The use case concerns the use of surveillance cameras in sensitive locations and the implications on telecommunications where that serves as the means by which the surveillance media data is collected in a remote location.
Closed-circuit video (CCTV) is the most bandwidth-intensive of all utility applications. The data rates depend on the required resolution of images, number of colors and frame rate. There are existing standards that reduce this data rate considerably while still providing excellent video quality. During incidents (such as security breaches, equipment malfunctions and power outages,) a higher resolution can be used.
Many utility substations today use fiber optic cables to provide sufficient communications capacity to transport surveillance media data. This use case explores the use of 5G instead either as the sole means for transporting surveillance media data, or as a backup in case the primary means of transport (fiber) has been compromised. This could occur inadvertently if the fixed communication network suffers damage, or intentionally as part of a coordinated local attack that compromises substation security.
While it is often necessary and prudent to transport surveillance media data continuously, there are approaches that reduce this need, e.g. triggers based on motion detectors, tampering (e.g. with cameras, locks, etc.), heat sensors, etc. In addition, video analytics can identify suspicious changes in a field of view within the secure permission, such as people present when they are unexpected, or people present at places within the secure perimeter for too long, etc. In this case, video could be stored locally and only transmitted on demand, or when triggered by an event. The design of a secure facility is beyond the scope of this use case. In any case, there are times in which transport of all surveillance data is needed - so the capacity model is based on this situation. This capacity may only be needed intermittently, for the reasons given above, or it may be required constantly.
Some regulations however, e.g. NERC CIP in North America, require continuous live video transport from cameras monitoring the substation's Electronic Security Perimeter.
Further, given the use of fiber optic cables, the networks are vastly over-provisioned. For this reason, even where regulation does not require constant video media transport for perimeter security, there is a tendency to transport all surveillance media, at all times.
The most common video codecs used are MPEG-2, MPEG-4 and more recently, the Motion-Joint Photographic Expert Group (M-JPEG). The frame rate commonly used is 25-30 video frames per second. The resolutions often used, per the Common Interchange Format (CIF), are QCIF (176x120), CIF (352x240), 2CIF (704x240), and 4CIF (704x480).  This reference is 7 years out of date, though, and the current rate used by some energy utilities is now HDTV (1280x720) resolution.
For the purposes of this use case HDTV with continual media transport will be considered as the service requirement, as this is most realistic looking forward in time. 1280x720 * 8 bit resolution * 30 frames per second = 2.4 (10)7 bits per second (uncompressed.) For H.264 compression (MPEG-4), this can be transported with 3 Mbit/s.
The substation has the capacity to generate surveillance data. The utility operator "U"
needs for this data to be sent from the substation to a central operation center reliably, so they arrange services with a telecommunications service provider "T"
for this purpose.
Surveillance cameras use mechanisms for mechanical panning, zooming and tilting (PZT) so they do not need to be more than high definition (HD).
There are two potential service flows.
Continuously transport surveillance media from the substation site to a central operation center.
When triggered due to local conditions or remote control, transport surveillance media from the substation site to a central operations center.
The substation security has some assurance, as the substation surveillance media data that is generated on the site can be transported reliably to a central operations center.
The video rates described below can be supported by 5G. In fact, 4G suffices as a 'backup' mechanism to carry surveillance video data in some existing substations today.
This use case is included for completeness but no new requirements have been identified.