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TR 22.804SA1
Study on Communication for Automation in Vertical domains (CAV)

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V16.2.0 (Wzip)  2018/12  195 p.

WI Acronym:  FS_CAV
Rapporteur:  Dr. Walewski, JoachimSiemens AG

The present document focuses on 5G communication for automation in vertical domains. This is communication that is involved in the production of and working on work pieces and goods, and/or the delivery of services in the physical world. Such communication often necessitates low latency, high reliability, and high communication service availability. Nevertheless, other types of communication are also possible in this area. Moreover, communications with low latency, high reliability, and high communication service availability, and other, not so demanding communication services, may run in parallel on the same 5G infrastructure.

full Table of Contents for  TR 22.804  Word version:   16.2.0

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1  ScopeWord-p. 13
2  References
3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviationsWord-p. 17
4  OverviewWord-p. 20
4.1  Background
4.2  Vertical Domains
4.3  AutomationWord-p. 21
4.3.1  Data flows in automationUp
4.3.2  Communication in automation
4.3.3  Dependable communication
4.3.4  Dependable communication serviceWord-p. 33
5  Use casesWord-p. 39
5.1  Rail-bound mass transit
5.1.1  Description of vertical
In order to keep the attractiveness of public transport high, some of the key challenges mass transit operators are facing are
  • growing traffic, both in terms of passenger flow and the number of and frequency of mass transit vehicles;
  • the need to ensure passenger safety and security;
  • improvement of travel comfort, including delivery of real-time multimedia information and access to the internet (social networks, etc.), both in stations and on trains.
To reach this goal, investments are not only needed in rolling stock and infrastructure, but also in communication networks, communication technologies, and communication end devices.
5.1.2  Coexistence of MTTC service and CCTVWord-p. 42
5.1.3  Coexistence of MTTC service and a high data rate service with low priority
5.1.4  Coexistence of MTTC service and high data rate service with low priorityUp
5.1.5  Set-up of emergency callWord-p. 45
5.1.6  Emergency call during a sudden rise of CCTV data rateWord-p. 46
5.1.7  Use Case: CCTV offload / transfer of CCTV archives from commuter train to groundUp
5.1.8  Wireless communication between mechanically coupled train segments
5.1.9  Wireless communication between virtually coupled trainsWord-p. 49
5.1.10  Anticipatory train control
5.2  Building automation
5.2.1  Description of vertical
Building automation refers to the management of equipment in buildings such as heaters, coolers, and ventilators. Automation of such systems brings several benefits, including the reduction of energy consumption, the improvement of comfort level for people using the building, and the handling of failure and emergency situations. Sensors installed in the building perform measurements of the environment and report these measurements to Local Controllers. Local Con-trollers (LC), in turn, report these results to a Building Management System.
5.2.2  Environmental monitoringWord-p. 53
5.2.3  Fire detection
5.2.4  Feedback control
5.3  Factories of the Future
5.3.1  Description of vertical
5.3.2  Motion control
5.3.3  Motion control - transmission of non-real-time dataUp
5.3.4  Motion control - seamless integration with Industrial Ethernet
5.3.5  Control-to-control communication (motion subsystems)
5.3.6  Mobile control panels with safety functions
5.3.7  Mobile robots
5.3.8  Massive wireless sensor networks
5.3.9  Remote access and maintenance
5.3.10  Augmented reality
5.3.11  Process automation - closed-loop control
5.3.12  Process automation - process monitoring
5.3.13  Process automation - plant asset managementUp
5.3.14  Connectivity for the factory floor
5.3.15  Inbound logistics for manufacturing
5.3.16  Wide-area connectivity for fleet maintenance
5.3.17  Variable message reliability
5.3.18  Flexible, modular assembly area
5.3.19  Plug and produce for field devices
5.3.20  Type-a network - PLMN interactionWord-p. 99
5.3.21  Communication monitoring, diagnosis, and error analysisWord-p. 101
5.4  Smart Living - Health Care
5.4.1  Description of verticalUp
Smart living is one of the verticals that is focused on transforming healthcare through mobile health delivery, personal-ised medicine, and social media e-health applications. Medical data is very sensitive and private and requires a high degree of reliability in transporting the data. There is already a lot of work done in this area, but 5G mobile will play a significant part in advancing this area of study. Some of the information transferred is low data readings and if they are consistent then they can be transferred with low priority until there is exceptional data that will generate an alarm to be raised. The use case described here can be likened to any other use cases for monitoring data. The uniqueness here is the sensitivity and privacy that is required.
5.4.2  Telecare data traffic between home and remote monitoring centre
5.5  Smart city
5.5.1  Description of vertical
The smart city vertical covers data collection and processing to more efficiently monitor and control city resources, and to provide services to city residents. Domains include road traffic, electric and water systems, waste management, pub-lic safety, schools, and other services.
5.5.2  Remote CCTV analysisUp
5.6  Electric-power distribution
5.6.1  Description of Vertical
The energy sector is currently subject to a fundamental change, which is caused by the evolution towards renewable energy, i.e. a very large number of power plants based on solar and wind power. These changes lead to bi-directional electricity flows and increasing dynamics of the power system. New sensors and actuators are being deployed in the power system to efficiently monitor and control the volatile conditions of the grid, requiring real-time information exchange.
The emerging electric-power distribution grid is also referred to as Smart Grid. The smartness enhances insight into both the grid as a power network and the grid as a system of systems. Enhanced insight improves controllability and predictability, both of which drive improved operation and economic performance and both of which are prerequisites for the sustainable and scalable integration of renewables into the grid and the potential transition to new grid architec-tures. Smart Grid benefits spread across a broad spectrum but generally include improvements in: power reliability and quality, grid resiliency, power usage optimisation, operational insights, renewable integration, insight into energy usage, safety and security.
5.6.2  Primary Frequency ControlWord-p. 111
5.6.3  Distributed Voltage Control with up to 100% RESWord-p. 114
5.6.4  Power distribution grid fault and outage management: distributed automated switching for isolation and service restoration for overhead lines
5.6.5  Smart Grid: synchronicity between the entities
5.6.6  Application of differential protection in distribution Network of Smart Grid
5.6.7  Smart Grid : Millisecond-level precise load control
5.7  Centralised power generation
5.7.1  Description of vertical
This domain comprises all aspects of centralised power generation, i.e. the centralised conversion of chemical energy and other forms of energy into electrical energy. Typical electric-power outputs are 100 MW and more. Examples for pertinent systems are large gas turbines, steam turbines, combined-cycle power plants, and wind farms. The planning and installation of respective equipment and plants as well as the operation, monitoring and maintenance of these plants is encompassed by this vertical domain.
5.7.2  Run-time access to operational data and control information
5.7.3  Data acquisition for non-real-time plant monitoring
5.7.4  Remote support for plant maintenanceWord-p. 126
5.7.5  Customised access of stakeholders to wind power plant network
5.8  Programme Making and Special Events (PMSE)Word-p. 134
5.8.1  Description of vertical
The Programme Making and Special Events (PMSE) industry is the main driver behind professional equipment for the culture and creative industry (CCI). The PMSE industry comprises all kind of production, event and conference technologies. It can be categorised into audio (e.g., microphones, in-ear monitor), video (e.g., cameras, displays and projectors) and stage control systems.
In today's typical professional live production setups, lot of wireless PMSE equipment is in use. For instance, artists on stage use wireless microphones in combination with wireless in-ear monitoring systems. Another example is the delivery of live content from wireless cameras to big video panels placed around the stage. Every wireless audio/video link is composed of one transmitter and its destined receiver, which provides the input data for the further processing chain, or in case of an in-ear monitor system the audio stream for the artist on stage.
From a PMSE point of view, the complete on-site 5G system may be seen as part of a local high quality PMSE network, processing audio and video data streams with a guaranteed quality of service regarding latency, audio/video quality, number of wireless links per site and reliability, as well as control data for remote control of wireless devices. Such local, high-quality wireless networks for audio and video are relevant for all kind of live production sites, such as concerts, TV shows, sports events, theatres and musicals, press conferences, and electronic news gather-ing.
The live event scenario, based on a local high-quality wireless network, offers the possibility to establish new kinds of audience services, e.g., individualised audio mixes or different camera angles, both of which provide new means of user experience. The respective content can be received with future standard consumer hardware (e.g., smartphones). These services also might help people with impaired vision or hearing to follow live events.
5.8.2  Low-latency audio streaming for live performanceWord-p. 136
5.8.3  Low-latency audio streaming for local conference systems
5.8.4  High data rate video streaming / professional video productionWord-p. 143
5.9  Smart farmingWord-p. 146
5.9.1  Description of vertical
Smart farming is about the application of data gathering (edge intelligence), data processing, data analysis and automation technologies within the overall agriculture value chain. One of the newest trends in agriculture is using the advancement in IoT technology to make smarter decisions which may lead to reduce farming costs, and boost production.
This Smart farming is something that is already happening, as corporations and farm offices collect vast amounts of information from crop yields, soil-mapping, fertiliser applications, weather data, machinery, and animal health (e.g., animal health data collected from sensors are used for monitoring and early detection of events and health disorders in animals can be prevented).
5.9.2  Smart farming - automated irrigation
5.9.3  Smart farming - 5G system that enable protection against animal poaching
6  Security
7  Deployment for automation in vertical domains
8  Merged potential service requirementsWord-p. 157
9  ConclusionsWord-p. 167
A  Characteristic parameters and influence quantitiesWord-p. 169
B  Communication errorsWord-p. 175
C  Communication system errorsWord-p. 177
D  Plug and produce (steps c to e)Word-p. 179
E  Characteristic parameters for the calculation of the required communication capacity in a flexible, modular production areaWord-p. 180
F  Summary of service performance requirements and influence quantitiesWord-p. 183
G  Properties synopsis of type-a and type-b networksWord-p. 189
H  Considerations on communication service interfaceWord-p. 190
I  Change historyWord-p. 196

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