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Content for  TS 22.104  Word version:  17.3.0

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A.2.3  Process automationWord‑p. 37
A.2.3.1  Closed-loop control
In the closed-loop control use case for process automation, several sensors are installed in a plant and each sensor performs continuous measurements. The measurement data are transported to a controller, which takes decision to set actuators. The latency and determinism in this use case are crucial. This use case has very stringent requirements in terms of latency and service availability. The required service area is usually bigger than for motion control use cases. Interaction with the public network (e.g., service continuity, roaming) is not required.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: lower bound
Transfer interval: target value
Transfer interval: upper bound
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note)

1
99,9999 to 99,999999
≥ 1 year
< target transfer interval value
20
- 5 % of target transfer interval value
≥ 10 ms
+ 5 % of target transfer interval value
0
typically stationary
typically 10 to 20
typically ≤ 100 m x 100 m x 50 m

NOTE:
Length x width x height.

Use case one
Several sensors are installed in a plant and each sensor performs continuous measurements. The measurement data are transported to a controller, which takes decision to set actuators.
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A.2.3.2  Process and asset monitoring
For process and asset monitoring in the area of process automation, a large number of industrial wireless sensors are installed in the plant to give insight into process and environmental conditions, asset health and inventory of material. The data are transported to displays for observation and/or to databases for registration and data analysis Examples of sensors are temperature, pressure or flow rate sensors for process monitoring, vibration sensors for health monitoring of e.g. motors, or thermal cameras to detect leakages. Industrial wireless sensors are typically constrained in terms of size, complexity and/or power consumption. The operation for this use case can be in a wide service area, and interaction with the public network (e.g., service continuity, roaming) may be required.
Use case
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failure
End-to-end latency
Transfer interval (note 1)
Bit rate [bits/s]
Battery lifetime [year] (note 2)
Influence quantity
Message Size [byte]
Survival time
UE speed
UE density [UE / m2]
Range [m] (note 4)
Service area (note 5)

1
99,99
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
100 ms - 60 s
≤ 1 M
≥5
20 (note 3)
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 1
<500
≤ 10 km x 10 km x 50 m
2
99,99
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
≤ 1 s
≤ 200 k
≥5
25 k
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 0,05
<500
≤ 10 km x 10 km x 50 m
3
99,99
≥ 1 week
< 100 ms
≤ 1 s
≤ 2 M
≥5
250 k
3 x transfer interval
Stationary
Up to 0,05
<500
≤ 10 km x 10 km x 50 m

NOTE 1:
The transfer interval deviates around its target value by < ± 25 %.
NOTE 2:
Industrial sensors can use a wide variety of batteries depending on the use case, but in general they are highly constrained in terms of battery size.
NOTE 3:
The application-level messages in this use case are typically transferred over Ethernet, in which case the minimum Ethernet frame size of 64 bytes applies and dictates the minimum size of the PDU sent over the air interface.
NOTE 4:
Distance between the gNB and the UE.
NOTE 5:
Length x width x height.

Use case one
Sensors generating periodic measurements of a continuous value (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate sensors). The traffic is predominantly mobile originated.
Use case two
Sensors generating waveform measurements (e.g. vibration sensors). Even though the waveform measurement is continuous, it is expected that this type of sensors will buffer and transmit the data periodically (e.g. every second) to save battery by enabling discontinuous transmission. The traffic is predominantly mobile originated.
Use case three
Cameras (regular or thermal) for asset monitoring (e.g. for leakage detection). Even though the video recording is continuous, it is expected that this type of sensors will buffer and transmit the data periodically (e.g. every second) to save battery by enabling discontinuous transmission. The traffic is predominantly mobile originated.
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A.2.3.3  Plant asset managementWord‑p. 38
To keep a plant running, it is essential that the assets, such as pumps, valves, heaters, instruments, etc., are maintained. Timely recognition of any degradation and continuous self-diagnosis of components are used to support and plan maintenance. Remote software updates enhance and adapt the components to changing conditions and advances in technology. The operation for this use case can be in a wide service area, and interaction with the public network (e.g., service continuity, roaming) may be required. In this use case, the assets themselves are assumed to be connected to the 5G system. The use case where sensors are used to monitor assets is covered in clause A.2.3.2.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note)

1
99,99
TBD
< transfer interval value
20 to 255
several seconds
matter of convenience; typically ≥ 3 x transfer interval value
typically stationary
≤ 100 000
typically ≤ 10 km x 10 km x 50 m

NOTE:
Length x width x height.

Use case one
To keep a plant running, it is essential that the assets, such as pumps, valves, heaters, and instruments are maintained. Timely recognition of any degradation and continuous self-diagnosis of components are used to support and plan maintenance. Remote software updates enhance and adapt the components to changing conditions and advances in technology.
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A.2.4  Human machine interfacesWord‑p. 39
A.2.4.1  Mobile control panels
Control panels are crucial devices for the interaction between people and production machinery as well as for the interaction with moving devices. These panels are mainly used for configuring, monitoring, debugging, controlling and maintaining machines, robots, cranes or complete production lines. In addition to that, (safety) control panels are typically equipped with an emergency stop button and an enabling device, which an operator can use in case of a safety event in order to avoid damage to humans or machinery. When the emergency stop button is pushed, the controlled equipment immediately comes to a safe stationary position. Likewise, if a machine, robot, etc. is operated in the so-called special 'enabling device mode', the operator manually keeps the enabling device switch in a special stationary position. If the operator pushes this switch too much or releases it, the controlled equipment immediately comes to a safe stationary position as well. This way, it can be ensured that the hand(s) of the operator are on the panel (and not under a moulding press, for example), and that the operator does—for instance—not suffer from any electric shock or the like. A common use case for this 'enabling device mode' is the installation, testing or maintenance of a machine, during which other safety mechanisms (such as a safety fence) are deactivated.
Due to the criticality of these safety functions, safety control panels currently have mostly a wire-bound connection to the equipment they control. In consequence, there tend to be many such panels for the many machines and production units that typically can be found in a factory. With an ultra-reliable low-latency wireless link, it would be possible to connect such mobile control panels with safety functions wirelessly. This would lead to a higher usability and would allow for the flexible and easy re-use of panels for controlling different machines.
The cycle times of the control application depends on the process/machinery/equipment whose safety has to be ensured. For a fast-moving robot, for example, end-to-end latencies are lower than for slowly moving linear actuators.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: lower bound
Transfer interval: target value
Transfer interval: upper bound
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 1)

1 (note 3)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 1 month
< target transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
4 ms to 8 ms
+ 25 % of target transfer interval value
target transfer interval value
< 7,2 km/h
TBD
50 m x 10 m x 4 m
2 (note 3)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 1 month
< target transfer interval value
> 5 Mbit/s
-
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
< 30 ms
+ 25 % of target transfer interval value
TBD
< 7,2 km/h
TBD
TBD
3 (note 3)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 1 year
< target transfer interval
-
40 to 250
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
< 12 ms
+ 25 % of target transfer interval value
12 ms
< 7,2 km/h
TBD
typically 40 m x 60 m; maximum 200 m x 300 m

NOTE 1:
Length x width (x height).
NOTE 2:
The transfer interval is not so strictly periodic in these use cases. The transfer interval deviates around its target value within bounds. The mean of the transfer interval is close to the target value.
NOTE 3:
Communication may include two wireless links (UE to UE)

Use case one
Periodic, bi-directional communication for remote control. Examples for controlled units: assembly robots; milling machines.
Use case two
Aperiodic data transmission in parallel to remote control (use case one).
Use case three
Periodic, bi-directional communication for remote control. Examples for controlled units: mobile cranes, mobile pumps, fixed portal cranes.
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A.2.4.1A  Mobile operation panels |R17|Word‑p. 41
Operation and monitoring of machines, mobile robots, or production units via a mobile operation panel provides higher flexibility and comfort for human operators. A single mobile operation panel can be used to manage more than one production system due to its mobility in the factory. The mobile operation panel provides relevant information for configuration, control of industrial machines as well as monitoring of relevant data generated during the construction of a product. The monitoring data is generally considered to be less time-critical subsequently requiring non-real-time communication. On the other hand, the mobile operation panel supports safety-critical functions such as emergency stops or enabling or changing the position of robots and other machines. These functions are generally considered to have strict ultra-low latencies and reliable transmission requirements that must follow strict safety standards making them time-critical (real-time communication).
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Direction (note 2)
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: target value
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 1)

1
99,999999
1 day
<8 ms
250 kbit/s
Uplink Downlink
40 to 250
8 ms
16 ms
quasi-static; up to 10 km/h
2 or more
30 m x 30 m
2
99,99999
1 day
<10 ms
< 1 Mbit/s
Uplink
<1 024
10 ms
~10 ms
quasi-static; up to 10 km/h
2 or more
30 m x 30 m
3
99,999999
1 day
10-100 ms
10 kbit/s
Uplink Downlink
10-100
10-100 ms
transfer interval
stationary
2 or more
100-2000 m²
4
99,999999
1 day
<1 ms
12-16 Mbit/s
Downlink
10-100
1 ms
~1 ms
stationary
2 or more
100 m²
5
99,999999
1 day
<2 ms
16 kbit/s (UL) 2 Mbit/s (DL)
Uplink Downlink
50
2 ms
~2 ms
stationary
2 or more
100 m²
6
99,9999 to 99,99999
1 day
up to [x]
12 Mbit/s
Uplink Downlink
250-1500
quasi-static; up to 10 km/h
2 or more
30 m x 30 m

NOTE 1:
Length x width.
NOTE 2:
The mobile operation panel is connected wirelessly to the 5G system. If the mobile robot/production line is also connected wirelessly to the 5G system, the communication includes two wireless links.

Use case one
Emergency Stop with periodic-deterministic communication for connectivity availability and aperiodic-deterministic communication for emergency stop events.
Use case two
Safety data stream with periodic deterministic communication.
Use case three
Visualization of Control with periodic deterministic communication.
Use case four
Motion Control with periodic deterministic communication.
Use case five
Haptic feedback data stream with periodic deterministic communication.
Use case six
Manufacturing data stream with mixed traffic.
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A.2.4.2  Augmented realityWord‑p. 43
It is envisioned that in future smart factories and production facilities, people will continue to play an important and substantial role. However, due to the envisaged high flexibility and versatility of the Factories of the Future, shop floor workers should be optimally supported in getting quickly prepared for new tasks and activities and in ensuring smooth operations in an efficient and ergonomic manner. To this end, augmented reality may play a crucial role, for example for the following applications:
  • monitoring of processes and production flows;
  • step-by-step instructions for specific tasks, for example in manual assembly workplaces;
  • ad hoc support from a remote expert, for example for maintenance or service tasks.
In this respect, especially head-mounted augmented-reality devices with see-through display are very attractive since they allow for a maximum degree of ergonomics, flexibility and mobility and leave the hands of workers free for other tasks. However, if such augmented-reality devices are worn for a longer period (e.g., one work shift), these devices have to be lightweight and highly energy-efficient while at the same time they should not become very warm. A very promising approach is to offload complex (e.g., video) processing tasks to the network (e.g., an edge cloud) and to reduce the augmented-reality head-mounted device's functionality. This has the additional benefit that the augmented-reality application may have easy access to different context information (e.g., information about the environment, production machinery, the current link state, etc.) if executed in the network.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
UE speed
Service area (note)

1
> 99,9
~ 1 month
< 10 ms
< 8 km/h
20 m x 20 m x 4 m

NOTE:
Length x width x height.

Use case one
Bi-directional message transmission between an augmented-reality device and an image processing server.
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A.2.5  Monitoring and maintenance
A.2.5.1  Remote access and maintenance
In factories of the future, there are needs to perform remote access and maintenance to devices and entities, for instance, by remote control centres. The devices and entities might be installed at geographically distributed locations. These devices typically have firmware/software which needs to be updated occasionally. Maintenance information also needs to be collected and distributed from/to these devices periodically. The devices can be both stationary and mobile. Device maintenance may happen in parallel to the actual production process and other communication services performed at the device side without any negative impact on these production communication services.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: lower bound
Transfer interval: upper bound
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note)

1
-
~ 1 month
-
≥ 1 Mbit/s
-
-
-
-
≤ 72 km/h
≤ 100
50 m x 10 m x 10 m

NOTE:
Length x width x height.

Use case one
Transmission of non-deterministic messages in parallel to other interactions. Example applications: software/firmware updates and exchange of maintenance information.
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A.3Void

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