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Content for  TS 22.104  Word version:  17.3.0

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A  Summary of service performance requirementsWord‑p. 28
A.1  About the vertical domains addressed in this Annex
A vertical domain is an industry or group of enterprises in which similar products or services are developed, produced, and provided.
The vertical domains addressed in this Annex are
  • Factories of the Future (A.2);
  • electric-power distribution (A.4); and
  • central power generation (A.5); and
  • Connected hospitals or medical facilities (A.6).
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A.2  Factories of the Future
A.2.1  Overview
The manufacturing industry is currently subject to a fundamental change, which is often referred to as the "Fourth Industrial Revolution" or simply "Industry 4.0" [15]. The main goals of Industry 4.0 are—among others—the improvement of flexibility, versatility, resource efficiency, cost efficiency, worker support, and quality of industrial production and logistics. These improvements are important for addressing the needs of increasingly volatile and globalised markets. A major enabler for all this are cyber-physical production systems based on a ubiquitous and powerful connectivity, communication, and computing infrastructure. The infrastructure interconnects people, machines, products, and all kinds of other devices in a flexible, secure and consistent manner. Several different application areas can be distinguished:
  1. Factory automation: Factory automation deals with the automated control, monitoring and optimisation of processes and workflows within a factory. This includes aspects like closed-loop control applications (e.g., based on programmable logic or motion controllers) and robotics, as well as aspects of computer-integrated manufacturing. Factory automation generally represents a key enabler for industrial mass production with high quality and cost-efficiency. Corresponding applications are often characterised by highest requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, especially in terms of communication service availability, determinism, and latency. In the Factories of the Future, static sequential production systems will be more and more replaced by novel modular production systems offering a high flexibility and versatility. This involves many increasingly mobile production assets, for which powerful wireless communication and localisation services are required.
  2. Process automation: Process automation refers to the control of production and handling of substances like chemicals, food & beverage, pulp, etc. Process automation improves the efficiency of production processes, energy consumption, and safety of the facilities. Sensors measuring process values, such as pressures or temperatures, are working in closed loops via centralised and decentralised controllers. In turn, the controllers interact with actuators, e.g., valves, pumps, heaters. Also, monitoring of attributes such as the filling levels of tanks, quality of material, or environmental data are important, as well as safety warnings or plant shut downs. Workers in the plant are supported by mobile devices. A process automation facility may range from a few 100 m² to several km², and the facility may be geographically distributed. Depending on the size, a production plant may have several 10 000 measurement points and actuators. Autarkic device power supply for years is needed in order to stay flexible and to keep the total costs of ownership low.
  3. HMIs and production IT: Human-machine interfaces (HMIs) include all sorts of devices for the interaction between people and production facilities, such as panels attached to a machine or production line, but also standard IT devices, such as laptops, tablet PCs, smartphones, etc. In addition, augmented- and virtual-reality applications are expected to play an increasingly important role in future.
  4. Logistics and warehousing: Organisation and control of the flow and storage of materials and goods in the context of industrial production. In this respect, intra-logistics is dealing with logistics within a certain property (e.g., within a factory), for example by ensuring the uninterrupted supply of raw materials on the shop floor level using automated guided vehicles (AGVs), fork lifts, etc. This is to be seen in contrast to logistics between different sites. Warehousing particularly refers to the storage of materials and goods, which is also getting more and more automated, for example based on conveyors, cranes and automated storage and retrieval systems.
  5. Monitoring and maintenance: Monitoring of certain processes and/or assets in the context of industrial production without an immediate impact on the processes themselves (in contrast to a typical closed-loop control system in factory automation, for example). This particularly includes applications such as condition monitoring and predictive maintenance based on sensor data, but also big data analytics for optimising future parameter sets of a certain process, for instance. For these use cases, the data acquisition process is typically not latency-critical.
For each of these application areas, a multitude of potential use cases exists, some of which are outlined in the following subclauses. These use cases can be mapped to the given application areas (see Table A.2.1-1).
Motion control
Control-to-control
Mobile control panels with safety
Mobile robots
Remote access and maintenance
Augmented reality
Closed-loop process control
Process monitoring
Plant asset management

Factory automation
X
X
X
Process automation
X
X
X
X
HMIs and Production IT
X
X
Logistics and warehousing
X
X
X
Monitoring and maintenance
X

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A.2.2  Factory automationWord‑p. 29
A.2.2.1  Motion control
A motion control system is responsible for controlling moving and/or rotating parts of machines in a well-defined manner, for example in printing machines, machine tools or packaging machines.
A schematic representation of a motion control system is depicted in Figure A.2.2.1-1. A motion controller periodically sends desired set points to one or several actuators (e.g., a linear actuator or a drive) which thereupon perform a corresponding action on one or several processes (in this case usually a movement or rotation of a certain component). At the same time, sensors determine the current state of the process(es), e.g. the current position and/or rotation of one or multiple components, and send the actual values back to the motion controller. This is done in a strictly cyclic and deterministic manner, such that during one application cycle the motion controller sends updated set points to all actuators, and all sensors send their actual values back to the motion controller. Nowadays, typically Industrial Ethernet technologies are used for motion control systems.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure A.2.2.1-1: Schematic representation of a motion control system
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Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: lower bound
Transfer interval: upper bound
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note)

1
99,999 to 99,99999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
50
500 μs - 500 ns
500 μs + 500 ns
500 μs
≤ 72 km/h
≤ 20
50 m x 10 m x 10 m
2
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
40
1 ms - 500 ns
1 ms + 500 ns
1 ms
≤ 72 km/h
≤ 50
50 m x 10 m x 10 m
3
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
-
20
2 ms - 500 ns
2 ms + 500 ns
2 ms
≤ 72 km/h
≤ 100
50 m x 10 m x 10 m

NOTE:
Length x width x height.

Use cases one to three
Characteristic parameters and influence quantities for a communication service supporting the cyclic interaction described above.
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A.2.2.2  Control-to-control communicationWord‑p. 31
Control-to-control communication, i.e., the communication between different industrial controllers is already used today for different use cases, such as:
  • large machines (e.g., newspaper printing machines), where several controls are used to cluster machine functions, which need to communicate with each other; these controls typically need to be synchronised and exchange real-time data;
  • individual machines that are used for fulfilling a common task (e.g., machines in an assembly line) often need to communicate, for example for controlling and coordinating the handover of work pieces from one machine to another.
Typically, a control-to-control network has no fixed configuration of certain controls that need to be present. The control nodes present in the network often vary with the status of machines and the manufacturing plant. Therefore, hot-plugging support for different control nodes is important and often used.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 1)

1 (note 2)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
1 k
≤ 10 ms
10 ms
stationary
5 to 10
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
2 (note 2)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
1 k
≤ 50 ms
50 ms
stationary
5 to 10
1000 m x 30 m x 10 m

NOTE 1:
Length x width x height.
NOTE 2:
Communication may include two wireless links (UE to UE)

Use case one
Control-to-control communication between different motion (control) subsystems, as addressed in Subclause A.2.2.1. An exemplary application for this are large printing machines, where it is not possible or desired to control all actuators and sensors by one motion controller only.
Use case two
Control-to-control communication between different motion (control) subsystems. Exemplary application for this are extra-large machines or individual machines used for fulfilling a common task (e.g., machines in an assembly line).
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A.2.2.3  Mobile robots
Mobile robots and mobile platforms, such as automated guided vehicles, have numerous applications in industrial and intra-logistics environments and will play an increasingly important role in the Factory of the Future. A mobile robot essentially is a programmable machine able to execute multiple operations, following programmed paths to fulfil a large variety of tasks. This means, a mobile robot can perform activities like assistance in work steps and transport of goods, materials and other objects. Mobile robot systems are characterised by a maximum flexibility in mobility relative to the environment, with a certain level of autonomy and perception ability, i.e., they can sense and react with their environment.
Autonomous guided vehicles are a sub-group of mobile robots. These vehicles are driverless and used for moving materials efficiently within a facility. A detailed overview of the state of the art of autonomous-guided-vehicle systems is provided elsewhere in the literature [16].
Mobile robots are monitored and controlled from a guidance control system. Radio-controlled guidance control is necessary to get up-to-date process information, to avoid collisions between mobile robots, to assign driving jobs to the mobile robots, and to manage the traffic of mobile robots. The mobile robots are track-guided by the infrastructure with markers or wires in the floor or guided by own surround sensors, like cameras and laser scanners.
Mobile robot systems can be divided in operation in indoor, outdoor and both indoor and outdoor areas. These environmental conditions have an impact on the requirements of the communication system, e.g., the handover process, to guarantee the required cycle times.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Influence quantity

Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: lower bound
Transfer interval: target value (note)
Transfer interval: upper bound
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area
1
> 99,9999
~ 10 years
< target transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
1 ms to 50 ms
+ < 25 % of target transfer interval value
target transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
2
> 99,9999
~ 1 year
< target transfer interval value
-
15 k to 250 k
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
10 ms to 100 ms
+ < 25 % of target transfer interval value
target transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
3
> 99,9999
~ 1 year
< target transfer interval value
-
40 to 250
- < 25 % of target transfer interval value
40 ms to 500 ms
+ < 25 % of target transfer interval value
target transfer interval value
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2
4
> 99,9999
~ 1 week
10 ms
> 10 Mbit/s
-
-
-
-
≤ 50 km/h
≤ 100
≤ 1 km2

NOTE:
The transfer interval is not so strictly periodic in these use cases. The transfer interval deviates around its target value within bounds. The mean of the transfer interval is close to the target value.

Use case one
Periodic communication for the support of precise cooperative robotic motion control (transfer interval: 1 ms), machine control (transfer interval: 1 ms to 10 ms), co-operative driving (10 ms to 50 ms).
Use case two
Periodic communication for video-operated remote control.
Use case three
Periodic communication for standard mobile robot operation and traffic management.
Use case four
Real-time streaming data transmission (video data) from a mobile robot to the guidance control system.
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A.2.2.4  Wired to wireless link replacement |R17|Word‑p. 34
In a traditional factory, the production environment is fixed. Machines that are cooperating are connected via cable, typically using an industrial ethernet technology like PROFINET. In order to increase flexibility in the production setup, the wired links are replaced with wireless links.
[not reproduced yet]
Figure A.2.2.4-1: Example of four cooperating machines with wireless connections (based on [26])
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We assume two or more machines (typically 4 or 5) to be cooperating with each other during production. In order to replace the cables, each machine is equipped with one UE, connected to the controller (shown in Figure A.2.2.4-1). The cooperating machine's communication can be divided into two types. Periodic traffic and a-periodic traffic. Both types are scheduled, therefore the a-periodic traffic is also adhering to the transfer interval. The traffic requirements are from the point of view of the UE and give the maximum aggregate traffic of all links. Meaning, the traffic per link may change according to the number of cooperating machines but the total traffic at the UE cannot exceed the given values.
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Influence quantity
Data rate [Mbit/s]
Transfer interval
Survival time
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 1)

1 (periodic traffic)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
50
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
1 (aperiodic traffic)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
25
≤ 1 ms (note 2)
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
2 (periodic traffic)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
250
≤ 1 ms
3 * transfer interval
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m
2 (aperiodic traffic)
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< transfer interval value
500
≤ 1 ms (note 2)
stationary
2 to 5
100 m x 30 m x 10 m

Use case one
In the case of the 100 Mbit/s link replacement, 50% periodic traffic and 25% a-periodic traffic are assumed.
Use case two
In the case of the 1 Gbit/s link replacement, 25% periodic traffic and 50% a-periodic traffic are assumed.
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A.2.2.5  Cooperative carrying |R17|Word‑p. 35
In a smart factory, large or heavy work pieces will be carried from one place to another by multiple mobile robots or AGVs. These mobile robots / AGVs need to work together in order to carry the large or heavy work piece safely. This cooperation is achieved with a cyber-physical control application that controls the drives and movements of the mobile robots / AGVs in a coordinated way, so that large or heavy work pieces are carried smoothly and safely from one place to another (see Figure 5.11.1-1).
[not reproduced yet]
Figure A.2.2.5-1: Mobile robots / AGVs carrying a large work piece cooperatively
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The communication between the collaborating mobile robots / AGVs requires high communication service availability and ultra-low latency. The exchange of control commands and control feedback is done with periodic deterministic communication and using time-sensitive networking.
There are two distinct use case variants of cooperative carrying: (1) carrying of rigid or fragile work pieces that require very precise coordination between the collaborating mobile robots, and (2) carrying of more flexible or elastic work pieces that allow some tolerance in the coordinated movements of the collaborative mobile robots. The higher tolerance in the coordinated movements allows for either faster movement of the work piece or longer transfer intervals (tradeoff between UE speed and transfer interval).
Use case #
Characteristic parameter
Communication service availability: target value in %
Communication service reliability: mean time between failures
End-to-end latency: maximum
Service bitrate: user experienced data rate
Influence quantity
Message size [byte]
Transfer interval: target value (note 1)
Survival time (note 1)
UE speed
# of UEs
Service area (note 2)

1
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< 0,5 x transfer interval
2,5 Mbit/s
250; 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms > 2,5 ms > 1,7 ms
0 transfer interval 2 x transfer interval
≤6 km/h
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m
2
99,9999 to 99,999999
~ 10 years
< 0,5 x transfer interval
2,5 Mbit/s
250; 500 with localisation information
> 5 ms > 2,5 ms > 1,7 ms
0 transfer interval 2 x transfer interval
≤12 km/h
2 to 8
10 m x 10 m x 5 m; 50 m x 5 m x 5 m

NOTE 1:
The first value is the application requirement, the other values are the requirement with multiple transmission of the same information (two or three times respectively).
NOTE 2:
Service Area for direct communication between UEs (length x width x height). The group of UEs with direct communication might move throughout the whole factory site (up to several km²)

Use case one
Periodic deterministic communication for cooperative carrying of fragile work pieces (UE to UE / ProSe communication).
Use case two
Periodic deterministic communication for cooperative carrying of elastic work pieces (UE to UE / ProSe communication).
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