Unlike previous 3GPP systems that attempted to provide a 'one size fits all' system, the 5G system is expected to be able to provide optimized support for a variety of different services, different traffic loads, and different end user communities. Various industry white papers, most notably, the NGMN 5G White Paper, describe a multi-faceted 5G system capable of simultaneously supporting multiple combinations of reliability, latency, throughput, positioning, and availability. This technology revolution is achievable with the introduction of new technologies, both in access and the core, such as flexible, scalable assignment of network resources. In addition to increased flexibility and optimization, a 5G system needs to support stringent KPIs for latency, reliability, throughput, etc. Enhancements in the air interface contribute to meeting these KPIs as do enhancements in the core network, such as network slicing, in-network caching and hosting services closer to the end points.
A 5G system also supports new business models such as those for IoT and enterprise managed networks. Drivers for the 5G KPIs include services such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) control, Augmented Reality (AR), and factory automation. Network flexibility enhancements support self-contained enterprise networks, installed and maintained by network operators while being managed by the enterprise. Enhanced connection modes and evolved security facilitate support of massive IoT, expected to include tens of millions of UEs sending and receiving data over the 5G network.
Flexible network operations are the mainstay of the 5G system. The capabilities to provide this flexibility include network slicing, network capability exposure, scalability, and diverse mobility. Other network operations requirements address the necessary control and data plane resource efficiencies, as well as network configurations that optimize service delivery by minimizing routing between end users and application servers. Enhanced charging and security mechanisms handle new types of UEs connecting to the network in different ways.
Mobile Broadband (MBB) enhancements aim to meet a number of new KPIs. These pertain to high data rates, high user density, high user mobility, highly variable data rates, deployment, and coverage. High data rates are driven by the increasing use of data for services such as streaming (e.g. video, music, and user generated content), interactive services (e.g. AR), and IoT. These services come with stringent requirements for user experienced data rates as well as associated requirements for latency to meet service requirements. Additionally, increased coverage in densely populated areas such as sports arenas, urban areas, and transportation hubs has become essential for pedestrians and users in urban vehicles. New KPIs on traffic and connection density enable both the transport of high volumes of data traffic per area (traffic density) and transport of data for a high number of connections (e.g. UE density or connection density). Many
UEs are expected to support a variety of services which exchange either a very large (e.g. streaming video) or very small (e.g. data burst) amount of data. The 5G system will handle this variability in a resource efficient manner. All of these cases introduce new deployment requirements for indoor and outdoor, local area connectivity, high user density, wide area connectivity, and UEs travelling at high speeds.
Another aspect of 5G KPIs includes requirements for various combinations of latency and reliability, as well as higher accuracy for positioning. These KPIs are driven by support for both commercial and public safety services. On the commercial side, industrial control, industrial automation, UAV control, and AR are examples of those services. Services such as UAV control will require more precise positioning information that includes altitude, speed, and direction, in addition to horizontal coordinates.
Support for Massive Internet of Things (MIoT) brings many new requirements in addition to those for the enhanced KPIs. The expansion of connected things introduces a need for significant improvements in resource efficiency in all system components (e.g. UEs, IoT devices, radio, access network, core network).
The 5G system also aims to enhance its capability to meet KPIs that emerging V2X applications require. For these advanced applications, the requirements, such as data rate, reliability, latency, communication range and speed, are made more stringent.
6.1 Network slicing
6.2 Diverse mobility management Word-p. 16
Network slicing allows the operator to provide customised networks. For example, there can be different requirements on functionality (e.g. priority, charging, policy control, security, and mobility), differences in performance requirements (e.g. latency, mobility, availability, reliability and data rates), or they can serve only specific users (e.g. MPS users, Public Safety users, corporate customers, roamers, or hosting an MVNO).
A network slice can provide the functionality of a complete network, including radio access network functions, core network functions (e.g. potentially from different vendors) and IMS functions. One network can support one or several network slices.
6.3 Multiple access technologies
6.2.2 General requirements
6.2.3 Service continuity requirements
6.2.4 Roaming related requirements [R16] Word-p. 17
A key feature of 5G is support for UEs with different mobility management needs. 5G will support UEs with a range of mobility management needs, including UEs that are
stationary during their entire usable life (e.g. sensors embedded in infrastructure),
stationary during active periods, but nomadic between activations (e.g. fixed access),
mobile within a constrained and well-defined space (e.g. in a factory), and
Moreover, some applications require the network to ensure seamless mobility of a UE so that mobility is hidden from the application layer to avoid interruptions in service delivery while other applications have application specific means to ensure service continuity. But these other applications may still require the network to minimize interruption time to ensure that their application-specific means to ensure service continuity work effectively.
With the ever-increasing multimedia broadband data volumes, it is also important to enable the offloading of IP traffic from the 5G network onto traditional IP routing networks via an IP anchor node close to the network edge. As the UE moves, changing the IP anchor node may be needed in order to reduce the traffic load in the system, reduce end-to-end latency and provide a better user experience.
The flexible nature of a 5G system will support different mobility management methods that minimize signalling overhead and optimize access for these different types of UEs.
6.4 Resource efficiency
The 5G system will support 3GPP access technologies, including one or more NR and E-UTRA as well as non-3GPP access technologies. Interoperability among the various access technologies will be imperative. For optimization and resource efficiency, the 5G system will select the most appropriate 3GPP or non-3GPP access technology for a service, potentially allowing multiple access technologies to be used simultaneously for one or more services active on a UE. New technology such as satellite and wide area base stations will increase coverage and availability. This clause provides requirements for interworking with the various combinations of access technologies.
6.5 Efficient user plane
6.4.2 Requirements Word-p. 19
5G introduces the opportunity to design a system to be optimized for supporting diverse UEs and services. While support for IoT is provided by EPS, there is room for improvement in efficient resource utilization that can be designed into a 5G system whereas they are not easily retrofitted into an existing system. Some of the underlying principles of the potential service and network operation requirements associated with efficient configuration, deployment, and use of UEs in the 5G network include bulk provisioning, resource efficient access, optimization for UE originated data transfer, and efficiencies based on the reduced needs related to mobility management for stationary UEs and UEs with restricted range of movement.
As sensors and monitoring UEs are deployed more extensively, the need to support UEs that send data packages ranging in size from a small status update in a few bits to streaming video increases. A similar need exists for smart phones with widely varying amounts of data. Specifically, to support short data bursts, the network should be able to operate in a mode where there is no need for a lengthy and high overhead signalling procedure before and after small amounts of data are sent. The system will, as a result, avoid both a negative impact to battery life for the UE and wasting signalling resources.
For small form factor UEs it will be challenging to have more than 1 antenna due to the inability to get good isolation between multiple antennas. Thus these UEs need to meet the expected performance in a 5G network with only one antenna.
Cloud applications like cloud robotics perform computation in the network rather than in a UE, which requires the system to have high data rate in the uplink and very low round trip latency. Supposed that high density cloud robotics will be deployed in the future, the 5G system need to optimize the resource efficiency for such scenario.
Additional resource efficiencies will contribute to meeting the various KPIs defined for 5G. Control plane resource efficiencies can be achieved by optimizing and minimizing signalling overhead, particularly for small data transmissions. Mechanisms for minimizing user plane resources utilization include in-network caching and application in a Service Hosting Environment closer to the end user. These optimization efforts contribute to achieving lower latency and higher reliability.
Diverse mobility management related resource efficiencies are covered in clause 6.2.
Security related resource efficiencies are covered in clause 8.8.
6.6 Efficient content delivery Word-p. 21
5G is designed to meet diverse services with different and enhanced performances (e.g. high throughput, low latency and massive connections) and data traffic model (e.g. IP data traffic, non-IP data traffic, short data bursts and high throughput data transmissions).
User plane should be more efficient for 5G to support differentiated requirements. On one hand, a Service Hosting Environment located inside of operator's network can offer Hosted Services closer to the end user to meet localization requirement like low latency, low bandwidth pressure. These Hosted Services contain applications provided by operators and/or trusted 3rd parties. On the other hand, user plane paths can be selected or changed to improve the user experience or reduce the bandwidth pressure, when a UE or application changes location during an active communication.
6.7 Priority, QoS, and policy control
6.6.2 Requirements Word-p. 22
Video-based services (e.g. live streaming, VR) and personal data storage applications have been instrumental for the massive growth in mobile broadband traffic. Subject to service agreement between the operator and the content provider, the information of content and content itself can be aware by operator. In-network content caching provided by the operator, a third-party or both, can improve user experience, reduce backhaul resource usage and utilize radio resource efficiently.
The operation of in-network caching includes flexible management of the location of the content cache within the network and efficient delivery of content to and from the appropriate content caching application. Examples of services are the delivery of popular video content from a content caching application via broadcast, and secure storage of a user's personal data or files using a distributed caching application. Such a service could also provide a student with a wireless backpack, where students can resume their work through the same or a different UE at any time, with very fast response times from the network.
6.8 Dynamic policy control
6.9 Connectivity models [R16] Word-p. 24
6.7.2 Requirements Word-p. 23
The 5G network will support many commercial services (e.g. medical) and regional or national regulatory services (e.g. MPS, Emergency, Public Safety) with requirements for priority treatment. Some of these services share common QoS characteristics such as latency and packet loss rate, but may have different priority requirements. For example, UAV control and air traffic control may have stringent latency and reliability requirements but not necessarily the same priority requirements. In addition, voice-based services for MPS and Emergency share common QoS characteristics as applicable for normal public voice communications, yet may have different priority requirements. The 5G network will need to support mechanisms that enable the decoupling of the priority of a particular communication from the associated QoS characteristics such as latency and reliability to allow flexibility to support different priority services (that need to be configurable to meet operator needs, consistent with operator policies and corresponding national and regional regulatory policies).
The network needs to support flexible means to make priority decisions based on the state of the network (e.g. during disaster events and network congestion) recognizing that the priority needs may change during a crisis. The priority of any service may need to be different for a user of that service based on operational needs and regional or national regulations. Therefore, the 5G system should allow a flexible means to prioritise and enforce prioritisation among the services (e.g. MPS, Emergency, medical, Public Safety) and among the users of these services. The traffic prioritisation may be enforced by adjusting resource utilization or pre-empting lower priority traffic.
The network must offer a means to provide the required QoS (e.g. reliability, latency, and bandwidth) for a service and the ability to prioritize resources when necessary to meet the service requirements. Existing QoS and policy frameworks handle latency and improve reliability by traffic engineering. In order to support 5G service requirements, it is necessary for the 5G network to offer QoS and policy control for reliable communication with latency required for a service and enable the resource adaptations as necessary.
The network needs to allow multiple services to coexist, including multiple priority services (e.g. Emergency, MPS and MCS) and must provide means to prevent a single service from consuming or monopolizing all available network resources, or impacting the QoS (e.g. availability) of other services competing for resources on the same network under specific network conditions. For example, it is necessary to prevent certain services (e.g. citizen-to-authority Emergency) sessions from monopolizing all available resources during events such as disaster, emergency, and DDoS attacks from impacting the availability of other priority services such as MPS and MCS.
Also, as 5G network is expected to operate in a heterogeneous environment with multiple access technologies, multiple types of UE, etc., it should support a harmonised QoS and policy framework that applies to multiple accesses.
Further, for QoS control in EPS only covers RAN and core network, but for 5G network E2E QoS (e.g. RAN, backhaul, core network, network to network interconnect) is needed to achieve the 5G user experience (e.g. ultra-low latency, ultra-high bandwidth).
6.10 Network capability exposure Word-p. 26
The UE (remote UE) can connect to the network directly (direct network connection), connect using another UE as a relay UE (indirect network connection), or connect using both direct and indirect connections. Relay UEs can be used in many different scenarios and verticals (inHome, SmartFarming, SmartFactories, Public Safety and others). In these cases, the use of relays UEs can be used to improve the energy efficiency and coverage of the system.
Remote UEs can be anything from simple wearables, such as sensors embedded in clothing, to a more sophisticated wearable UE monitoring biometrics. They can also be non-wearable UEs that communicate in a Personal Area Network such as a set of home appliances (e.g. smart thermostat and entry key), or the electronic UEs in an office setting (e.g. smart printers), or a smart flower pot that can be remotely activated to water the plant.
When a remote UE is attempting to establish an indirect network connection, there might be several relay UEs that are available in proximity and supporting selection procedures of an appropriate relay UE among the available relay UEs is needed.
Indirect networkk connection covers the use of relay UEs for connecting a remote UE to the 3GPP network. There can be one or more relay UE(s) (more than one hop) between the network and the remote UE.
6.11 Context aware network Word-p. 27
3GPP SEES and (e)FMSS features allow the operator to expose network capabilities e.g. QoS policy to third-party ISPs/ICPs. With the advent of 5G, new network capabilities need to be exposed to the third-party (e.g. to allow the third-party to customize a dedicated physical or virtual network or a dedicated network slice for diverse use cases; to allow the third-party to manage a trusted third-party application in a Service Hosting Environment to improve user experience, and efficiently utilize backhaul and application resources).
6.12 Self backhaul [R16]
A variety of sensors such as accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, barometer, proximity sensor, and GPS can be integrated in a UE. Also, different applications running on the UE can have different communication needs (e.g. different traffic time). In addition, a UE can support different access technologies such as NR, E-UTRA, WLAN access technology, and fixed broadband access technology. The information gathered by sensors, the utilized access technologies, the application context, and the application traffic characteristics can provide useful information to the applications installed in the UE and can also help the 5G system utilize resources in an efficient and optimized way.
6.11.2 Requirements Word-p. 28
6.13 Flexible broadcast/multicast service [R16] Word-p. 29
The increased density of access nodes needed to meet future performance objectives poses considerable challenges in deployment and management (e.g. backhaul availability, backhaul capacity and scalability). The use of wireless backhaul for such access nodes helps to address some of the challenges.
Wireless self-backhauling in the radio access network can enable simpler deployment and incremental rollout by reducing reliance on the availability of wired backhaul at each access node location. Network planning and installation efforts can be reduced by leveraging plug and play type features -- self-configuration, self-organizing, and self-optimization.
6.14 Subscription aspects Word-p. 30
The proliferation of video services, ad-hoc multicast/broadcast streams, software delivery over wireless, group communications and broadcast/multicast IoT applications have created a need for a flexible and dynamic allocation of radio resources between unicast and multicast services within the network as well as support for a stand-alone deployment of multicast/broadcast network. Moreover, enabling such a service over a network for a wide range of inter-site distances between the radio base stations will enable a more efficient and effective delivery system for real-time and streaming multicast/broadcast content over wide geographic areas as well as in specific geographic areas spanning a limited number of base stations. A flexible multicast/broadcast service will allow the 5G system to efficiently deliver such services.
6.15 Energy efficiency Word-p. 31
With the Internet of Things, it is expected that the diversity of IoT devices (e.g. sensors, UAVs, smart flower pots) and the usage models will largely vary. Moreover, when the IoT device is manufactured, the deployment location and specific usage may not be known. Sometimes the IoT devices will be added to existing subscriptions, other times they may be part of a new subscription for the user. Sometimes the IoT devices may be leased. During their life cycle these IoT devices go through different stages, involving the change in ownership when the IoT device is deployed and possibly afterwards, the activation of the IoT device by the preferred operator, a possible change of operators, etc. These stages need to be managed securely and efficiently. A method of dynamic subscription generation and management is needed in addition to statically provisioned subscription. Once the subscription is established, subscription management becomes necessary, for example, to modify the subscription when the ownership of the IoT device changes, to update or refresh credentials due to suspected leakage or theft of security keys or as a preventive measure.
The Internet of Things will also support various connectivity models: The IoT devices can connect with the network directly or connect with the network using another IoT device as a relay UE, or they may be capable of using both types of connections. The direct device connection between the IoT device and the relay UE can be using 3GPP or non-3GPP RAT. The relay UE can access the network also using 3GPP or non-3GPP access networks (e.g. WLAN, fixed broadband access network). In order to identify and manage the IoT devices, a subscription with the 5G network is needed, even if the access is done via non-3GPP access.
6.16 Markets requiring minimal service levels
Energy efficiency is a critical issue in 5G. The potential to deploy systems in areas without a reliable energy source requires new methods of managing energy consumption not only in the UEs but throughout all components of the 5G system.
Small form factor UEs also typically have a small battery and this not only puts constrains on general power optimization but also on how the energy is consumed. With smaller batteries it is more important to understand and follow the limitations for the both the maximum peak and continuous current drain.
6.17 Extreme long range coverage in low density areas Word-p. 32
A key aspect of 5G system flexibility is the ability to support both the very high-end markets as well as very low end markets. Some systems will be deployed in areas where there are constraints on energy resources (e.g. sporadic access to power) and lower end user expectations for availability, reliability, and data rates. In such cases, the system needs additional flexibility to adapt power consumption needs based on fluctuations in power availability. The system should be efficient in order to provide essential services in harsh environments (e.g. far remote rural areas, very large territories) while taking into account the local constraints (adapting resources consumptions to long distances, dealing with variable conditions and possibly disconnections). Content delivery should be optimized in order to reduce constraints on transport networks, on low-end UEs (e.g. small screen, limited energy consumption), variable network conditions, and client profiles.
6.18 Multi-network connectivity and service delivery across operators [R16]
A fully connected society is expected in the near future. The network access everywhere over long distances (e.g. at extreme rural areas or at sea) including both humans and machines need to be supported.
6.19 3GPP access network selection Word-p. 33
Given the multitude of use cases for new verticals and services, each operator, based on its business model, may deploy a network serving only a subset of the vertical industries and services. However, this should not prevent an end-user from accessing all new services and capabilities that will be accessible via 5G systems. To provide a better user experience for their subscribers with UEs capable of simultaneous network access, network operators could contemplate a variety of sharing business models and partnership with other network and service providers to enable its subscribers to access all services via multiple networks simultaneously, and with minimum interruption when moving.
6.20 eV2X aspects
The 5G system will support the concept of "network slices" where different NG-RANs potentially are connected to network slices of different SSTs. A 5G UE can provide assistance information (e.g. SST) to enable the network to select one or more network slices. A 5G system is foreseen to support one or more SSTs, but possibly not all existing SSTs.
A 5G network operator controls and is responsible for what SSTs that should be available to a specific UE and subscription combination, based on associated subscription type, network operator policies, network capabilities and UE capabilities. The network operator can populate the Operator Controlled PLMN Selector list with associated access technology identifiers, stored in the 5G UE, with the PLMN/RAT combinations enabling access to the SSTs that are available to the 5G UE with associated subscription.
The UE uses the list of PLMN/RAT combinations for PLMN selection, if available, typically during roaming situations. In non-roaming situations, the UE and subscription combination typically matches the HPLMN/EHPLMN capabilities and policies, from a SST perspective. That is, a 5G UE accessing its HPLMN/EHPLMN should be able to access SSTs according to UE capabilities and the related subscription.
Optionally, a 5G system supports, subject to operator policies, a User Controlled PLMN Selector list that enables the 5G UE user to specify preferred PLMNs with associated access technology identifier in priority order. The user may have obtained information about suitable PLMN/RAT combination that would support services preferred by the user.
6.21 NG-RAN Sharing
6.20.2 Requirements Word-p. 34
The 3GPP system is expected to support various enhanced V2X scenarios.
Vehicles Platooning enables the vehicles to dynamically form a group travelling together. All the vehicles in the platoon receive periodic data from the leading vehicle, in order to carry on platoon operations. This information allows the distance between vehicles to become extremely small, i.e. the gap distance translated to time can be very low (sub second). Platooning applications may allow the vehicles following to be autonomously driven.
Advanced Driving enables semi-automated or fully-automated driving. Longer inter-vehicle distance is assumed. Each vehicle and/or RSU shares data obtained from its local sensors with vehicles in proximity, thus allowing vehicles to coordinate their trajectories or manoeuvres. In addition, each vehicle shares its driving intention with vehicles in proximity. The benefits of this use case group are safer traveling, collision avoidance, and improved traffic efficiency.
Extended Sensors enables the exchange of raw or processed data gathered through local sensors or live video data among vehicles, Road Site Units, UEs of pedestrians and V2X application servers. The vehicles can enhance the perception of their environment beyond what their own sensors can detect and have a more holistic view of the local situation.
Remote Driving enables a remote driver or a V2X application to operate a remote vehicle for those passengers who cannot drive themselves or a remote vehicle located in dangerous environments. For a case where variation is limited and routes are predictable, such as public transportation, driving based on cloud computing can be used. In addition, access to cloud-based back-end service platform can be considered for this use case group.
6.22 Unified access control [R16]
The increased density of access nodes needed to meet future performance objectives poses considerable challenges in deployment and acquiring spectrum and antenna locations. RAN sharing is seen as a technical solution to these issues.
6.23 QoS Monitoring [R16] Word-p. 36
Depending on operator's policies, deployment scenarios, subscriber profiles, and available services, different criterion will be used in determining which access attempt should be allowed or blocked when congestion occurs in the 5G System. These different criteria for access control are associated with Access Identities and Access Categories. The 5G system will provide a single unified access control where operators control accesses based on these two.
In unified access control, each access attempt is categorized into one or more of the Access Identities and one of the Access Categories. Based on the access control information applicable for the corresponding Access Identity and Access Category of the access attempt, the UE performs a test whether the actual access attempt can be made or not.
The unified access control supports extensibility to allow inclusion of additional standardized Access Identities and Access Categories and supports flexibility to allow operators to define operator-defined Access Categories using their own criterion (e.g. network slicing, application, and application server).
Clauses 4.1 through 4.4a of TS 22.011
are obsolete and replaced by clause 6.22.2 of this specification. However, when a UE is configured for EAB according to TS 22.011, the UE is also configured for delay tolerant service for 5G system.
6.24 Ethernet transport services [R16] Word-p. 38
6.23.2 Requirements Word-p. 37
The QoS requirements specified for particular services such as URLLC services, vertical automation communication services, and V2X, mandate QoS guarantees from the network. However, the network may not be able to always guarantee the required QoS of the service. An example reason for this shortcoming is that the latency and/or packet error rate increase due to interference in a radio cell. In such cases, it is critical that the application and/or application server is notified in a timely manner. Hence, the 5G system should be able to support QoS monitoring/assurance for URLLC services, V2X and vertical automation.
For more information on QoS assurance see Annex F.
Vertical automation systems are locally distributed and are typically served by wired and wireless communication networks of different types and with different characteristics. If the operation of the system or one of its sub-processes does not work properly, there is a need for quickly finding and eliminating the related error or fault in order to avoid significant operation and thus financial losses. To that end, automation devices and applications implement diagnosis and error-analysis algorithms, as well as predictive maintenance features.
Due to their inherent challenges, wireless communication systems are usually under suspicion in case an error occurs in a distributed automation application. Therefore, diagnosis and fault analysis features for 5G systems are required. The 5G system needs to provide sufficient monitoring information as input for such diagnosis features.
QoS monitoring can be used for the following activities:
assessing and assuring the dependability of network operation;
assessing and assuring the dependability of the communication services;
excluding particular communication errors;
identifying communication errors;
analysing the location of an error including the geographic location of the involved network component (UE; front-haul component; core node);
activation of application-related countermeasures.
6.25 Non-public networks [R16]
This clause includes common, fundamental Ethernet transport requirements, and any requirements necessary to support a 5G LAN-type service. The requirements applicable to the 5G system for supporting cyber-physical applications using Ethernet are described in TS 22.104
6.26 5G LAN-type service [R16]
6.25.2 Requirements Word-p. 39
Non-public networks are intended for the sole use of a private entity such as an enterprise, and may be deployed in a variety of configurations, utilising both virtual and physical elements. Specifically, they may be deployed as completely standalone networks, they may be hosted by a PLMN, or they may be offered as a slice of a PLMN.
In any of these deployment options, it is expected that unauthorized UEs, those that are not associated with the enterprise, will not attempt to access the non-public network, which could result in resources being used to reject that UE and thereby not be available for the UEs of the enterprise. It is also expected that UEs of the enterprise will not attempt to access a network they are not authorized to access. For example, some enterprise UEs may be restricted to only access the non-public network of the enterprise, even if PLMN coverage is available in the same geographic area. Other enterprise UEs may be able to access both a non-public network and a PLMN where specifically allowed.
6.27 Positioning services [R16] Word-p. 42
5G expands the scope and reach of 3GPP-defined technologies. There are multiple market segments in the realm of residential, office, enterprise and factory, where 5G will need to provide services with similar functionalities to Local Area Networks (LANs) and VPN's but improved with 5G capabilities (e.g. high performance, long distance access, mobility and security).
6.29 Messaging aspects [R16] Word-p. 44
5G positioning services aims to support verticals and applications with positioning accuracies better than 10 meters, thus more accurate than the ones of TS 22.071
for LCS. High accuracy positioning is characterized by ambitious system requirements for positioning accuracy in many verticals and applications, including regulatory needs.
In Location-Based-Services and eHealth, higher accuracy is instrumental to new services and applications, both outdoor and indoor.
For example, on the factory floor, it is important to locate assets and moving objects such as forklifts, or parts to be assembled. Similar needs exist in transportation and logistics, for example rail, road and use of UAVs. In some road user cases, UE's supporting V2X application(s) are also applicable to such needs. In cases such as guided vehicles (e.g. industry, UAVs) and positioning of objects involved in safety-related functions, availability needs to be very high.
Mission Critical Organizations require mission critical services to have accurate positioning such that first responders may be located at all times during normal and critical operations, indoors as well as outdoors. The level of positioning accuracy (and other KPIs) required is much more stringent than that required by local and regional regulatory requirements for commercial 5G users.
6.30 Steering of roaming [R17]
The 5G system is expected to support advanced capabilities and performance of messaging service especially for massive IoT communication which are introduced by the MSGin5G Service [TS 22.262
]. The MSGin5G Service provides one to one, group and broadcast message services for thing-to-thing and person-to-thing communication with low end-to-end latency and high reliability of message delivery, in a resource efficient manner to optimize the resource usage of the both control plane and user plane in the network, and power saving in the user devices.
6.31 Minimization of Service Interruption [R17]
Steering of roaming allows the HPLMN to steer a UE to a VPLMN on which the HPLMN wants the UE to register, when the UE registers on another VPLMN. This capability may be needed for reasons e.g. reselection to a higher priority PLMN based on business arrangements.
6.32 UAV aspects [R17]
A mobile network may fail to provide service in the event of a disaster (for example a fire.) The requirements listed in this clause provide the 5GS with the capability to mitigate interruption of service. UEs may obtain service in the event of a disaster, if there are PLMN operators prepared to offer service. The minimization of service interruption is constrained to a particular time and place. To reduce the impact to the 5G System of supporting Disaster Roaming, the potential congestion resulting from an influx or outflux of Disaster Inbound Roamers is taken into account.
6.31.2 Requirements Word-p. 45
6.33 Video, imaging and audio for professional applications [R17] Word-p. 46
The 3GPP system is expected to support various enhanced UAV scenarios, especially for a wide range of applications and scenarios by using low altitude UAVs in various commercial and government sectors.
6.34 Critical medical applications [R17]
Audio-Visual (AV) production includes television and radio studios, live news-gathering, sports events, music festivals, among others. Typically, numerous wireless devices such as microphones, in-ear monitoring systems or cameras are used in these scenarios. In the future, the wireless communication service for such devices are expected to be provided by a 5G system. AV production applications require a high degree of confidence, since they are related to the capturing and transmission of data at the beginning of a production chain. This differs drastically when compared to other multimedia services because the communication errors will be propagated to the entire audience that is consuming that content both live and on recorded medias. Furthermore, the transmitted data is often post-processed with filters which could actually amplify defects that would be otherwise not noticed by humans. Therefore, these applications call for uncompressed or slightly compressed data, and very low probability of errors. These devices will also be used alongside existing technologies which have a high level of performance and so any new technologies will need to match or improve upon the existing workflows to drive adoption of the technology.
The 3GPP system already plays an important role in the distribution of AV media content and services. Release 14 contains substantial enhancements to deliver TV services of various kinds, from linear TV programmes for mass audiences to custom-tailored on-demand services for mobile consumption. However, it is expected that also in the domain of AV content and service production, 3GPP systems will become an important tool for a market sector with steadily growing global revenues. There are several areas in which 3GPP networks may help to produce AV content and services in an efficient and flexible manner.
The 5G system is expected to meet the service requirements for critical medical applications where critical medical applications denote medical devices and applications involved in the delivery of care for patient's survival. Additionaly, as the medical industry undergoes a shift to value-based healthcare, where companies and healthcare providers have to move to business models based on providing clinical value with cost efficiency, the 5G system can help to adopt new and more efficient care delivery models in order to reduce administrative and supply costs.
On this matter, 5G technology can especially have an important impact by:
enabling superior monitoring capability means thus improving the effectiveness of preventive care,
enabling shifting care location from hospitals to homes and other lower cost facilities,
improving operating room planning, enabling streamlining equipment usage and simplifying operating theater implementation,
Enhancing cooperation in critical situations between ambulance and hospital staff.
D.1 Discrete automation - motion control
D.2 Discrete automation
Industrial factory automation requires communications for closed-loop control applications. Examples for such applications are motion control of robots, machine tools, as well as packaging and printing machines. All other discrete-automation applications are addressed in Annex D.2.
The corresponding industrial communication solutions are referred to as fieldbuses. The pertinent standard suite is IEC 61158. Note that clock synchronization is an integral part of fieldbuses used for motion control.
In motion control applications, a controller interacts with a large number of sensors and actuators (e.g. up to 100), which are integrated in a manufacturing unit. The resulting sensor/actuator density is often very high (up to 1 m-3
). Many such manufacturing units may have to be supported within close proximity within a factory (e.g. up to 100 in automobile assembly line production).
In a closed-loop control application, the controller periodically submits instructions to a set of sensor/actuator devices, which return a response within a cycle time. The messages, referred to as telegrams, are typically small (≤ 56 bytes). The cycle time can be as low as 2 ms, setting stringent end-to-end latency constraints on telegram forwarding (1 ms). Additional constraints on isochronous telegram delivery add tight constraints on jitter (1 μs), and the communication service has also to be highly available (99,9999%).
Multi-robot cooperation is a case in closed-loop control where a group of robots collaborate to conduct an action, for example, symmetrical welding of a car body to minimize deformation. This requires isochronous operation between all robots. For multi-robot cooperation, the jitter (1μs) is among the command messages of a control event to the group robots.
D.3 Process automation
Discrete automation encompasses all types of production that result in discrete products: cars, chocolate bars, etc. Automation that addresses the control of flows and chemical reactions is referred to as process automation (see clause D.3). Discrete automation requires communications for supervisory and open-loop control applications, as well as process monitoring and tracking operations inside an industrial plant. In these applications, a large number of sensors distributed over the plant forward measurement data to process controllers on a periodic or event-driven base. Traditionally, wireline field bus technologies have been used to interconnect sensors and control equipment. Due to the sizable extension of a plant (up to 10 km2), the large number of sensors, rotary joints, and the high deployment complexity of wired infrastructure, wireless solutions have made inroads into industrial process automation.
This use case requires support of a large number of sensor devices per plant as well as high communication service availability (99,99%). Furthermore, power consumption is relevant since some sensor devices are battery-powered with a targeted battery lifetime of several years while providing measurement updates every few seconds. Range also becomes a critical factor due to the low transmit power levels of the sensors, the large size of the plant and the high reliability requirements on transport. End-to-end latency requirements typically range between 10 ms and 1 s. User experienced data rates can be rather low since each transaction typically comprises less than 256 bytes. However, there has been a shift from field busses featuring somewhat modest data rates (~ 2 Mbit/s) to those with higher data rates (~ 10 Mbit/s) due to the increasing number of distributed applications and also "data-hungry" applications. An example for the latter is the visual control of production processes. For this application, the user experienced data rate is typically around 10 Mbit/s and the transmitted packets are much larger.
D.4 Electricity distribution
Process automation has much in common with discrete automation (see Annex D.2). Instead of discrete products (cars, chocolate bars, etc.), process automation addresses the production of bulk products such as petrol and reactive gases. In contrast to discrete automation, motion control is of limited or no importance. Typical end-to-end latencies are 50 ms. User experienced data rates, communication service availability, and connection density vary noticeably between applications. Below we describe one emerging use case (remote control via mobile computational units, see Annex D.3.1) and a contemporary use case (monitoring, see Annex D.3.2).
Note that discrete automation fieldbuses (see Annex D.2) are also used in process automation.
D.4.1 Medium voltage
D.5 Intelligent transport systems - infrastructure backhaul Word-p. 76
An energy-automation domain that hitherto has only seen very little application of mobile-network technology is the backhaul network, i.e. the part of the distribution grid between primary substations (high voltage → medium voltage) and secondary substations (medium voltage → low voltage).
D.4.2 Energy distribution - high voltage
In order to avoid region- or even nation-wide power outages, wide-area power system protection is on the rise. "When a major power system disturbance occurs, protection and control actions are required to stop the power system degradation, restore the system to a normal state and minimize the impact of the disturbance. The present control actions are not designed for a fast-developing disturbance and may be too slow. Local protection systems are not able to consider the overall system, which may be affected by the disturbance. Wide area disturbance protection is a concept of using system-wide information and sending selected local information to a remote location to counteract propagation of the major disturbances in the power system." . Protection actions include, "among others, changes in demand (e.g. load shedding), changes in generation or system configuration to maintain system stability or integrity and specific actions to maintain or restore acceptable voltage levels." . One specific application is phasor measurement for the stabilisation of the alternating-current phase in a transport network. For this, the voltage phase is measured locally and sent to a remote-control centre. There, this information is processed and automated actions are triggered. One can be the submission of telegrams to power plants, instructing them to either accelerate or deaccelerate their power generators in order to keep the voltage phase in the transport network stable. A comprehensive overview of this topic can be found elsewhere in the literature .
This kind of automation requires very low end-to-end latencies (5 ms)  and - due to its critical importance for the operation of society - a very high communication service availability (99,9999%).
Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) embrace a wide variety of communications-related applications that are intended to increase travel safety, minimize environmental impact, improve traffic management, and maximize the benefits of transportation to both commercial users and the general public. Over recent years, the emphasis in intelligent vehicle research has turned to co-operative systems in which the traffic participants (vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, etc.) communicate with each other and/or with the infrastructure.
Cooperative ITS is the term used to describe technology that allows vehicles to become connected to each other, and to the infrastructure and other parts of the transport network. In addition to what drivers can immediately see around them, and what vehicle sensors can detect, all parts of the transport system will increasingly be able to share information to improve decision making. Thus, this technology can improve road safety through avoiding collisions, but also assist in reducing congestion and improving traffic flows, and reduce environmental impacts. Once the basic technology is in place as a platform, an array of applications can be developed.
Cooperative ITS can greatly increase the quality and reliability of information available about vehicles, their location and the road environment. In the future, cars will know the location of road works and the switching phases of traffic lights ahead, and they will be able to react accordingly. This will make for safer and more convenient travel and faster arrival at the destination. On-board driver assistance, coupled with two-way communication between vehicles and between cars and road infrastructure, can help drivers to better control their vehicle and hence have positive effects in terms of safety and traffic efficiency. An important role in this plays the so-called road-side units (RSUs). Vehicles can also function as sensors reporting weather and road conditions including incidents. In this way cars can be be used as information sources for high-quality information services.
RSUs are connected to the traffic control centre for management and control purposes. They broadcast e.g. traffic light information (RSU → vehicle) and traffic information from the traffic-control centre (TCC) via the RSU to the vehicles (TCC → RSU → vehicle); and collect vehicle probe data for the traffic control centre (vehicle → RSU → TCC). For reliable distribution of data, low-latency and high-capacity connections between RSUs (e.g. traffic lights, traffic signs, etc.) and the TCC is required. This type of application comes with rather tight end-to-end latency requirements for the communication service between RSU and TCC (10 ms) since relayed data needs to be processed in the TCC and, if needed, the results need to be forwarded to neighbouring RSUs. Also, the availability of the communication service has to be very high (99,9999%) in order to compete with existing wired technology and in order to justify the costly deployment and maintenance of RSUs. Furthermore, due to considerably large aggregation areas (see Annex D.5.1), considerable amounts of data need to be backhauled to the TCC (up to 10 Mbit/s per RSU).