the customer of a public network operator.
direct device connection:
the connection between two UEs without any network entity in the middle.
direct network connection:
one mode of network connection, where there is no relay UE between a UE and the 5G network.
Disaster Condition:
This is the condition that a government decides when to initiate and terminate, e.g. a natural disaster. When this condition applies, users may have the opportunity to mitigate service interruptions and failures.
Disaster Inbound Roamer:
A user that (a) cannot get service from the PLMN it would normally be served by, due to failure of service during a Disaster Condition, and (b) is able to register with other PLMNs.
Disaster Roaming:
This is the special roaming policy that applies during a Disaster Condition.
DualSteer device:
A device supporting traffic steering and switching of user data (for different services) across two 3GPP access networks; it can be a single UE, in case of non-simultaneous data transmission over the two networks, or two separate UEs in case of simultaneous data transmission over the two networks.
end-to-end latency:
the time that it takes to transfer a given piece of information from a source to a destination, measured at the communication interface, from the moment it is transmitted by the source to the moment it is successfully received at the destination.
energy charging rate:
a means of determining the energy consumption consequence (use of energy credit) associated with charging events.
energy credit:
a quantity of energy credit associated with the subscriber that can be used for credit control by the 5G system.
energy state:
state of a cell, a network element and/or a network function with respect to energy, e.g. (not) energy saving states, which are defined in TS 28.310.
evolved Residential Gateway:
a gateway between the public operator network (fixed/mobile/cable) and a customer premises network.
A clock A, previously synchronized/syntonized to another clock B (normally a primary reference or a Master Clock) but whose frequency is determined in part using data acquired while it was synchronized/syntonized to B, is said to be in holdover or in the holdover mode as long as it is within its accuracy requirements.
Holdover time:
the time period that is available to repair the first priority timing source when it is lost (e.g., when the primary GNSS reference is lost). During this period the synchronization accuracy requirement should be guaranteed, e.g., by means of defining multiple synchronization references.
Hosted Service:
a service containing the operator's own application(s) and/or trusted third-party application(s) in the Service Hosting Environment, which can be accessed by the user.
Hosting NG-RAN Operator:
the operator that has operational control of a Shared NG-RAN.
Hosting RAN Operator:
as defined in TS 22.101.
hybrid access:
access consisting of multiple different access types combined, such as fixed wireless access and wireline access.
indirect network connection:
one mode of network connection, where there is a relay UE between a UE and the 5G network.
Indirect Network Sharing:
a type of NG-RAN Sharing in which the communication between the Shared NG-RAN and the Participating Operator's core network is routed through the Hosting NG-RAN Operator's core network.
IoT device:
a type of UE which is dedicated for a set of specific use cases or services and which is allowed to make use of certain features restricted to this type of UEs.
maximum energy consumption:
a policy establishing an upper bound on the quantity of energy consumption [47] by the 5G system in a specific period of time, or space, e.g. energy consumption inside a given service area.
maximum energy credit limit:
a policy establishing an upper bound on the aggregate quantity of energy consumption by the 5G system to provide services to a specific subscriber, e.g. in kilowatt hours.
network slice:
a set of network functions and corresponding resources necessary to provide the required telecommunication services and network capabilities.
a radio access network connecting to the 5G core network which uses NR, E-UTRA, or both.
NG-RAN Sharing:
the sharing of NG-RAN among a number of operators.
non-public network:
a network that is intended for non-public use.
the new 5G radio access technology.
Participating NG-RAN Operator:
authorized operator that is using Shared NG-RAN resources provided by a Hosting NG-RAN Operator.
Participating Operator:
as defined in TS 22.101.
Personal IoT Network:
A configured and managed group of at least one UE PIN Element and one or more PIN Element that communicate with each other.
PIN Element:
UE or non-3GPP device that can communicate within a PIN.
PIN direct connection:
the connection between two PIN Elements without any 3GPP RAN or core network entity in the middle.
PIN Element with Gateway Capability:
a UE PIN Element that has the ability to provide connectivity to and from the 5G network for other PIN Elements.
PIN Element with Management Capability:
A PIN Element with capability to manage the PIN.
positioning service availability:
percentage value of the amount of time the positioning service is delivering the required position-related data within the performance requirements, divided by the amount of time the system is expected to deliver the positioning service according to the specification in the targeted service area.
proximity-based work task offloading:
a relay UE receives data from a remote UE via direct device connection and performs calculation of a work task for the remote UE. The calculation result can be further sent to network server.
positioning service latency:
time elapsed between the event that triggers the determination of the position-related data and the availability of the position-related data at the system interface.
Premises Radio Access Station:
a base station installed at a customer premises network.
priority service:
a service that requires priority treatment based on regional/national or operator policies.
private communication:
a communication between two or more UEs belonging to a restricted set of UEs.
private network:
an isolated network deployment that does not interact with a public network.
ProSe UE-to-UE Relay:
a Public Safety ProSe-enabled UE that acts as a relay between two other Public Safety ProSe-enabled UEs.
refers to the determination of the distance between two UEs and/or the direction of one UE from the other one via direct device connection.
private slice:
a dedicated network slice deployment for the sole use by a specific third-party.
relative positioning:
relative positioning is to estimate position relatively to other network elements or relatively to other UEs.
in the context of network layer packet transmissions, percentage value of the packets successfully delivered to a given system entity within the time constraint required by the targeted service out of all the packets transmitted.
renewable energy:
energy from renewable sources as energy from renewable non-fossil sources, namely wind, solar, aerothermal, geothermal, hydrothermal and ocean energy, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases
a space-borne vehicle embarking a bent pipe payload or a regenerative payload telecommunication transmitter, placed into Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) typically at an altitude between 300 km to 2 000 km, Medium-Earth Orbit (MEO) typically at an altitude between 8 000 to 20 000 k m, or Geostationary satellite Earth Orbit (GEO) at 35 786 km altitude.
satellite access:
direct connectivity between the UE and the satellite.
satellite NG-RAN:
a NG-RAN which uses NR in providing satellite access to UEs.
service area:
geographic region where a 3GPP communication service is accessible.
service continuity:
the uninterrupted user experience of a service that is using an active communication when a UE undergoes an access change without, as far as possible, the user noticing the change.
Service Hosting Environment:
the environment, located inside of 5G network and fully controlled by the operator, where Hosted Services are offered from.
serving satellite:
a satellite providing the satellite access to an UE. In the case of NGSO, the serving satellite is always changing due to the nature of the satellite constellation.
Shared NG-RAN:
as defined in TS 22.101.
Stand-alone Non-Public Network:
A non-public network not relying on network functions provided by a PLMN
SNPN Credential Provider:
Entity within the 5G system that creates and manages identity information and provides authentication services for those identities for the purpose of accessing a SNPN
S&F Satellite operation:
S&F (Store and Forward) Satellite operation is an operation mode of a 5G system with satellite-access where the 5G system can provide some level of service (in storing and forwarding the data) when satellite connectivity is intermittently/temporarily unavailable, e.g. to provide communication service for UEs under satellite coverage without a simultaneous active feeder link connection to the ground segment.
S&F data retention period:
it is the data storage validity period for a 5G system with satellite access supporting store and forward operation (e.g. after which undelivered data stored is being discarded).
synchronization threshold:
A synchronization threshold can be defined as the maximum tolerable temporal separation of the onset of two stimuli, one of which is presented to one sense and the other to another sense, such that the accompanying sensory objects are perceived as being synchronous.
survival time:
the time that an application consuming a communication service may continue without an anticipated message.
Time to First Fix (TTFF):
time elapsed between the event triggering for the first time the determination of the position-related data and the availability of the position-related data at the positioning system interface.
Traffic steering:
the procedure that selects an access network and transfers traffic over the selected access network. This can apply to traffic of one or multiple services/applications across two 3GPP access networks, including scenarios where all services use the same network connection (no simultaneous data over the two networks) or different services are steered across different networks (with simultaneous data over the two networks).
Traffic switching:
the procedure that moves all traffic from one access network to another access network in a way that minimizes service interruption. This can apply to traffic of one or multiple services/applications across two 3GPP access networks, including scenarios where all services use the same network connection (no simultaneous data over the two networks) or different services are moved to different networks (with simultaneous data over the two networks).
UE-Satellite-UE communication:
for a 5G system with satellite access, it refers to the communication between UEs under the coverage of one or more serving satellites, using satellite access without the user traffic going through the ground segment.
User Equipment:
An equipment that allows a user access to network services via 3GPP and/or non-3GPP accesses.
user experienced data rate:
the minimum data rate required to achieve a sufficient quality experience, with the exception of scenario for broadcast like services where the given value is the maximum that is needed.
wireless backhaul:
a link which provides an interconnection between 5G network nodes and/or transport network using 5G radio access technology.

3.2  Abbreviationsp. 18

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
5G LAN-Virtual Network
Customer Premises Network
Enhancement to Flexible Mobile Service Steering
Evolved Residential Gateway
Enhanced V2X
Federated Learning
Flexible Mobile Service Steering
Geostationary satellite Earth Orbit
Internet Content Provider
Inertial Measurement Unit
Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety
Inter-Satellite Link
Low-Earth Orbit
Metropolitan Beacon System
Mission Critical Services
Mission Critical X, with X = PTT or X = Video or X = Data
Medium-Earth Orbit
Massive Internet of Things
Multimedia Telephony
Multi-Operator Core Network
Multimedia Priority Service
Message Service Within the 5G System
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol
Non-Geostationary Satellite Orbit
Non-Public Network
Personal IoT Network
Premises Radio Access Station
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol
Roaming Value-Added Service
Service Exposure and Enablement Support
Stand-alone Non-Public Network
Store and Forward
Slice/Service Type
Terrestrial Beacon System
Time To First Fix
Uncrewed Aerial Vehicle
Coordinated Universal Time
eXtended Reality

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