Steering of roaming allows the HPLMN (or subscribed NPN) to steer a UE to a VPLMN or NPN on which the HPLMN (or subscribed NPN) wants the UE to register, when the UE registers on another VPLMN or NPN. This capability can be needed for reasons e.g. reselection to a higher priority PLMN, or NPNs, based on business arrangements.
The following set of requirements complement the requirements listed in TS 22.011, clause 220.127.116.11.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism for the HPLMN to control the timing when a UE registered on a VPLMN, in automatic mode (see clause 3.1 of TS 23.122) and currently in CONNECTED mode, enters IDLE mode and initiates higher priority PLMN selection based on the type of ongoing communication.
The UE shall be able to delay conforming to steering of roaming control information from the HPLMN while it is engaged in priority service (e.g. emergency call, MPS session), or a service defined by HPLMN policy not to be interrupted (e.g. MMTEL voice/video call).
The mechanism mentioned above in this clause shall be available to the HPLMN even if the VPLMN the UE is registered on is compliant to an earlier release of the 5G system.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to enable a credentials holder (e.g. HPLMN or subscribed standalone NPN) to send steering of roaming information to a UE for selecting standalone NPNs (e.g prioritized list of preferred NPNs).
A mobile network can fail to provide service in the event of a disaster (for example a fire.) The requirements listed in this clause provide the 5GS with the capability to mitigate interruption of service. UEs can obtain service in the event of a disaster, if there are PLMN operators prepared to offer service. The minimization of service interruption is constrained to a particular time and place. To reduce the impact to the 5G System and EPS of supporting Disaster Roaming, the potential congestion resulting from an influx or outflux of Disaster Inbound Roamers is taken into account.
Scenarios where network failures render the network subject to a disaster unable to authenticate its subscribers are excluded.
Subject to regulatory requirements or operator's policy, 3GPP system shall be able to enable a UE of a given PLMN to obtain connectivity service (e.g. voice call, mobile data service) from another PLMN for the area where a Disaster Condition applies.
Subject to regulatory requirements, operator's policy or UE capabilities, the 3GPP system shall be able to support a UE, with 5G-only national roaming access to a VPLMN, to obtain 4G connectivity service (e.g. voice call, mobile data service) from that VPLMN in the area where a Disaster Condition applies.
Subject to regulatory requirements or operator's policy, in case of shared RAN between participating PLMNs, the 3GPP system shall be able to support a UE of a given PLMN to obtain connectivity service (e.g. voice call, mobile data service) from another participating network when a Disaster Condition applies to the UE's PLMN.
The 3GPP system shall enable UEs to obtain information that a Disaster Condition applies to a particular PLMN or PLMNs.
The 3GPP system shall support means for a PLMN operator to be aware of the area where Disaster Condition applies.
The 3GPP system shall be able to support provision of service to Disaster Inbound Roamer only within the specific region where Disaster Condition applies.
The 3GPP system shall be able to provide efficient means for a network to inform Disaster Inbound roamers that a Disaster Condition is no longer applicable.
Subject to regulatory requirements or operator's policy, the 3GPP system shall support a PLMN operator to be made aware of the failure or recovery of other PLMN(s) in the same country when the Disaster Condition is applies, or when the Disaster Condition is not applicable.
The 3GPP system shall be able to provide means to enable a UE to access PLMNs in a forbidden PLMN list if a Disaster condition applies and no other PLMN is available except for PLMNs in the forbidden PLMN list.
The 3GPP system shall provide means to enable that a Disaster Condition applies to UEs of a specific PLMN.
The 3GPP system shall be able to provide a resource efficient means for a PLMN to indicate to potential Disaster Inbound Roamers whether they can access the PLMN or not.
Disaster Inbound Roamers shall perform network reselection when a Disaster Condition has ended.
The 3GPP system shall minimize congestion caused by Disaster Roaming.
The 5G system and EPS shall support a mechanism for the HPLMN to control whether a UE, with HPLMN subscription, should apply Disaster Roaming when a Disaster Condition arises (in the HPLMN or a VPLMN).
3GPP system shall be able to collect charging information for a Disaster Inbound Roamer with information about the applied disaster condition.
The 3GPP system is expected to support various enhanced UAV scenarios, especially for a wide range of applications and scenarios by using low altitude UAVs in various commercial and government sectors.
The 3GPP system supports service requirements and KPIs related to command and control (C2), payload (e.g. camera) and the operation of radio access nodes on-board of UAVs. The associated requirements are described in TS 22.125.
Audio-Visual (AV) production includes television and radio studios, live news-gathering, sports events, music festivals, among others. Typically, numerous wireless devices such as microphones, in-ear monitoring systems or cameras are used in these scenarios. In the future, the wireless communication service for such devices are expected to be provided by a 5G system. AV production applications require a high degree of confidence, since they are related to the capturing and transmission of data at the beginning of a production chain. This differs drastically when compared to other multimedia services because the communication errors will be propagated to the entire audience that is consuming that content both live and on recorded media. Furthermore, the transmitted data is often post-processed with filters which could actually amplify defects that would be otherwise not noticed by humans. Therefore, these applications call for uncompressed or slightly compressed data, and very low probability of errors. These devices will also be used alongside existing technologies which have a high level of performance and so any new technologies will need to match or improve upon the existing workflows to drive adoption of the technology.
The 3GPP system already plays an important role in the distribution of AV media content and services. Release 14 contains substantial enhancements to deliver TV services of various kinds, from linear TV programmes for mass audiences to custom-tailored on-demand services for mobile consumption. However, it is expected that also in the domain of AV content and service production, 3GPP systems will become an important tool for a market sector with steadily growing global revenues. There are several areas in which 3GPP networks can help to produce AV content and services in an efficient and flexible manner.
The 5G system is expected to meet the service requirements for critical medical applications where critical medical applications denote medical devices and applications involved in the delivery of care for patient's survival. Additionally, as the medical industry undergoes a shift to value-based healthcare, where companies and healthcare providers have to move to business models based on providing clinical value with cost efficiency, the 5G system can help to adopt new and more efficient care delivery models in order to reduce administrative and supply costs.
On this matter, 5G technology can especially have an important impact by:
enabling superior monitoring capability means thus improving the effectiveness of preventive care,
enabling shifting care location from hospitals to homes and other lower cost facilities,
In order to support enhancement of service function chaining for 5G networks beyond the requirements for FMSS in TS 22.101, the network operator defines service function chaining policies for service function chaining to steer the traffic associated to the application and its users on per UE basis to appropriate ordered service functions.
A service function chain for 5G networks contains service functions such as firewall functions, NAT, antimalware, parental control, DDoS protection, TCP proxies, load balancers, KPI monitoring, and video optimization, etc.
The following requirements apply for supporting enhancement of service function chaining for 5G networks:
The network operator shall be able to define and modify service function chaining policies for steering traffic on per application per UE basis through required service function chaining with ordered service functions to improve the user's QoE.
Service functions chaining policies shall be able to distinguish between upstream and downstream traffic.
The coexistence of traffic with and without service function chaining shall be supported.
Service function chaining shall provide suitable means for authorized third parties to request a chain of service functions provided by the network operator based on operator's service function chaining policies.
In case of roaming, the HPLMN shall be able to apply traffic steering policies and service function chaining polices for home routed traffic.
In case of roaming with local breakout, the HPLMN shall be able to provide the traffic steering policies and service function chaining policies to the VPLMN providing local breakout with support of service function chaining.
Service function chaining shall support deployments where the Hosted Services are provided by the operator and deployments where the Hosted Services are provided by a third party.
The service function management shall allow the operator to create, modify, and delete a service function based on operator's service function chaining policies.
The service function management shall allow the operator to create, configure, and control a chain of service functions per application and its users on per UE basis based on operator's policy or request from third parties.
The service function management shall be able to manage service function chaining for deployments where the Hosted Services are provided by the operator and for deployments where the Hosted Services are provided by a third party.
5G systems rely on reference precision timing signals for network synchronization in order to operate. These synchronization references are generated by Primary reference Time Clocks that typically get the timing reference from GNSS receivers and in order to meet the relevant synchronization requirements also during failure conditions, the synchronization network designs typically include means to address potential degradation of the GNSS signal performance. Some deployment of 5G involve applications that themselves can be sensitive to any degradation of the timing signal. In such cases it is beneficial for the 5G system to be enhanced to act as a backup for loss of their GNSS references. In some implementations, timing resiliency enhancements to the 5G system can work in collaboration with different types of time sources (e.g., atomic clock, time service delivered over the fibre) to provide a robust time synchronization.
5G as a consumer of time synchronization benefits from timing resiliency which enables the support of many critical services within the 5G network even during the event of a loss or degradation of the primary GNSS reference timing. Additionally, for time critical services (e.g. financial sector or smart grid), the 5G system can operate in collaboration with or as backup to other timing solutions. A base of clock synchronization requirements when 5G is providing a time signal, if it is deployed in conjunction with an IEEE TSN network or if it is providing support for IEEE 1588 related protocols, is included in TS 22.104, clause 5.6.
The enhancements in this clause build on this to add timing resiliency to the 5G system enabling its use as a replacement or backup for other timing sources.
The 5G system shall support enhanced timing resiliency in collaboration with different types of time sources (e.g., GNSS, TBS/MBS  , Sync over Fiber ) to provide a robust time synchronization.
The 5G system shall be able to maintain accurate time synchronization as appropriate for the supported applications in the event of degradation or loss of the primary timing reference (e.g., GNSS).
The 5G system shall be able to support mechanisms to monitor for timing source failure (e.g., GNSS).
The 5G system shall be able to detect when reference timing signals (e.g., from GNSS or other timing source) are no longer viable for network time synchronization.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to determine if there is degradation of the 5G time synchronization.
The 5G system shall be able to support mechanisms to indicate to devices (e.g., UEs, applications) that there is an alternate time source available for use (e.g., 5G system internal holdover capability, atomic clock, Sync over Fiber, TBS, GNSS), taking into account the holdover capability of the devices.
The 5G system shall be able to detect when a timing source fails or is restored for network time synchronization.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to monitor different time sources and adopt the most appropriate.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to report timing errors such as divergence from UTC and time sync degradation to UEs and 3rd party applications.
Ranging-based services are the applications utilizing the distance between two UEs and/or the direction of one UE from the other one. In 3D case, direction includes horizontal direction and elevation direction. Ranging-based services can apply to a variety of verticals, such as consumer, smart home, smart city, smart transportation, smart retail, and industry 4.0. Some ranging-based services can only require the distance measurement, some can only require direction measurement, others can require both distance and direction measurement.
Ranging can be supported with or without 5G coverage, Figure 6.37.1-1 is an illustration of ranging between UEs that are in coverage, out of coverage, or with partial coverage. Both licensed and unlicensed spectrum can be used for ranging. If licensed spectrum is used, it shall be fully under operator control.
The 5G system shall be able to support for a UE to discover other UEs supporting ranging.
The 5G system shall be able to authorize ranging for a UE or a group of UE when using licensed spectrum.
The 5G system shall be able to protect privacy of a UE and its user, ensuring that no identifiable information can be tracked by undesired entities during ranging.
The 5G system shall be able to enable or disable ranging.
The 5G system shall support mutual ranging, i.e. two UEs shall be able to initiate ranging to each other.
The 5G system shall be able to ensure that the use of Ranging, if in licensed spectrum, is only permitted in network coverage under the full control of the operator who provides the coverage.
The 5G system shall support energy efficient UE ranging operation.
The 5G system shall be able to start ranging and stop ranging according to the application layer's demand.
The 5G system shall be able to provide mechanisms for a MNO, or authorized 3rd party, to provision and manage ranging operation and configurations.
The 5G system shall be able to support mechanisms for a UE to assist another UE to perform ranging of a third UE (if the requesting UE is LOS with the assisting UE and the assisting UE is LOS with the third UE).
The 5G system shall be able to support ranging enabled UEs to determine the ranging capabilities (e.g. capabilities to perform distance and/or angle measurement) of other ranging enabled UEs.
The 5G system shall be able to allow a ranging enable UE to determine if another ranging enabled UE is stationary or mobile, before and/or during ranging.
The 5G system shall allow ranging between 2 UEs triggered by and exposed to a third UE.
The 5G system shall allow ranging service between 2 UEs triggered by and exposed to the application server.
The 5G system shall be able to support one UE initiating ranging to the other UE.
The 5G system shall be able to support ranging between UEs which subscribe to different operators.
The 5G system shall be able to allow roaming UEs to perform ranging.
The 5G system shall be able to ensure the integrity and confidentiality of ranging information used by ranging-enabled UEs.
The 5G system shall be able to ensure that user privacy is not violated during ranging, e.g., subject to regional or national regulatory requirements.
The 5G system shall be able to ensure security protection (e.g., interworking security) when the ranging concerns UEs subscribed with different operators.
The level of security provided by the existing 5G system shall not be adversely affected when ranging is enabled.
The 5G system shall support means to securely identify other ranging capable UEs, with which a certain UE can perform ranging.
Personal IoT Networks (PINs) and Customer Premises Networks (CPNs) provide local connectivity between UEs and/or non-3GPP devices. The CPN via an eRG, or PIN Elements via a PIN Element with Gateway Capability can provide access to 5G network services for the UEs and/or non-3GPP devices on the CPN or PIN. CPNs and PINs have in common that in general they are owned, installed and/or (at least partially) configured by a customer of a public network operator.
A Customer Premises Network (CPN) is a network located within a premises (e.g. a residence, office or shop). Via an evolved Residential Gateway (eRG), the CPN provides connectivity to the 5G network. The eRG can be connected to the 5G core network via wireline, wireless, or hybrid access. A Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) is a base station installed in a CPN. Through the PRAS, UEs can get access to the CPN and/or 5G network services. The PRAS can be configured to use licensed, unlicensed, or both frequency bands. Connectivity between the eRG and the UE, non-3GPP Device, or PRAS can use any suitable non-3GPP technology (e.g. Ethernet, optical, WLAN).
A Personal IoT Network (PIN) consists of PIN Elements that communicate using PIN Direct Connection or direct network connection and is managed locally (using a PIN Element with Management Capability). Examples of PINs include networks of wearables and smart home / smart office equipment. Via a PIN Element with Gateway Capability, PIN Elements have access to the 5G network services and can communicate with PIN Elements that are not within range to use PIN Direct Connection. A PIN includes at least one PIN Element with Gateway Capability and at least one PIN Element with Management Capability.
A PIN Element with Management Capability is a PIN Element that provides a means for an authorised administrator to configure and manage a PIN.
The requirements as described in TS 22.101, clause 26a can also apply to Personal IoT Networks and Customer Premises Networks.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to identify a PIN, a PIN Element, an eRG and a PRAS.
Subject to local regulations, the 5G system shall support regulatory requirements for emergency calls, PWS and eCall for UEs connected via a CPN.
The 5G system shall support applications on an Application Server connected to a CPN or PIN.
The 5G system shall be able to support PINs with PIN Elements subscribed to more than one network operator (e.g., a PIN Element that is a MUSIM UE and subscribes to different operators respectively, one PIN Element subscribed to network operator A and another PIN Element subscribed to network operator B).
Subject to regulatory requirements and operator policy, the 5G system shall support an efficient data path within the CPN for intra-CPN communications.
Subject to regulatory requirements and operator policy, the 5G system shall support a data path not traversing the 5G network for intra-PIN communications via direct connections.
The 5G system shall enable the network operator to provide any 5G services to any UE via a PRAS connected via an eRG.
The 5G system shall minimize service disruption for a UE that is moving between CPN access and operator provided mobile access.
The 5G system shall minimize service disruption when a CPN communication path changes between two PRASes.
The 5G system shall be able to minimize service disruption when a PIN Element changes the communication path from one PIN Element (e.g. PIN Element with Gateway Capability) to another PIN Element or operator provided mobile access. The communication path between PIN Elements may include licensed and unlicensed spectrum as well as 3GPP and non-3GPP access.
The 5G system shall be able to support PRAS sharing between multiple PLMNs.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to aggregate, switch or split the service between non-3GPP RAT and PIN direct connections using licensed spectrum.
The 5G system shall be able to support access to the 5G network and its services via at least one gateway (i.e. PIN Element with Gateway Capability or eRG) for authorised UEs and authorised non-3GPP devices in a PIN or a CPN.
The 5G system shall be able to support IP traffic offload to data network for a CPN.
Under operator control, an eRG, shall be able to efficiently deliver 5G multicast/broadcast services to authorized UEs and non-3GPP devices in the CPN.
The 5G system shall allow PIN Elements to communicate when there is no connectivity between a PIN Element with Gateway Capability and a 5G network. For a Public Safety PIN licensed spectrum may be used for PIN direct communications otherwise unlicensed spectrum shall be used.
When a CPN has lost connectivity with the 5G network, the 5G system shall provide an operator-controlled mechanism to enable:
in the default configuration, or under certain conditions configured by the operator, the PRAS radio interface shall be deactivated; and
under certain other conditions configured by the operator, the CPN shall continue existing intra-CPN communication, as long as no interaction with the 5G network is needed (e.g. refreshing security keys).
The 5G system shall enable a UE or non-3GPP device in a CPN or PIN to discover other UEs or non-3GPP devices within the same CPN or PIN subject to acess rights.
The 5G system shall efficiently support service discovery mechanisms where a UE or non-3GPP device in a CPN or PIN can discover, subject to access rights:
availability and reachability of other entities (e.g. other UEs or non-3GPP devices) on the CPN or PIN;
capabilities of other entities on the CPN (e.g. PRAS, eRG) or PIN (e.g. relay UE, connection types) and/or;
services provided by other entities on the CPN or PIN (e.g. the entity is a printer).The 5G system shall support a mechanism for an Authorised Administrator to indicate whether a PIN element is discoverable by other PIN elements of the same PIN.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism for an Authorised Administrator to indicate whether a PIN element is discoverable by UEs that are not members of the PIN.
The 5G system shall provide user privacy; location privacy, identity protection and communication confidentiallity for non-3GPP devices and UEs that are using the PIN Element with Gateway Capability, eRG or PRAS.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to minimize the security risk of communications using an eRG.
The 5G system shall enable the network operator associated with an eRG to control the security policy of an eRG.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to minimize the security risk of communications via a PRAS.
The PRAS (and its associated backhaul connectivity) shall provide a level of security equivalent to regular 5G base stations.
The 5G system shall enable the network operator associated with the Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) to control the security policy of the PRAS.
The 5G system shall support authentication of a UE with 3GPP credentials for communication with entities (UEs, non-3GPP devices) in a CPN.
The 5G system shall provide support for a network operator to authenticate a PRAS.
The 5G system shall provide support for a network operator to authorize a PRAS for its use in a CPN.
The 5G system shall support a PIN Element using non operator managed credentials (e.g. provided by a third party) for performing communications within the PIN when those communications use PIN direct connections.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to mitigate repeated and unauthorized attempts to access PIN Elements (e.g. mitigate a malicious flood of messages).
The 5G system shall support real time E2E QoS monitoring and control for any intra-CPN data traffic to or from a UE (i.e. via eRG or via PRAS and eRG).
The 5G system shall support real time E2E QoS monitoring and control for any data traffic between a UE within a CPN and the 5G network (i.e. via eRG or via PRAS and eRG).
The 5G system shall support charging data collection for data traffic to/from individual UEs in a CPN or PIN (i.e., UEs behind the PIN Element with Gateway Capability or eRG and/or PRAS).
The 5G system shall be able to generate charging data that can differentiate between backhaul for the PRAS and other data traffic over the same access.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism for the network operator to provision an eRG with:
policies on which transport (e.g. wireless, cable, etc.) is best suited for different negotiated QoS levels,
initial OA&M information, and
The 5G system shall enable the network operator to configure a PRAS with:
radio settings pertaining to licensed spectrum,
initial OA&M information, and
Subject to operator policy, the 5G system shall enable the Authorised Administrator to provision a PRAS with UE access considerations (allowing all UEs, or allowing specific UEs only)
The 5G system shall provide a mechanism for the Authorised Administrator to trigger initial provisioning of an eRG.
The 5G system shall provide a mechanism for the Authorised Administrator to trigger initial provisioning of a PRAS.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms for a network operator or authorized 3rd party (e.g., a PIN User) to create, remove and manage a PIN, including:
Authorizing/deauthorizing PIN Elements;
Authorizing/deauthorizing PIN Elements with Management Capability;
Authorizing/deauthorizing PIN Elements with Gateway Capability;
Establishing duration of the PIN;
Configure PIN Elements to enable service discovery of other PIN Elements;
Authorize/deauthorise if a PIN Element can use a PIN Element with Gateway Capability to communicate with the 5GS;
Authorize/deauthorise for a PIN Element(s):
which other PIN Element it can communicate with,
which applications/service or service in that PIN it can access,
which PIN Element it can use as a relay.
Authorize/deauthorise a UE to perform service discovery of PIN Elements over the 5G network;
Configure a PIN Element for external connectivity e.g.via 5G system;
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to enable a UE that is not a PIN Element of the PIN or a non-3GPP device that is not a PIN element of the PIN to request to join the PIN.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms for a network operator to configure the following policies in a PIN:
Configure the connectivity type (e.g. licensed, unlicensed PIN direct connection) a PIN Element can use.
5G system shall be able to support mechanism to provide life span information of the PIN to the authorized 3rd party or the PIN elements when the PIN is created for limited time span.
The 5G system shall provide means to control which UEs can connect to a PRAS.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to provision a PIN Element to use either licensed (under control of a MNO) or unlicensed spectrum (may be under the control of the MNO, or not) (e.g., when it has no connectivity to the 5G system).
The 5G system is expected to support advanced capabilities and performance of enhanced IMS multimedia telephony service to meet new demands from consumers, business customers and vertical markets. Nowadays 3GPP has introduced new network capabilities and new types of devices (e.g. AR/VR/XR devices, robot, etc.), which can bring promising improvements to IMS multimedia telephony service. While more and more individual consumers enjoy multimedia telephony services across the globe, multimedia telephony services become popular also among business customers. There are several primary business functions that organizations use multimedia telephony services for, including internal communication, talking with prospects (sales call), contacting current customers and clients, customer support, and contact centre (or call centre) activities. While business customers consider the multimedia telephony services offer attractive features to their business, they also experience some practical issues that expect support from the 5G system.
Requirements in this clause are subject to regulatory requirements and operator policy.
The 5G system shall provide means to allow a trusted third-party to update the multimedia telephony service subscription and allocate a third-party specific identity to an authorized user.
The following requirements apply to the originating side:
The 5G network shall provide a means for third parties (e.g. enterprises) to be authorized to verify the use of calling identity information by its authorized users.
The 5G network shall provide a means for authorized third parties to verify that an authenticated user is authorized to include or reference the pre-established calling identity information included in the call setup or retrieved by the called party.
The 5G network shall provide a means to verify the authenticity of the pre-established stored identity information that is referenced by the call setup and retrieved by the called party.
The following requirements apply to the terminating side.
The 5G network shall provide a means for third parties (e.g. enterprises) to be able to verify the caller's authorization to use the identity information either in addition to or instead of verification performed by the terminating PLMN.
The 5G network shall provide a means to verify the authenticity of any stored identity information referenced by the call setup to be presented to the called party.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML) is being used in a range of application domains across industry sectors. In mobile communications systems, mobile devices (e.g. smartphones, automotive, robots) are increasingly replacing conventional algorithms (e.g. speech recognition, image recognition, video processing) with AI/ML models to enable applications. The 5G system can at least support three types of AI/ML operations:
AI/ML operation splitting between AI/ML endpoints
The AI/ML operation/model is split into multiple parts according to the current task and environment. The intention is to offload the computation-intensive, energy-intensive parts to network endpoints, whereas leave the privacy-sensitive and delay-sensitive parts at the end device. The device executes the operation/model up to a specific part/layer and then sends the intermediate data to the network endpoint. The network endpoint executes the remaining parts/layers and feeds the inference results back to the device.
AI/ML model/data distribution and sharing over 5G system
Multi-functional mobile terminals might need to switch the AI/ML model in response to task and environment variations. The condition of adaptive model selection is that the models to be selected are available for the mobile device. However, given the fact that the AI/ML models are becoming increasingly diverse, and with the limited storage resource in a UE, it can be determined to not pre-load all candidate AI/ML models on-board. Online model distribution (i.e. new model downloading) is needed, in which an AI/ML model can be distributed from a NW endpoint to the devices when they need it to adapt to the changed AI/ML tasks and environments. For this purpose, the model performance at the UE needs to be monitored constantly.
Distributed/Federated Learning over 5G system
The cloud server trains a global model by aggregating local models partially-trained by each end devices. Within each training iteration, a UE performs the training based on the model downloaded from the AI server using the local training data. Then the UE reports the interim training results to the cloud server via 5G UL channels. The server aggregates the interim training results from the UEs and updates the global model. The updated global model is then distributed back to the UEs and the UEs can perform the training for the next iteration.
Based on operator policy, the 5G system shall be able to provide means to allow an authorized third-party to monitor the resource utilisation of the network service that is associated with the third-party.
Based on operator policy, the 5G system shall be able to provide an indication about a planned change of bitrate, latency, or reliability for a QoS flow to an authorized 3rd party so that the 3rd party AI/ML application is able to adjust the application layer behaviour if time allows. The indication shall provide the anticipated time and location of the change, as well as the target QoS parameters.
Based on operator policy, 5G system shall be able to provide means to predict and expose predicted network condition changes (i.e. bitrate, latency, reliability) per UE, to an authorized third party.
Subject to user consent, operator policy and regulatory constraints, the 5G system shall be able to support a mechanism to expose monitoring and status information of an AI-ML session to a 3rd party AI/ML application.
5G system shall be able to provide event alerting to an authorized 3rd party, together with a predicted time of the event (e.g., alerting about traffic congestion or UE moving into/out of a different geographical area).
The 5G system shall be able to expose aggregated QoS parameter values for a group of UEs to an authorized service provider.
The 5G system shall be able to support an authorised 3rd party to change aggregated QoS parameter values associated with a group of UEs, e.g. UEs of a FL group.
Subject to user consent, operator policy and regulatory requirements, the 5G system shall be able to expose information (e.g. candidate UEs) to an authorized 3rd party to assist the 3rd party to determine member(s) of a group of UEs (e.g. UEs of a FL group).
Providing access to local services refers to the capability to provide access to a hosting network and a set of services offered by the hosting network provider, and 3rd party service providers including other network operators and 3rd party application providers. The services can be localized (i.e. provided at specific/limited area) and can be bounded in time. The user can become aware of the available access to local services, and the process to gain and terminate access to the hosting network and local services. This process should be efficient, and convenient from a user experience standpoint.
Providing access to local services creates new opportunities for users and service providers. For example, access can be provided in areas where there is no coverage provided by other networks (for example, on a fairground established far from other infrastructure), or the access and local services can be established as needed (on a short-term basis), without the need for long term business relationships, permanently installed equipment, etc.
The type of local services and access for localized services via a hosting network can be promoted and arranged through different channels. Principally the service providers (e.g., brick and mortar businesses, entertainment venues, construction contractors, first responder agencies, etc.) will provide information and proper incentive or instructions to potential users so that they will seek to access the local services via hosting networks.
The 5G system shall support suitable mechanisms to allow automatically establishing localized service agreements for a specific occasion (time and location) and building temporary relationship among hosting network operator and other service providers including network operators or 3rd party application providers.
The 5G system shall support means for the service provider to request the hosting network via standard mechanisms to provide access to 3rd party services at a specific period of time and location. This period of time shall be flexible, so that a change in service provision can be decided at any time (e.g., to cancel or prolong local services in the locality of service delivery) based on localized services agreements.
Based on localized services agreements, the 5G system shall provide suitable means to allow the service provider to request and provision various localized service requirements, including QoS, expected/maximum number of users, event information for discovery, network slicing, required IP connectivity etc, and routing policies for the application of the localized services via the hosting network.
The 5G system shall support means for a hosting network to create policies and configure resources for the requested time and location for the 3rd party services based on the received request.
The 5G system shall support means for a hosting network to notify the service provider of the accepted service parameters and routing policies.
Subject to regulatory requirements and localized service agreements, the 5G system shall allow a home network operator to automatically negotiate policies with the hosting network for allowing the home network's subscribers to connect at a specific occasion, e.g., time and location, for their home network services.
Subject to the automatic localized services agreements between the hosting network operator and home network operator, for UE with only home network subscription and with authorization to access hosting networks the 5G system shall support:
access to the hosting network and use home network services or selected localized services via the hosting network,
seamless service continuity for home network services or selected localized services when moving between two hosting networks or a host network and the home network.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to enable configuration of a network that provides access to localized services such that the services can be limited in terms of their spatial extent (in terms of a particular topology, for example a single cell), as specified by a 3rd party.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to enable configuration of a network that provides access to localized services such that the services can be limited in terms of the resources or capacity available, to correspond to requirements that apply only to the locality of service delivery, as specified by a service provider of localized services.
The 5G system shall support means for a hosting network to provide a 3rd party service provider with information for automatic discovery of the hosting network by the UEs to allow access to specific 3rd party services.
The 5G system shall support secure mechanisms to allow a home network to coordinate with a hosting network for a subscriber to temporarily access the hosting network (e.g., based on temporary credentials) at a given time (start time and duration) and location.
Subject to localized services agreements, the 5G system shall enable a home network operator to authorize a UE for using its home network services via a hosting network for a certain period of time and/or location.
The 5G system shall allow a trusted 3rd party service provider to provide UEs with localized service policy (e.g., QoS, network slice in the hosting or home network, service restriction such as time and location) via the hosting network or the UE's home network.
The 5G system shall enable a UE to use credentials provided by the hosting network with or without coordination with the home network of the UE, to make use of localized services via the hosting network with a certain time (including starting time and the duration) and location validity.
The 5G system shall be able to allow the home network to steer its UE(s) to a hosting network with the consideration of the location, times, coverage of the hosting network and services offered by the home network and hosting network.
The 5G system shall provide support to enable secure means to authenticate and authorize a user of a UE accessing a hosting network, including cases in which a UE has no subscription to the hosting network and still needs to get authorized to use localized services via the hosting network.
The 5G system shall be able to authenticate and authorize the UE of a user authenticated to a hosting network to access the hosting network and its localized services on request of a service provider.
Subject to operator's policy and agreement between a 3rd party service provider and operator, the 5G system shall enable a UE to receive and use configuration provided by a 3rd party service provider to discover and access a hosting network and localized services, including the considerations of prior service agreement with a 3rd party service provider and no prior subscription to hosting network. If the UE is able to obtain services from two networks simultaneously, it may additionally select the hosting network. If the UE cannot maintain the connection to the home network while selecting the hosting network, the selection shall only be done on request by the user, i.e., using manual selection.
The 5G system shall support secure means for a UE to select and access localized services which may be provided by a 3rd party service provider via a hosting network, independent of prior subscription to the hosting network or 3rd party service provider.
The 5G system shall enable the home network to allow a UE to automatically select a hosting network for accessing localized services when specified conditions (e.g., predefined time, location) are fulfilled.
The 5G system shall be able to prevent a UE to re-access the hosting network after the localized services were terminated if the authorization for the localized services is no longer valid (e.g., can be based on certain conditions such as time or location of the user).
The 5G system may support means for a UE which may or may not have prior subscription to the hosting network to display human readable information on how to gain access to the hosting network and available 3rd party services.
The 5G system shall support a mechanism to allow a user to manually select a specific local hosting network.
The 5G system shall be able to limit access of specific UEs to a configurable area of a hosting network's coverage area.
The 5G system shall be able to maintain privacy of a user against the hosting network while the UE does not make use of the hosting network, for example, to prevent tracking of UEs by hosting networks.
The 5G system shall enable the home network to instruct a UE to select a hosting network with certain conditions (e.g., predefined time, location) based on the request from a service provider.
The 5G system shall enable the home network to allow a UE to select a hosting network or change to another hosting network, without any additional user intervention as long as the delivered services, both localized services and home routed services, are unchanged.
The 5G system shall enable the home network operator to indicate to the UE what services are preferred to be used from the home network when the UE connects to a hosting network and the requested services are available from both the hosting and the home network.
Based on localized service agreements, the hosting network shall be able to provide required connectivity and QoS for a UE simultaneously connected to the hosting network for localized services and its home network for home network services.
A UE shall be able to connect to its home network via the hosting network, if supported by the hosting network and the home network based on localized service agreements.
The 5G system shall provide mechanisms to mitigate user plane and control plane overload caused by a high number of UEs returning from a temporary local access of a hosting network to their home network in a very short period of time.
The 5G system shall provide mechanisms to minimize the impact on the UEs communication e.g., to prevent user plane and control plane outages when returning to a home network together with other high number of UEs in a very short period of time, after terminating their temporary local access to a hosting network.
The 5G system shall be able to collect charging information for the use of localized services at the hosting network and provide the charging records to UEs' home operators based on localized service agreements and charging policies provided by the service providers of localized services.
The operator of a hosting network shall support a mechanism allowing different service providers of localized services to disseminate their services and content over broadcast/multicast transport. This mechanism should also provide means to include diverse content in the same transmission, e.g., to include advertisements with other content, or to include multiple content in the same media delivered to the user.
A hosting network shall provide multicast and broadcast services in an energy efficient manner to UEs receiving this service.
A hosting network shall support resource efficient content delivery through multicast/broadcast.
A hosting network shall support a mechanism to provide low latency signalling for efficient content delivery to many UEs.
Subject to home operator policy, a hosting network shall be able to prioritize specific multicast and broadcast services for local access over home routed access, even if the same service is available in both networks.
The requirements below refer to a "mobile base station relay", which is a mobile base station acting as a relay between a UE and the 5G network, i.e. providing a NR access link to UEs and connected wirelessly (using NR) through a donor NG-RAN to the 5G Core. Such mobile base station relay is assumed to be mounted on a moving vehicle and serve UEs that can be located inside or outside the vehicle (or entering/leaving the vehicle).
Few main underlying assumptions are:
requirements cover single-hop relay scenarios as baseline (multi-hop is not precluded);
legacy UEs are supported;
other stage-1 requirements (e.g. on wireless self-backhaul), as well as existing stage-2/3 functionalities and architecture options (e.g. IAB) do not assume or address full relay mobility (e.g. relays on board of moving vehicles), thus cannot cover the requirements below, which are intended to be specific to mobile base station relays;
the identified requirements do not intend to imply or exclude specific network/relay architectures and topology solutions (e.g. could be IAB based, or others);
the MNO managing mobile base station relays, and the RAN/5GC they connect to, can be a PLMN or an NPN operator.
The 5G system shall support efficient operation of mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to support means, for a mobile network operator, to configure, provision and control the operation of a mobile base station relay, e.g. activation/deactivation, permitted location(s) or time of operation.
The 5G system shall be able to support provisioning and configuration mechanisms to control UEs' selection and access to a mobile base station relay, e.g. based on UE's authorization, geographic or temporary restrictions, relay's load.
The 5G system shall be able to support RAN sharing between multiple PLMNs for UEs connected to the 5G network via mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to configure and provision specific required QoS for traffic relayed via a mobile base station relay.
Subject to regulatory requirements and based on operator policy, the 5G system shall support means to configure and expose monitoring information of a mobile base station relay to an MNO's authorized third-party.
The 5G system shall be able to provide means to optimize network behaviour to efficiently deliver data based on the mobility information (e.g., itinerary), known or predicted, of mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to support communication from/to users of one MNO (MNO-A) via mobile base station relays, where the traffic between the relay and the MNO-A network is transported using 5G connectivity (RAN and 5GC) provided by a different MNO (MNO-B).
The 5G system shall be able to support UEs connectivity to RAN using simultaneously, a link without mobile base station relay and a link via a mobile base station relay, or simultaneous links via different mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to provide means to support efficient UE cell selection and cell reselection (between mobile base station relays or between relays and RAN) in the presence of mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to ensure end-to-end service continuity, in the presence of mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall be able to support mechanisms to optimize mobility and energy efficiency for UEs located in a vehicle equipped with a base station relay.
The 5G system shall be able to support incremental deployment of connectivity by means of one or a series of mobile base station relays for use only in specific locations where UEs would receive no other 3GPP access (terrestrial or non-terrestrial) coverage, e.g., for public safety scenarios.
The 5G system shall be able to support mobile base station relays using 3GPP satellite NG-RAN (NR satellite access).
The 5G system shall be able to support mobile base station relays accessing to 5GC via NR satellite access and NR terrestrial access simultaneously.
The 5G system shall be able to support service continuity for mobile base station relays using at least one 3GPP satellite NG-RAN.
The 5G system shall be able to identify and differentiate UEs' traffic carried via a mobile base station relay and collect charging information, including specific relay information (e.g. geographic location served by the relay).
The 5G system shall support means for a mobile base station relay to have a certain subscription with a HPLMN, used to get access and connectivity to the HPLMN network (via a donor RAN).
The 5G system shall support the ability of a base station relay to roam from its HPLMN into a VPLMN.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms, for the HPLMN controlling a mobile base station relay, to enable/disable mobile relay operation if the relay is roaming in a VPLMN.
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to disable mobile relay operation by a VPLMN where a mobile base station relay is roaming to.
The 5G system shall be able to fulfil necessary regulatory requirements (e.g. for support of emergency services) when UEs access the 3GPP network via a mobile base station relay.
The 5G system shall be able to support priority services (e.g. MPS) when UEs access the 3GPP network via a mobile base station relay.
The 5G system shall be able to support location services for the UEs accessing 5GS via a mobile base station relay.
The 5G system shall ensure that existing end-to-end 5G security between the UE and 3GPP network is unaffected when the UE accesses the 3GPP network via a mobile base station relay.
The 5G system shall be able to minimize radio interference possibly caused by mobile base station relays.
The 5G system shall minimize the impact of the presence of mobile base station relays on radio network management (e.g. through automatic neighbour cell list configuration).
The tactile and multi-modal communication service can be applied in multiple fields, e.g. industry, robotics and telepresence, virtual reality, augmented reality, healthcare, road traffic, serious gaming, education, culture and smart grid . These services support applications enabling input from more than one sources and/or output to more than one destinations to convey information more effectively. As Figure 6.43.1-1 illustrates, the input and output can be different modalities including:
Information received by sensors about the environment, e.g. brightness, temperature, humidity, etc.;
Haptic data: can be feelings when touching a surface (e.g., pressure, texture, vibration, temperature), or kinaesthetic senses (e.g. gravity, pull forces, sense of position awareness).
For immersive multi-modal VR applications, synchronization between different media components is critical in order to avoid having a negative impact on the user experience (i.e. viewers detecting lack of synchronization), particularly when the synchronization threshold between two or more modalities is less than the latency KPI for the application. Example synchronization thresholds  are summarised in Table 6.43.1-1.
The 5G system shall enable an authorized 3rd party to provide policy(ies) for flows associated with an application. The policy may contain e.g. the set of UEs and data flows, the expected QoS handling and associated triggering events, other coordination information.
The 5G system shall support a means to apply 3rd party provided policy(ies) for flows associated with an application. The policy may contain e.g. the set of UEs and data flows, the expected QoS handling and associated triggering events, other coordination information.