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Content for  TR 22.867  Word version:  18.2.0

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5.5  Smart Energy Differentiated QoS For Transported Encrypted Datap. 27

5.5.1  Descriptionp. 27

This use case describes a common need of Utilities with diverse substations that require communication. Diverse services' communication traffic need to be aggregated over a communication service in an encrypted form. This would prevent the 3GPP system from inspecting the traffic to identify and classify it (either in the downlink or uplink.)
The services that are listed in this section - Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), Distributed Automation, Demand Response (DR), Distributed Generation (DG), Power Line Differential Protection are the 'classic Smart Grid services'. These are distinct from the services described in other sections that offer more advanced architectures. A single table of QoS values is provided in clause 5.5.6, with notes added to call out differences where they exist.
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5.5.2  Pre-conditionsp. 28

A Distribution System Operator (DSO) "U" receives telecommunication services from a MNO "T". U has deployed 100s to 10,000s of substations that generate service traffic of diverse criticality, QoS requirements, etc. U has arranged, via service level agreements (SLAs) specific QoS treatment for these different classes of service traffic with T. The use case focuses on a particular substation "S" and its communication by means of T's 3GPP network, to connect multiple services of different nature and traffic patterns, multiplexed over a single WAN connectivity.
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5.5.3  Service Flowsp. 28

S establishes sessions with the T's network. S appears as a UE to the 3GPP system. Behind S is a local network (in the substation). S serves as a router to the traffic in that network. S is able to categorize the traffic into different classes, each requiring distinct QoS treatment in the 3GPP system. S encrypts the traffic uplink, using an end to end encryption with the service termination in the DSO's network.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.867, Fig. 5.5.3-1: Multiple End-to-End QoS Flows from Substation to DSO Service Network
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Downlink flows are also encrypted and characterized in such a way as that the 3GPP system handles the traffic with the appropriate QoS.
Instability of the connection with primary subscription could be an additional, more specific, KPI although this can be part of Availability KPI. This KPI will be measured by means of the number of Service Availability Failure Events (that is, the availability of the service could not be maintained beyond an acceptable threshold.) Another way of describing these failure events is as Fallback events carried out by the Dual SIM cellular device, where the UE employs the 'secondary' subscription (USIM) in order to achieve continual service when the primary service is not available.
This 'Service Availability Failure Event' metric is measured over a period of time, e.g. over the preceding month and accumulated during the last year.
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5.5.4  Post-conditionsp. 28

Traffic is delivered by the 5G system to support U from and to each S as required by the SLA. The traffic confidentiality is maintained.

5.5.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 28

TS 22.261, clause 6.7.2:
The 5G system shall allow flexible mechanisms to establish and enforce priority policies among the different services (e.g. MPS, Emergency, medical, Public Safety) and users.
The 5G system shall be able to provide the required QoS (e.g. reliability, end-to-end latency, and bandwidth) for a service and support prioritization of resources when necessary for that service.
The 5G system shall be able to support a harmonised QoS and policy framework applicable to multiple accesses.
The 5G system shall be able to support E2E (e.g. UE to UE) QoS for a service.
A 5G system with multiple access technologies shall be able to select the combination of access technologies to serve an UE on the basis of the targeted priority, pre-emption, QoS parameters and access technology availability.
TS 22.261, clause 6.8:
Based on operator policy, the 5G system shall support a real-time, dynamic, secure and efficient means for authorized entities (e.g. users, context aware network functionality) to modify the QoS and policy framework. Such modifications may have a variable duration.
TS 22.261, clause 6.10.2:
Based on operator policy, the 5G network shall provide suitable APIs to allow a trusted third-party to define and update the set of services and capabilities supported in a network slice used for the third-party.
Based on operator policy, the 5G network shall provide suitable APIs to allow a trusted third-party application to request appropriate QoE from the network.
TS 22.261, clause 8.2:
The 5G system shall provide integrity protection and confidentiality for communications between authorized UEs using a 5G LAN-type service.
The 5G system shall provide suitable means to allow use of a trusted third-party provided encryption between any UE served by a private slice and a core network entity in that private slice.
The 5G system shall provide suitable means to allow use of a trusted and authorized third-party provided integrity protection mechanism for data exchanged between an authorized UE served by a non-public network and a core network entity in that non-public network.
Smart Grid services specified by IEC generally are defined only at layer 7. This means there are no defined KPIs for lower layer implementation. These values are determined through measurements and analysis. The research is already some years old. The bandwidth requirements are known to be increasing with time, as more services are added and services are deployed more extensively.
Specific QoS for different services is included in this section as it clearly corresponds to needs by Smart Grid. The following KPIs can be supported by existing requirements.
Service Bandwidth (kbit/s) Latency Availability (%) Density #customers/ km² Coverage Power supply backup (note1)
Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) (note2)10-1002-15 s99-99.99Minimum density
0.00136
Average density
106.56371
Max Density
22937.78217
Not necessary
Advanced Metering (5.2.6)UL: <2000
DL: <1000
<100ms fee control
<3000 general data collection
99.99105-
Distribution Automation (DA)
(note3)
9.6-100100 ms - 2 s99-99.99Concentrated rural
70.79562
Dispersed rural
Semi-urban
7.63437
Mandatory rural support
0.04765
Urban
11.02120
24h-72 h
Demand Response (DR)14-100500 ms - several minutes99-99.99TBDNot necessary
Distributed Generation (DG)9.6-5620 ms - 5 min99-99.99TBD1 h
Surveillance (5.14.5)3000-5000(note4)(note4)100/km²<40km (city range)-
NOTE 1:
The Power supply backup KPI is provided for background information and a deployment issue.
NOTE 2:
AMI referred to in this section is for remotely reading meters in real time.
NOTE 3:
DA referred to in this section uses a centralized architecture.
NOTE 4:
The latency and availability of surveillance data can be compensated by local storage on-site. Therefore, no KPIs are given in the Table.
These values are given in [1] cited from [2] and [3].
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5.5.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 30

Specific QoS for the Distributed Automation (DA) service due to its extreme availability requirements is included in this section as it clearly corresponds to needs by the Smart Grid.
Service Bandwidth (kbit/s) Latency Availability (%) Density #customers/ km² Coverage Power supply backup (note 1)
Distribution Automation (DA)
(note 2)
9.6-100100 ms-2 s99.999Concentrated rural
70.79562
Dispersed rural
Semi-urban
7.63437
Mandatory rural support
0.04765
Urban
11.02120
TBD24h-72 h
NOTE 1:
The Power supply backup KPI is provided for background information and a deployment issue.
NOTE 2:
DA referred to in this section uses a centralized architecture.
These values are given in [1] cited from [2] and [3].
Smart Grid services specified by IEC generally are defined only at layer 7. This means there are no defined KPIs for lower layer implementation. These values are determined through measurements and analysis. The research is already some years old. The bandwidth requirements are known to be increasing with time, as more services are added and services are deployed more extensively.
[PR 5.5.6-001]
The 5G system should support a KPI associated with the "stability of the connection with a PLMN associated with a subscriber" as a more specific KPI (although this can be part of Availability KPI.) This KPI shall be measured by the number of Service Availability Failure Events (where availability cannot be maintained as required) during a time period, as specified in the service level agreement.
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5.6  Service Lifetime for Utility Communication Services Deploymentsp. 31

5.6.1  Descriptionp. 31

Energy infrastructure deployment occurs within a context where there is an expectation regarding service lifetime. The process of creating civic infrastructure requires significant oversight and consideration, and aims at long term solutions. This is true for all components of the energy system - generation, transport, distribution and customer premises components. The energy system is vast, so serviceability has to be considered so that the overall components require as little manual repair and maintenance as possible. Electrical infrastructure as a whole is meant to serve for multiple decades. Like physical civic infrastructure, utilities are mandated to target long term stable communication infrastructure that serve the public interest over an extended period of time. The service lifetime of diverse components are so long that newly deployed equipment must always consider interworking with legacy deployments.
Communication components of the energy system are no exception. Some communication services were deployed decades ago and continue operation (e.g. legacy teleprotection using copper wires as telecommunication.) In general, energy system communication services are defined at the application layer (e.g. by IEC). The role of the communication service is to carry these protocols with sufficient performance (throughput, reliability, maximum latency, jitter etc.) While it is possible to change communication infrastructure while maintaining the same services, this is done gradually. The communication infrastructure components are deployed with the intention that they will serve for an extended period of time - often decades, the same time scales as the energy system components expected lifetime. If more communication capacity is needed, this is added incrementally for new services, with attention paid to reduce change for existing components operation as much as possible.
The telecommunications system standardized by 3GPP supports backwards compatibility. There is a very strong commitment to support of legacy terminals. Cell phones from the mid-90s can still operate today. At the same time, the standard moves quite quickly (from an energy system perspective) with new 'generations' every decade - using different spectrum, radio protocols and networks. With 5G, service continuity and interworking with 2G and 3G has been discontinued, except for a few capabilities (e.g. 5G to 3G service continuity.) For energy infrastructure planning purposes, the 3GPP system needs to support long (e.g. 30-40 year) service lifetimes, in which terminals will be in continuous operation. The percentage of M2M-type operational services over 4G today is very low today, compared with the use of 2G and 3G.
Some features have been developed in 3GPP to facilitate backwards compatibility at different layers of the system. For example Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) in 5G allows different 3GPP RATs to coexist in the same carrier. This can facilitate migration or preservation of legacy radio technology.
The 'deployment' use case below considers these aspects from the perspective of a utility system operator. Unlike many use cases, this takes place over years.
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5.6.2  Pre-conditionsp. 31

Volt, a publicly traded utility company, operates the electrical transport and distribution network in more than one country. Interest in and regulatory requirements for Smart Grid services grows, and with it the demand for communication services. The existing communication infrastructure that Volt has deployed will become insufficient in the future, so Volt plans for deploying additional capacity. The target is to deploy communications equipment that will operate for 30-40 years. There are many technologies that Volt could choose for infrastructure, among them 5G standards. These technologies could be the basis for the utility private infrastructure, or could be used as a service if provided through a MNO. The entire process of planning, acquisition and deployment itself takes several years, but it has begun.
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5.6.3  Service Flowsp. 31

Volt identifies particular communication services to be addressed with LTE access to a 5GC, completes the evaluation, approval and investment process and begins to deploy. From the time that the planning started until deployment beings, five years have elapsed.
Some components of the system are 'IoT' sensors - in the transport and distribution system. These sensors are often deployed in locations that are inaccessible, where physical replacement would be unduly expensive. The overall planning and expectation is that these terminals will be in service for 35 years. (That is 40 years since the planning process began.)
The years go by, and Volt's 5G communication infrastructure continues to function. As 8G standards emerge on the market, Volt begins to consider how to replace that infrastructure - the 5G IoT sensors and other communications equipment deployed earlier. Some of the 5G components are not going to be supported by the new communication system (including integration of the 8G network with 5G networks, for example, due to the need for greater system security.)
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5.6.4  Post-conditionsp. 32

Volt has successfully operated their energy utility services, relying on 5G communication services, for over 35 years. They begin to deploy 8G technology fully expecting this to remain in operation until 2100.

5.6.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 32

Though not formally stated in 3GPP, successive releases and indeed changes to any release after it has been frozen, avoid incompatible changes. Any change, for enhancement, correction or simplification of the standards based system occurs only after comprehensive review and acceptance by the community of stakeholders. This expresses 3GPP standards' commitment to and emphasis on backwards compatibility.
Each generation includes comprehensive support for diverse telecommunications services. The degree of integration and service continuity offered by 2G through 4G was extensive. With 5G the compatibility has been reduced. This however does not mean that a 2G, 3G or 4G system cannot be operated at the same time as the 5G system, to maintain support for existing services. However, realistically, MNO access to spectrum and the efficient use of it, make it suboptimal for operations to maintain diverse legacy access networks. Utility equipment (routers and switches in operation) are therefore subject to different decisions to be taken by the different MNO's in the different world regions where Volt operates.
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5.6.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 32

None.

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