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Content for  TS 22.104  Word version:  17.4.0

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A.2.2.4  Wired to wireless link replacement |R17|Word‑p. 34
In a traditional factory, the production environment is fixed. Machines that are cooperating are connected via cable, typically using an industrial ethernet technology like PROFINET. In order to increase flexibility in the production setup, the wired links are replaced with wireless links.
Reproduction of 3GPP TS 22.104, Figure A.2.2.4-1: Example of four cooperating machines with wireless connections (based on [26])
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We assume two or more machines (typically 4 or 5) to be cooperating with each other during production. In order to replace the cables, each machine is equipped with one UE, connected to the controller (shown in Figure A.2.2.4-1). The cooperating machine's communication can be divided into two types. Periodic traffic and a-periodic traffic. Both types are scheduled, therefore the a-periodic traffic is also adhering to the transfer interval. The traffic requirements are from the point of view of the UE and give the maximum aggregate traffic of all links. Meaning, the traffic per link may change according to the number of cooperating machines but the total traffic at the UE cannot exceed the given values.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value [%]
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
Data rate [Mbit/s]
Transfer interval
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 1)

1 (periodic traffic)
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
50
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
1 (aperiodic traffic)
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
25
≤ 1 ms (note 2)
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
2 (periodic traffic)
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
250
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
2 (aperiodic traffic)
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
500
≤ 1 ms (note 2)
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m


Use case one
In the case of the 100 Mbit/s link replacement, 50 % periodic traffic and 25 % a-periodic traffic are assumed.
Use case two
In the case of the 1 Gbit/s link replacement, 25 % periodic traffic and 50 % a-periodic traffic are assumed.
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A.2.2.5  Cooperative carrying |R17|Word‑p. 35
In a smart factory, large or heavy work pieces will be carried from one place to another by multiple mobile robots or AGVs. These mobile robots / AGVs need to work together in order to carry the large or heavy work piece safely. This cooperation is achieved with a cyber-physical control application that controls the drives and movements of the mobile robots / AGVs in a coordinated way, so that large or heavy work pieces are carried smoothly and safely from one place to another (see Figure A.2.2.5-1).
Reproduction of 3GPP TS 22.104, Figure A.2.2.5-1: Mobile robots / AGVs carrying a large work piece cooperatively
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The communication between the collaborating mobile robots / AGVs requires high communication service availability and ultra-low latency. The exchange of control commands and control feedback is done with periodic deterministic communication and using time-sensitive networking.
There are two distinct use case variants of cooperative carrying: (1) carrying of rigid or fragile work pieces that require very precise coordination between the collaborating mobile robots, and (2) carrying of more flexible or elastic work pieces that allow some tolerance in the coordinated movements of the collaborative mobile robots. The higher tolerance in the coordinated movements allows for either faster movement of the work piece or longer transfer intervals (trade-off between UE speed and transfer interval).
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value [%]
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: target value (note 1)
Survival time (note 1)
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 2)

1
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< 0,5 x transfer interval
2.5 Mbit/s
250; 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms > 2.5 ms > 1.7 ms
0 transfer interval 2 x transfer interval
≤ 6 km/h
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m
2
99.999 9 to 99.999 999
~ 10 years
< 0,5 x transfer interval
2.5 Mbit/s
250; 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms > 2.5 ms > 1.7 ms
0 transfer interval 2 x transfer interval
≤ 12 km/h
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m


Use case one
Periodic deterministic communication for cooperative carrying of fragile work pieces (UE to UE / ProSe communication).
Use case two
Periodic deterministic communication for cooperative carrying of elastic work pieces (UE to UE / ProSe communication).
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