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7.9  KPIs for ranging based services |R18|p. 101

In several scenarios, it can be beneficial to determine the distance between two UEs and/or the direction of one UE from the other one via direct communication connection. The functional requirements related to ranging based services can be found in clause 6.37. Performance requirements for ranging based services in different scenarios can be found in Table 7.9-1.
Key performance indicators and key attributes for ranging are defined as follows:
  • Ranging accuracy: describes the absolute value of the deviation of the measured distance and/or direction between two UEs to the true distance and/or direction value.
  • Confidence level: describes the percentage of all the possible measured distance and/or direction that can be expected to include the true distance and/or direction considering the ranging accuracy.
  • Effective ranging distance: the largest distance between the UE who initiates the ranging and target UEs in the ranging operation.
  • Line-of-sight (LOS) Environment: the environment between the UE who initiates the ranging and target UEs, such as LOS and non-LOS (NLOS).
  • Coverage: type of radio coverage conditions of the UEs who are involved in ranging, such as in coverage (IC), partial coverage (PC) and out of coverage (OOC). See also Figure 6.37.1-1.
  • Relative UE velocity: the target UE can be either static or mobile relative to the UE who initiates the ranging. In the latter, the attribute shall also provide some elements about its motion, e.g. maximum speed, trajectory.
  • Availability: percentage value of the amount of time when a ranging system is able to provide the required ranging-related data within the performance targets or requirements divided by the amount of time the system is expected to provide the ranging service in a targeted service area.
  • Latency: time elapsed between the event that triggers the determination of the ranging-related data and the availability of the ranging-related data at the ranging system interface.
  • Ranging interval: time difference between two consecutive ranging operations.
Ranging scenario Ranging Accuracy
(95 % confidence level)
Avai­labi­lity Latency Effec­tive ranging dis­tance Coverage NLOS/LOS Rela­tive UE velo­city Ran­ging inter­val Number of con­current ran­ging ope­ration for a UE Number of con­current ran­ging ope­ration in an area
Distance Accu­racy Direction Accu­racy
Smart TV Remo­ter10cm up to 3 meter sepa­ration±2° hori­zontal direc­tion accu­racy at 0.1 to 3 meter sepa­ration and AoA cove­rage of (-60°) to (+60°);
±2° Eleva­tion direc­tion accu­racy at 0.1 to 3 meter sepa­ration and AoA cove­rage of (-45°) to (+45°)
99 %50ms10mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Picture and video sha­ring based on Ran­ging results10cm99 %50ms10mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Distance based smart device control10cm-99 %100ms20mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Smart Vehicle Key10 cm-99 %50ms30mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
25ms-50UEs/ (104m²)
Touchless Self-checkout Machine Control10cm-99%150ms1mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Hands Free Access10cm-99 %500ms10 mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
(1 m/s)
50ms-20 UEs/3.14*100m²
Smart Transpor­tation Metro/Bus Vali­dation10cm-99 %-2mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
50ms20100 in the area of 8 m²
Ranging of UE's in front of vending machine20cm10°-1s5mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Finding Items in a super­market50 cm5 degree95 %-100mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
250ms-100 UEs/ (3.14*104m²)
dis­tance based intel­ligent percep­tion for public sa­fety50cm-99 %-20mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
Long Dis­tance Search20m99 %-100m-1kmIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
(up to 10m/s)
Long range appro­ximate loca­tion[10m]±[12.5°]99 %-500mIC/ PC/ OOCLOSStatic/ Moving
-1[50]UEs/ (104m²)

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