provides a short summary of typical positioning use cases targeted in various verticals, associated with their main targets such as range of accuracy.
Information and positioning requirements associated to Factory of the Future use cases are provided in TS 22.104
Main KPIs range and drivers
Commercial Handheld UE (typically pedestrian)
Mostly context aware services involving handheld UEs and pedestrian users for instance: augmented reality and wearables, advertisement push, wearables, collaborative activities such as bike sharing, guidance and flow management, etc.
Service area is both indoor and outdoor in the 5G service area. Accuracy: 1-10 m horizontal, < 3m vertical, Availability from 80 to 99%
Other KPI drivers include in general: low energy and power saving modes
Human-type or Machine-type UE involved in eHealth, for instance: patient tracking and surveillance inside or outside Hospitals (different service areas with potentially different performance requirements), location of emergency equipment outside Hospitals (public spaces, offices, etc.)
Service area is both indoor (Hospitals, housing, offices, etc.) and outdoor (5G service area).
Accuracy: 3-10 m horizontal, < 3m vertical
Availability from 90 to 99%
Regulatory use cases related to emergency call from Human-type UE, US FCC's e911 being a typical example
Service area is both indoor and outdoor in the entire 5G service area.
Accuracy: < 50 m horizontal, < 3m vertical
Availability up to 95 %
Other KPI drivers include: Reliability and confidence level
Tracking and guidance of 1st responders, with requirements for high-accuracy in the horizontal domain and vertical domain, as well as accurate awareness of height variation to detect falls, combined to a high level of availability and reliability
Service area is both indoor and outdoor
Accuracy: < 1m horizontal, < 2m vertical (indoor for floor detection) and < 0,3 m vertical (relative) to detect changes in height of the UE holder.
Availability > 95 % (98% outdoor)
Other KPI drivers include: MCX, confidence, event-triggered report
Use cases involving road vehicles such as traffic monitoring, road-user charging (e.g. Road-Tolling, insurance mechanisms, etc.) which require positioning or tracking of vehicles at lane level, but also some awareness of position in the vertical domain (e.g. bridges)
Service area is outdoor, but may include tunnels.
Accuracy: 1-3m horizontal (with < 1m across-track for lane detection), < 2,5 m vertical,
Velocity < 2m/s, Availability: 95-99%
Other KPI drivers include: tampering detection and prevention (typically for Road User Charging)
Use cases involving UAV, requiring high accuracy in both the horizontal and vertical domain, as well as high level of availability and reliability - may involve absolute or relative positioning.
Service area is outdoor.
Accuracy: 0,1-0,5m horizontal, 0,1 - 0,3m vertical,
Velocity < 0,5m/s, Availability: 99-99,9%, latency requirement may be < 150 ms
Other KPI drivers include: tampering detection and prevention
Use cases involving railway users (machine-type or human-type UE), such as described in FRMCS.
Service area is outdoor, but may include tunnels. Accuracy better than 1-3m horizontal. Availability better than 99 %
Asset tracking (outdoor)
Asset tracking in logistics or predictive maintenance, remote-sensing or monitoring using in-situ IoT devices, etc.
Accuracy: 1-30 m horizontal (depending on use cases and coverage area), Availability: 99%
Very low energy per position fix to sustain very long lifetime without changing battery (typically 10-15 years)
Vertical accuracy in the order of 2-3m aim to distinguish among floors indoor (offices, housing, etc.)