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Content for  TR 22.867  Word version:  18.2.0

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1  ScopeWord‑p. 8

The present document is to address study use cases, potential new service requirements for 5G system to support Smart Grid including the following topics:
  • Smart Grid services, e.g. IEC standards, and their communications requirements including capacity, latency, availability, end-to-end QoS, resilience/redundancy and security.
  • Deployment requirements when considering constraints e.g. service lifetime, coverage (ubiquity), electromagnetic applicability (e.g. penetration, ability to operate in high EM environments,) etc.
  • Additional requirements due to operational manageability - e.g. the ability to configure and monitor the real (achieved & up to date) availability of virtual network topologies
  • New Smart Grid use cases and potential service function requirements: e.g. on-demand power supply, distributed power supply system, distribution automation, higher accuracy power load measurement and control, meter automation, etc.
  • Communication KPI and service requirements for enabling microgrids, DER and specifically distributed generation (DG) that require 5G wireless communication (e.g. wind and solar energy generation, including scenarios at or near residential / consumer premises, etc.)
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2  ReferencesWord‑p. 8

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
[1]
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
[2]
SunWeiqing etc. Generalized Energy Storage Control Strategies on User Side in Power Ancillary Service Market. Automation of Electric Power System Vol.44 No.2 Jan.25, 2020
[3]
IEEE C37.2-2008 IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers, Acronyms, and Contact Designations.
[4]
IEC TR 61850-90-1:2010, Communication Networks and Systems for Power Utility automation - Part 90-1: Use of IEC61850 for the communication between substations.
[5]
IEEE 1588-2019 - IEEE Standard for a precision clock synchronization protocol for networked measurement and control systems.
[6]
IEEE Guide for Application of Digital Line Current Differential Relays Using Digital Communication.
[7]
IEC 61850-9-3-2016 - IEC/IEEE International Standard - Communication Networks and Systems for Power Utility automation - Part 9-3: Precision time protocol profile for power utility
[8]
TR 22.804: "Study on Communication for Automation in Vertical domains (CAV)".
[9]
Sendin, A., et. al., "Telecommunication Networks for the Smart Grid," Artech House, 2016.
[10]
Goel, S., S. F. Bush, and D. Bakken, (eds.), IEEE Vision for Smart Grid Communications: 2030 and Beyond, New York: IEEE, 2013.
[11]
US Department of Energy, "Communications Requirements of Smart Grid Technologies, 2010", accessed 14.08.20, http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/gcprod/documents/Smart_Grid_Communications_Requirements_Report_10-05-2010.pdf
[12]
IT Process Wiki - The ITIL Wiki: Content is available according to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany License. Access 14.10.20.
[13]
Incident Management: https://wiki.en.it-processmaps.com/index.php/Incident_Management Content is available according to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany License. Access 14.10.20.
[14]
Change Management: https://wiki.en.it-processmaps.com/index.php/Change_Management Content is available according to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany License. Access 14.10.20.
[15]
Service Asset and Configuration Management: https://wiki.en.it-processmaps.com/index.php/Service_Asset_and_Configuration_Management Content is available according to Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Germany License. Access 14.10.20.
[16]
Open PLC European Research Alliance (OPERA). https://cordis.europa.eu/project/id/026920
[17]
"Applications of ITU-T G.9960, ITU-T G.9961 transceivers for Smart Grid applications: Advanced metering infrastructure, energy management in the home and electric vehicles", 06/2020. https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/opb/tut/T-TUT-HOME-2010-PDF-E.pdf
[18]
M. Amin and A. Giacomoni, "Toward more secure, stronger and smarter electric power grids," IEEE PES'11, 2011.
[19]
Eric D. Knapp, Raj Samani, "Smart Grid Network Architecture", "Applied Cyber Security and the Smart Grid", 2013
[20]
5G DNA White Paper: "5GDN@Smart Grid White Paper: Requirements, Technologies, and Practices" https://www.5gdna.org/
[21]
IEEE Std 1344™-1995 (R2001), IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power Systems
[22]
IEEE Std C37.118™-2011, IEEE Standard for Synchrophasors for Power Systems
[23]
IEEE Std 1588-2008, Precision Clock Synchronization Protocol for Networked Measurement and Control Systems
[24]
IEEE Std C37.238-2017, IEEE Standard Profile for Use of IEEE Std 1588™ Precision Time Protocol in Power System Applications.
[25]
IEEE Std C37.224-2013
[26]
IEC 61850-90-5:2012, use of IEC 61850 to transmit Synchrophasors information according to IEEE C37.118
[27]
IEEE Std C37.118.1a-2014: amendment 1 with modification of selected performance requirements.
[28]
IEEE Std C37.118.2-2011
[29]
IEC 61850-90-3-2016 - IEC/IEEE International Standard - Communication Networks and Systems for Power Utility automation - Part 90-3: Precision time protocol profile for power utility
[30]
Budka, K, et. al., "Communication Networks for Smart Grids", Springer Verlag, 2014.
[31]
Microgrid Knowledge: https://microgridknowledge.com/
[32]
M. A. Haj-ahmed and M. S. Illindala, "The influence of inverter-based DGs and their controllers on distribution network protection," in Proc. IEEE Ind. Appl. Soc. Annu. Meeting, Oct. 2013.
[33]
IEC, IEC 61850-5 communication networks and systems in substations - Part 5: communication requirements for functions and device models. <http://www.iec.ch>.
[34]
Moreira, N., Molina, E., Lázaro, J., et al: "Cyber-security in substation automation systems", Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 2016
[35]
EN 50549-1, "Requirements for generating plants to be connected in parallel with distribution networks - Part 1: Connection to a LV distribution network - generating plants up to and including Type B"
[36]
EN 50438, "Requirements for micro-generating plants to be connected in parallel with public low-voltage distribution networks"
[37]
IEEE 1547 -2018, "Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems"
[38]
IEEE 1547.4-2011, "IEEE Guide for Design, Operation, and Integration of Distributed Resources Island Systems with Electric Power Systems"
[39]
IEC 63547, "Interconnecting distributed resources with electric power systems"
[40]
IEC 62898-1, "Microgrids-Part 1: Guidelines for microgrid projects planning and specification"
[41]
IEC 62898-2, "Microgrids-Part 2: Guidelines for operation"
[42]
IEC 62898-3-1, "Microgrids-Part 3: Technical requirements - Protection and dynamic control"
[43]
BDEW, "Generating Plants Connected to the Medium-Voltage Network"
[44]
IEEE 929-2000, "IEEE recommended practice for utility interface of photovoltaic systems"
[45]
IEEE Std. 2030.7, "the Specification of Microgrid Controllers"
[46]
DLMS/COSEM - Device Language Message Specification: https://www.dlms.com/dlms-cosem/international-standardization
[47]
DLMS/COSEM Architecture and Protocols, Companion Specification for Energy Metering
[48]
European Commission Electricity Directive 2009/72/EC
[49]
IEC 61850-9-2:2011 Communication networks and systems for power utility automation - Part 9-2: Specific communication service mapping (SCSM) - Sampled values over ISO/IEC 8802-3
[50]
IEC/IEEE 60255-118-1-2018 - IEEE/IEC International Standard - Measuring relays and protection equipment - Part 118-1: Synchrophasor for power systems - Measurements
[51]
TR 22.878: "Feasibility Study on 5G Timing Resiliency System"
[52]
SOGNO project, Deliverable 4.6, "Description of the integration and testing of the solution including the 5G based advanced communication", https://www.sogno-energy.eu/global/images/cms/Deliverables/774613_deliverable_D4.6.pdf, June 2020.
[53]
McKeever, P.; De Din, E.; Sadu, A.; Monti, A: "MAS for automated black start of multi-microgrids". In Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), Dresden, Germany, 23-27 October 2017; pp. 32-37.
[54]
Gazis, V.ASurvey of Standards for Machine-to-Machine and the Internet of Things. IEEE Commun. Surv. Tutor. 2017, 19, 482-511. [CrossRef]
[55]
Ghorbanian, M.; Dolatabadi, S.; Masjedi, M.; Siano, P. Communication in Smart Grids: A Comprehensive Review on the Existing and Future Communication and Information Infrastructures. IEEE Syst. J. 2019, 13, 4001-4014. [CrossRef]
[56]
Oueis, J.; Conan, V.; Lavaux, D.; Stanica, R.; Valois, F. Overview of LTE Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety. IEEE Commun. Stand. Mag. 2017, 1, 98-105. [CrossRef]
[57]
Ali, S. Next Generation and Advanced Network Reliability Analysis Using Markov Models and Software Reliability Engineering; Springer Nature Switzerland AG: Basel, Switzerland, 2019.
[58]
McKeever, Padraic & Sadu, Abhinav & Rohilla, Shubham & Mehdi, Zain & Monti, Antonello. (2020). Ensuring Uninterrupted MTC Service Availability during Emergencies Using LTE/5G Public Mobile Land Networks. Telecom. 1. 181-195. 10.3390/telecom1030013.
[59]
eSafeNet Project, [Online], Available: https://e-safe-net.de/
[60]
Insulae Project, [Online], Available: http://insulae-h2020.eu/
[61]
SOGNO project, Deliverable 2.2, "Description of initial interfaces & services for grid awareness", https://www.sogno-energy.eu/global/images/cms/Deliverables/774613_SOGNO_D2.2.pdf, December 2018.
[62]
edgeFLEX project, Deliverable 1.2, "Dynamic-phasor driven voltage control concept for current VPPs in large scale deployment deliverable", https://www.edgeflex-h2020.eu/progress/work-packages.html" ,31.03.2021.
[63]
edgeFLEX project, Deliverable 4.1, "Description of edgeFLEX platform design", https://www.edgeflex-h2020.eu/progress/work-packages.html, 31.03.2021.
[64]
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), "Timing Challenges in the Smart Grid", January 2017.
[65]
TS 22.104: "Service requirements for cyber-physical control applications in vertical domains".
[66]
V. Cagri Gungor, Dilan Sahin, Taskin Kocak, Salih Ergut, Concettina Buccella, Carlo Cecati, and Gerhard P. Hancke, "A Survey on Smart Grid Potential Applications and Communication Requirements", https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/58376/Gungor_Survey_2013.pdf
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3  Definitions and abbreviationsWord‑p. 11

3.1  DefinitionsWord‑p. 11

For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
Smart Distribution Transformer Terminal:
The smart terminal is usually deployed in the distribution transformer area. It can support multiple energy applications simultaneously. On the one hand, it connects with multiple energy application platforms through 5G communication system to exchange collected data and management data with multiple energy application platforms; on the other hand, it connects with diverse energy end equipment to collect related electricity data, some of which can be analysed and take action in the smart terminal.
Physical Isolation communication service:
the physical isolation communication service for energy application means the communication network supporting the energy application utilizes dedicated network element and dedicated radio resource e.g. PRB pool, spectrum etc.
Logical Isolation communication service:
the logical isolation for energy application means the communication network supporting the energy application may utilize shared network element or shared network resource e.g. VLAN etc.
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3.2  AbbreviationsWord‑p. 12

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
BC
Boundary Clock
GNSS
Global Navigation Satellite System
PMU
Phasor Measurement Unit
PTP
Precision Time Protocol
TC
Transparent Clock
TVE
Total Vector Error

4  OverviewWord‑p. 13

Communication infrastructure is essential to the successes of smart energy, generally termed the 'Smart Grid.' A power grid consists of four building blocks: power generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption. These different phases require different services, and these services have distinct communication requirements. Examples of communication include data collection, control and ongoing regulation, though these are functions of diverse services - e.g. SCADA applications for the Energy Management System (EMS) or Distribution Management System (DMS). Smart Grid communication infrastructure, overcomes different challenges in order to provide:
  • Distributed power generation, increasingly including 'renewable' or 'clean' energy sources
  • Safe & highly efficient power transforming & transmission
  • Flexible & reliable power distribution
  • Efficient & available power consumption
  • Cyber security & resilience/redundancy
Smart Grid services today rely upon a range of telecommunications services, delivered through a blend of private networks and commercially provided services. As the energy system goes through changes, becoming more pervasive (in territorial terms,) complex and sophisticated to meet the above goals, there is a distinct opportunity for 5G to meet more of the utility communication sector's needs and thereby become increasingly relevant to this vertical, addressing existing shortcomings, as it builds out further capacity and enhances existing infrastructure. Many of these grid services are standardized by other standards bodies, e.g. IEC60870, IEC61850 and IEEE.
In summary, it is considered beneficial for 3GPP specifications in addressing 5G system support of different use cases and service requirements for Smart Grid.
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