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Content for  TS 22.104  Word version:  17.3.0

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5  Performance requirements
5.1  Overview
There are two fundamental perspectives concerning dependable communication in 5G systems: the end-to-end perspective of the communication services and the network perspective (see Figure 5.1-1).
[not reproduced yet]
Figure 5.1-1: Network perspective of 5G system
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The Communication Service in Figure 5.1-1 may be implemented as a logical communication link between a UE on one side and a network server on the other side, or between a UE on one side and a UE on the other side.
In some cases, a local approach (e.g. network edge) is preferred for the communication service on the network side in order to reduce the latency, to increase communication service availability, or to keep sensitive data in a non-public network on the factory site.
The tables in Clauses 5.2 through 5.5 below provide sets of requirements where periodicity and determinism are critical to meeting cyber-physical control application needs in various vertical scenarios. While many use cases have similar KPI values, the important distinction is that in order to meet the needs of different verticals and different uses, the 5G system will need to be sufficiently flexible to allow deployment configurations that can meet the different sets of KPIs specific to each use.
Communication service availability is considered an important service performance requirement for cyber-physical applications, especially for applications with deterministic traffic. The communication service availability depends on the latency and reliability (in the context of network layer packet transmissions, as defined in TS 22.261) of the logical communication link, as well as the survival time of the cyber-physical application (see Annex C.3 for further details on these relations).
The communication service reliability requirements also depend on the operation characteristics of the corresponding cyber-physical applications. Typically, the communication services critical for the automation application also come with stringent communication service reliability requirements. Note that the communication service reliability requirement has no direct relationship with the communication service availability requirement.
The "# of UEs" in the tables in clauses 5.2 to 5.5 is intended to give an indication of the UE density that would need to be served within a given service area.
Clock synchronisation is needed in many "vertical" use cases. The requirements and tables in Clause 5.6 provide specific criteria for managing time sensitive communications in an industrial environment.
High accuracy positioning is becoming essential for Factories of the Future. The reason for this is that tracking of mobile devices as well as mobile assets is becoming increasingly important in improving processes and increasing flexibility in industrial environments, Clause 5.7 provides positioning requirements for horizontal and vertical accuracy, availability, heading, latency and UE speed in an industrial use case scenario.
An example of the relationship between reliability (in the context of network layer packet transmissions, as defined in TS 22.261), survival time and communication service availability of a logical communication link is illustrated in the following Table 5.1-1. This is done for a special case where packet errors are uncorrelated, which in many cases is an unrealistic assumption.
Communication service availability
Reliability (as defined in TS 22.261)

99,9999 %
99,9 %
99,999999 %
99,99 %
99,99999999 %
99,999 %
99,9999999999 %
99,9999 %
99,999999999999 %
99,99999 %

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5.2  Periodic deterministic communicationWord‑p. 14
Periodic deterministic communication is periodic with stringent requirements on timeliness and availability of the communication service. A transmission occurs every transfer interval. A description of periodic deterministic communication can be found in Clauses 4.3 and 4.4. Additional information on the underlying use cases of the sets of requirements in Table 5.2-1 can be found in Annex A. Further information on characteristic parameters and influence quantities used in Table 5.2-1 can be found in Annex C.
The 5G system shall be able to provide periodic deterministic communication with the service performance requirements for individual logical communication links that realise the communication services reported in Table 5.2-1.
Process and asset monitoring using industrial wireless sensors is a special case of periodic deterministic communication with more relaxed requirements on timeliness and availability. These use cases put a slightly different set of requirements on the 5G system due to the specific constraints of industrial wireless sensors. These requirements for individual logical communication links are listed in Table 5.2-2 and additional information on the underlying use cases can be found in Annex A.
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value (note 1)
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum (note 2) (note 12a)
Service bit rate: user experienced data rate (note 12a)
Influence quantity
Message size [byte] (note 12a)
Transfer interval: target value (note 12a)
Survival time (note 12a)
UE speed (note 13)
# of UEs
Service area (note 3)
Remarks

99,999 % to 99,99999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
50
500 μs
500 μs
≤ 75 km/h
≤ 20
50 m x 10 m x 10 m
Motion control (A.2.2.1)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
40
1 ms
1 ms
≤ 75 km/h
≤ 50
50 m x 10 m x 10 m
Motion control (A.2.2.1)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
20
2 ms
2 ms
≤ 75 km/h
≤ 100
50 m x 10 m x 10 m
Motion control (A.2.2.1)
99,9999 %
-
< 5 ms
1 kbit/s (steady state) 1,5 Mbit/s (fault case)
< 1500
< 60 s (steady state) ≥ 1 ms (fault case)
transfer interval
stationary
20
30 km x 20 km
Electrical Distribution - Distributed automated switching for isolation and service restoration (A.4.4); (note 5)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
1 k
≤ 10 ms
10 ms
-
5 to 10
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
Control-to-control in motion control (A.2.2.2); (note 9)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value (note 5)
50 Mbit/s
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
Wired-2-wireless 100 Mbit/s link replacement (A.2.2.4)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value (note 5)
250 Mbit/s
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
Wired-2-wireless 1 Gbit/s link replacement (A.2.2.4)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
1 k
≤ 50 ms
50 ms
-
5 to 10
1000 m x 30 m x 10 m
Control-to-control in motion control (A.2.2.2); (note 9)
> 99,9999 %
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
1 ms to 50 ms (note 6) (note 7)
transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
Mobile robots (A.2.2.3)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 1 month
< transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
4 ms to 8 ms (note 7)
transfer interval value
< 8 km/h (linear movement)
TBD
50 m x 10 m x 4 m
Mobile control panels - remote control of e.g. assembly robots, milling machines (A.2.4.1); (note 9)
99,999999 %
1 day
<8 ms (note 14)
250 kbit/s
40 to 250
8 ms
16 ms
quasi-static; up to 10 km/h
2 or more
30 m x 30 m
Mobile Operation Panel: Emergency stop (connectivity availability) (A.2.4.1A)
99,99999 %
1 day
<10 ms (note 14)
< 1 Mbit/s
<1024
10 ms
~10 ms
quasi-static; up to 10 km/h
2 or more
30 m x 30 m
Mobile Operation Panel: Safety data stream (A.2.4.1A)
99,999999 %
1 day
10-100 ms (note 14)
10 kbit/s
10-100
10-100 ms
transfer interval
stationary
2 or more
100-2000 m²
Mobile Operation Panel: Control to visualization (A.2.4.1A)
99,999999 %
1 day
<1 ms (note 14)
12-16 Mbit/s
10-100
1 ms
~1 ms
stationary
2 or more
100 m²
Mobile Operation Panel: Motion control (A.2.4.1A)
99,999999 %
1 day
<2 ms (note 14)
16 kbit/s (UL) 2 Mbit/s (DL)
50
2 ms
~2 ms
stationary
2 or more
100 m²
Mobile Operation Panel: Haptic feedback data stream (A.2.4.1A)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 1 year
< transfer interval
-
40 to 250
< 12 ms (note 7)
12 ms
< 8 km/h (linear movement)
TBD
typically 40 m x 60 m; maximum 200 m x 300 m
Mobile control panels -remote control of e.g. mobile cranes, mobile pumps, fixed portal cranes (A.2.4.1); (note 9)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
≥ 1 year
< transfer interval value
-
20
≥ 10 ms (note 8)
0
typically stationary
typically 10 to 20
typically ≤ 100 m x 100 m x 50 m
Process automation - closed loop control (A.2.3.1)
99,999 %
TBD
~ 50 ms
-
~ 100
~ 50 ms
TBD
stationary
≤ 100 000
several km2 up to 100 000 km2
Primary frequency control (A.4.2); (note 9)
99,999 %
TBD
~ 100 ms
-
~ 100
~ 200 ms
TBD
stationary
≤ 100 000
several km2 up to 100 000 km2
Distributed Voltage Control (A.4.3) (note 9)
> 99,9999 %
~ 1 year
< transfer interval value
-
15 k to 250 k
10 ms to 100 ms (note 7)
transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
Mobile robots - video-operated remote control (A.2.2.3)
> 99,9999 %
~ 1 year
< transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
40 ms to 500 ms (note 7)
transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
Mobile robots (A.2.2.3)
99,99 %
≥ 1 week
< transfer interval value
-
20 to 255
100 ms to 60 s (note 7)
≥ 3 x transfer interval value
typically stationary
≤ 10 000 to 100 000
≤ 10 km x 10 km x 50 m
Plant asset management (A.2.3.3)
> 99,999999%
>10 years
<2 ms
2-16 Mbit/s
250 to 2000
1 ms
transfer interval value
Stationary
1
< 100 m2
Robotic Aided Surgery (A.6.2)
> 99,9999%
>1 year
<20 ms
2-16 Mbit/s
250 to 2000
1 ms
transfer interval value
Stationary
2 per 1000 km2
< 400 km (note 12)
Robotic Aided Surgery (A.6.2)
> 99,999%
>> 1 month (< 1 year)
<20 ms
2-16 Mbit/s
80
1 ms
transfer interval value
Stationary
20 per 100 km2
< 50 km (note 12)
Robotic Aided Diagnosis (A.6.3)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< 0,5 * transfer interval
2,5 Mbit/s
250 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms >2,5 ms >1,7 ms (note 10)
0 transfer interval 2 * transfer interval (note 10)
≤6 km/h (linear movement)
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m (note 11
Cooperative carrying - fragile work pieces; (ProSe communication)
99,9999 % to 99,999999 %
~ 10 years
< 0,5 * transfer interval
2,5 Mbit/s
250 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms >2,5 ms >1,7 ms (note 10)
0 transfer interval 2 * transfer interval (note 10)
≤12 km/h (linear movement)
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m (note 11)
Cooperative carrying - elastic work pieces; (ProSe communication)

NOTE 1:
One or more retransmissions of network layer packets may take place in order to satisfy the communication service availability requirement.
NOTE 2:
Unless otherwise specified, all communication includes 1 wireless link (UE to network node or network node to UE) rather than two wireless links (UE to UE).
NOTE 3:
Length x width (x height).
NOTE 4:
(void)
NOTE 5:
Communication includes two wireless links (UE to UE).
NOTE 6:
This covers different transfer intervals for different similar use cases with target values of 1 ms, 1 ms to 10 ms, and 10 ms to 50 ms.
NOTE 7:
The transfer interval deviates around its target value by < ± 25 %.
NOTE 8:
The transfer interval deviates around its target value by < ± 5 %.
NOTE 9:
Communication may include two wireless links (UE to UE).
NOTE 10:
The first value is the application requirement, the other values are the requirement with multiple transmission of the same information (two or tree times respectively).
NOTE 11:
Service Area for direct communication between UEs. The group of UEs with direct communication might move throughout the whole factory site (up to several km²).
NOTE 12:
Maximum straight-line distance between UEs.
NOTE 12a:
It applies to both UL and DL unless stated otherwise.
NOTE 13:
It applies to both linear movement and rotation unless stated otherwise.
NOTE 14:
The mobile operation panel is connected wirelessly to the 5G system. If the mobile robot/production line is also connected wirelessly to the 5G system, the communication includes two wireless links.

 
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value
Communication service reliability: mean time between failure
End-to-end latency (note 6)
Transfer interval (note 1) (note 7)
Service bit rate: user experienced data rate (note 2) (note 7)
Battery lifetime [year] (note 3)
Influence quantity
Message Size [byte] (note 7)
Survival time (note 7)
UE speed
UE density [UE / m2]
Range [m] (note 4)
Remarks

99,99 %
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
100 ms - 60 s
≤ 1 Mbit/s
≥5
20 (note 5)
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 1
<500
Process monitoring, e.g. temperature sensor (A.2.3.2)
99,99 %
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
≤ 1 s
≤ 200 kbit/s
≥5
25 k
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 0,05
<500
Asset monitoring, e.g. vibration sensor (A.2.3.2)
99,99 %
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
≤ 1 s
≤ 2 Mbit/s
≥5
250 k
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 0,05
<500
Asset monitoring, e.g. thermal camera (A.2.3.2)

NOTE 1:
The transfer interval deviates around its target value by < ± 25 %.
NOTE 2:
The traffic is predominatly mobile originated.
NOTE 3:
Industrial sensors can use a wide variety of batteries depending on theuse case, but in general they are highly constrained in terms of battery size.
NOTE 4:
Distance between the gNB and the UE.
NOTE 5:
The application-level messages in this use case are typically transferred over Ethernet. For small messages, the minimum Ethernet frame size of 64 bytes applies and dictates the minimum size of the PDU sent over the air interface.
NOTE 6:
It applies to both UL and DL unless stated otherwise.
NOTE 7:
It applies to UL.

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