The NEF checks that the AF is authorised to send trigger requests and that the AF has not exceeded its quota or rate of trigger submission over Nnef. If this check fails, the NEF sends an Nnef_Trigger_Delivery response with a cause value indicating the reason for the failure condition and the flow stops at this step. Otherwise, the flow continues with step 4.
The UDM may invoke the Nudr_DM_Query service to retrieve a list of AF's that are allowed to trigger the UE and determines, based on UDM policy, which identifier (SUPI or MSISDN) should be used to trigger the UE. The UDM provides a Nudm_SDM_Get response (SUPI, optionally MSISDN. If the AF is not allowed to send a trigger message to this UE, or there is no valid subscription information for this user, the NEF sends an Nnef_Trigger_Delivery response with a cause value indicating the reason for the failure condition and the flow stops at this step. Otherwise this flow continues with step 6.
The UDM may invoke the Nudr_DM_Query service to retrieve the UE SMSF identities. The UDM provides a Nudm_UECM_Get response with the corresponding UE SMSF identities. UDM policy (possibly dependent on the VPLMN ID) may influence which serving node identities are returned.
The NEF selects a suitable SMS-SC based on configured information. The NEF acts as an MTC-IWF and sends a Submit Trigger (GPSI, SUPI, AF Identifier, trigger reference number, validity period, priority, SMSF serving node ID(s) (if available, are obtained from UDM in step 7), SMS Application port ID, trigger payload, Trigger Indication) message to the SMS-SC.
If the NEF indicates that "Absent subscriber" was received from the UDM, the SMS-SC should not submit the message, but store it directly and send Routing Information for SM to request the UDM to add the SMS-SC address to the Message Waiting List.
The SMS_SC performs MT SMS delivery as defined in clause 4.13.3. The SMS-SC may provide the routing information that it received in step 6 to SMS-GMSC to avoid UDM interrogation. The SMS-SC generates the necessary CDR information and includes the AF Identifier. The SMS Application port ID, which is included in the SM User Data Header and the Trigger Indication are included in the CDRs in order to enable differentiated charging. The SMS-SC stores the trigger payload, without routing information. If the message delivery fails and is attempted to be delivered again, UDM interrogation will be performed. If the message delivery fails and the validity period of this trigger message is not set to zero, the SMS-SC shall send a SM Message Delivery Status Report to request the UDM to add the SMS-SC address to the Message Waiting list. When the message delivery is later re-attempted, a new UDM interrogation will be performed by the SMS-GMSC using SUPI or MSISDN. UDM interrogations using SUPI shall not be forwarded or relayed to SMS-Router or IP-SM-GWs. The UDM may include up to four serving node identities (MSC or MME, SGSN, IP-SM-GW, AMF) in the response to SMS-GMSC.
If the message delivery fails (either directly or when validity period of the trigger message expires) or when the message delivery succeeds, the SMS-SC shall send a Message Delivery Report (cause code, trigger reference number, AF Identifier) to the NEF.
The NEF provides a Nnef_Trigger_DeliveryNotify message to the AF with a Delivery Report indicating the trigger delivery outcome (e.g. succeeded, unknown or failed and the reason for the failure). The NEF generates the necessary CDR information including the GPSI and AF Identifier.
In response to the received device trigger, the UE takes specific actions and may take into consideration the content of the trigger payload. This action typically involves initiation of immediate or later communication with the AF.
During Registration procedure in 5GS defined in Figure 126.96.36.199.2-1, to enable SMS over NAS transporting, the UE includes an "SMS supported" indication in Registration Request in step 1-3 indicating the UE's capability for SMS over NAS transport. The "SMS supported" indication indicates whether the UE supports SMS delivery over NAS.
Step 4 to step 14 of the Registration procedure in Figure 188.8.131.52.2-1 are performed. The AMF may retrieve the SMS Subscription data and UE Context in SMSF data using Nudm_SDM_Get. This requires that UDM may retrieve this information from UDR by Nudr_DM_Query. The UDM includes the SMSF information in the Nudm_SDM_Get response message if the stored SMSF belongs to the same PLMN of the AMF. After a successful response is received and if SMS service is allowed, the AMF subscribes to be notified using Nudm_SDM_Subscribe when the SMS Subscription data is modified and UDM may subscribe to UDR by Nudr_DM_Subscribe.
The AMF can also receive UE context information containing SMSF Information from old AMF. When AMF re-allocation happens during the Registration procedure, the old AMF transfers SMSF Information to the new AMF as part of UE context in step 5 of Figure 184.108.40.206.2-1.
If the "SMS supported" indication is included in the Registration Request, the AMF checks in the SMS Subscription data that was received in step 2 whether the SMS service is allowed to the UE. If SMS service is allowed and the UE context received in step 2 includes an available SMSF of the serving PLMN, the AMF activates this SMSF Address and continues the registration procedure. If SMS service is allowed but an SMSF of the serving PLMN was not received in step 2, the AMF discovers and selects an SMSF to serve the UE as described in clause 6.3.10 of TS 23.501.
The AMF invokes Nsmsf_SMService_Activate service operation from the SMSF. The invocation includes AMF address, Access Type, RAT Type, Trace Requirements, GPSI (if available) and SUPI. AMF uses the SMSF Information derived from step 3. Trace Requirements is provided if it has been received by AMF as part of subscription data.
If the UE context for the current Access Type already exists in the SMSF, the SMSF shall replace the old AMF address with the new AMF address.
Otherwise, the SMSF considers this a Registration request from a new Access Type and the SMSF registers with the UDM using Nudm_UECM_Registration with Access Type. As a result, the UDM stores the following information: SUPI, SMSF identity, SMSF address, Access Type(s) in UE Context in SMSF data. The UDM may further store SMSF Information in UDR by Nudr_DM_Update (SUPI, Subscription Data, UE Context in SMSF data).
If the Nsmsf_SMService_Activate request contains two Access Types and one of them is already registered in the SMSF, the SMSF shall replace the old AMF address with the new AMF address for that Access Type. The SMSF shall then register the other Access Type with the UDM using Nudm_UECM_Registration request.
SMSF retrieves SMS Management Subscription data (e.g. SMS teleservice, SMS barring list) using Nudm_SDM_Get and this requires that UDM may get this information from UDR by Nudr_DM_Query (SUPI, Subscription Data, SMS Management Subscription data). After a successful response is received, the SMSF subscribes to be notified using Nudm_SDM_Subscribe when the SMS Management Subscription data is modified and UDM may subscribe to notifications from UDR by Nudr_DM_Subscribe.
SMSF also creates a UE context to store the SMS subscription information and the AMF address that is serving this UE.
The AMF includes the "SMS allowed" indication to the UE in the Registration Accept message of step 21 of Figure 220.127.116.11.2-1 only after step 8 in which the AMF has received a positive indication from the selected SMSF.
The "SMS allowed" indication in the Registration Accept message indicates to the UE whether the network allows the SMS message delivery over NAS.
If UE indicates to AMF that it no longer wants to send and receive SMS over NAS (e.g. not including "SMS supported" indication in subsequent Registration Request message) or AMF considers that UE is deregistered on specific Access Type(s) or AMF receives Deregistration Notification from UDM for specific Access Type(s) indicating UE Initial Registration, Subscription Withdrawn or 5GS to EPS Mobility as specified in clause 18.104.22.168.2, then:
AMF may, if the UE is not registered at other Access Type at the AMF any more, unsubscribe from SMS Subscription data changes notification with the UDM by means of the Nudm_SDM_Unsubscribe service operation.
AMF invokes Nsmsf_SMService_Deactivate service operation to trigger the release of UE Context for SMS on SMSF for the impacted Access Type(s) based on local configurations.
AMF may, if the UE is not registered at other Access Type at the AMF anymore, delete or deactivate the stored SMSF address in its UE Context.
The SMSF unsubscribes from SMS Management Subscription data changes notification with the UDM by means of the Nudm_SDM_Unsubscribe service operation if the UE is not registered at other Access Type for SMS over NAS service at the SMSF anymore.
The SMSF shall invoke Nudm_UECM_Deregistration (SUPI, NF ID, Access Type) service operation from UDM to trigger UDM to delete SMSF address of the UE for the impacted Access Type(s). The SMSF also removes the UE Context for SMS for the impacted Access Type(s), including AMF address.
The UDM may update UE context in SMSF in UDR by Nudr_DM_Update (SUPI, Subscription Data, SMS Subscription data, SMSF address). The UDM may remove the corresponding subscription of data change notification in UDR by Nudr_DM_Unsubscribe service operation.
The UE performs domain selection for UE originating SMS as defined in clause 22.214.171.124 of TS 23.501 if SMS delivery via non 3GPP access is allowed and possible. If an UE under CM-IDLE state is going to send uplink SMS message, then UE and network perform the UE Triggered Service Request procedure firstly as defined in clause 126.96.36.199 to establish a NAS signalling connection to AMF.
The UE builds the SMS message to be sent as defined in TS 23.040 (i.e. the SMS message consists of CP-DATA/RP-DATA/TPDU/SMS-SUBMIT parts). The SMS message is encapsulated in an NAS message with an indication indicating that the NAS message is for SMS transporting. The UE send the NAS message to the AMF.
The AMF forwards the SMS message and SUPI to the SMSF serving the UE over N20 message by invoking Nsmsf_SMService_UplinkSMS service operation. In order to permit the SMSF to create an accurate charging record, the AMF adds the IMEISV, the current UE Location Information (ULI) of the UE as defined in clause 5.6.2 of TS 23.501 and if the UE has sent the SMS via 3GPP access, the local time zone.
The SMSF forwards the submit report to AMF by invoking Namf_Communication_N1N2MessageTransfer service operation which is forwarded to UE via Downlink NAS transport. If the SMSF knows the submit report is the last message to be transferred for UE, the SMSF shall include a last message indication in the Namf_Communication_N1N2MessageTransfer service operation so that the AMF knows no more SMS data is to be forwarded to UE.
If the UE has more than one SMS message to send, the AMF and SMSF forwards SMS /SMS ack/submit report the same way as described in step 2a-6b.
MT SMS interaction between SC/SMS-GMSC/UDM follow the procedure as defined in TS 23.040 or TS 23.540. If there are two AMFs serving the UE, one is for 3GPP access and another is for non-3GPP access, there are two SMSF addresses stored in UDM/UDR. The UDM shall return both SMSF addresses.
The SMSF checks the SMS management subscription data. If SMS delivery is allowed, SMSF invokes Namf_MT_EnableUEReachability service operation to AMF. AMF pages the UE using the procedure defined in clause 188.8.131.52. The UE responds to the page with Service Request procedure.
If the AMF indicates SMSF that UE is not reachable, the procedure of the unsuccessful Mobile terminating SMS delivery described in clause 184.108.40.206 is performed and the following steps are skipped.
If the UE access to the AMF via both 3GPP access and non-3GPP access, the AMF determines the Access Type to transfer the MT-SMS based on operator local policy.
SMSF forward the SMS message to be sent as defined in TS 23.040 (i.e. the SMS message consists of CP-DATA/RP-DATA/TPDU/SMS-DELIVER parts) to AMF by invoking Namf_Communication_N1N2MessageTransfer service operation. The AMF transfers the SMS message to the UE.
The UE acknowledges receipt of the SMS message to the SMSF. For uplink unitdata message toward the SMSF, the AMF invokes Nsmsf_SMService_UplinkSMS service operation to forward the message to SMSF. In order to permit the SMSF to create an accurate charging record, the AMF also includes IMEISV, the current UE Location Information (ULI) of the UE as defined in clause 5.6.2 of TS 23.501 and if the SMS is delivered to the UE via 3GPP access, the local time zone.
The UE returns a delivery report as defined in TS 23.040. The delivery report is encapsulated in an NAS message and sent to the AMF which is forwarded to SMSF by invoking Nsmsf_SMService_UplinkSMS service operation.
The SMSF acknowledges receipt of the delivery report to the UE. The SMSF uses Namf_Communication_N1N2MessageTransfer service operation to send SMS CP ack message to the AMF. The AMF encapsulates the SMS message via a NAS message to the UE. If SMSF has more than one SMS to send, the SMSF and the AMF forwards subsequent SMS /SMS ack/ delivery report the same way as described in step 4-6c.
If the SMSF knows the SMS CP ack is the last message to be transferred for UE, the SMSF shall include a last message indication in the Namf_Communication_N1N2MessageTransfer service operation so that the AMF knows no more SMS data is to be forwarded to UE.
MT SMS in CM-CONNECTED procedure is specified by reusing the MT SMS in CM-IDLE state with the following modification:
There is no need for the AMF to perform Paging of the UE and can immediate continue with a message to SMSF via N20 to allow the SMSF to start forward the MT SMS.
If the delivery of the NAS PDU containing the SMS fails e.g. if the UE is in RRC_INACTIVE and NG-RAN paging was not successful, the NG-RAN initiate the UE context release in the AN procedure and provide notification of non-delivery to the AMF. The AMF provides an indication of non-delivery to the SMSF.
MT SMS procedure via non-3GPP access is specified by reusing the MT SMS via 3GPP access in CM-CONNECTED state with the following modification:
If the UE access to the network via both 3GPP and non-3GPP accesses and the AMF determines to deliver MT-SMS via non-3GPP access based on operator policy in step 4, the NAS messages is transferred via non-3GPP Access Network.
The procedure of Unsuccessful Mobile terminating SMS delivery re-attempt is defined as follows:
For SMS delivery, the SMSF and the UDM support the SMSF and UDM role as specified in TS 23.040.
If the UE is registered over both 3GPP access and non-3GPP access in the same AMF (i.e. the UE is registered in the same PLMN for both Access Types):
if the MT-SMS delivery over one Access Type has failed, the AMF, based on operator local policy, may re-attempt the MT-SMS delivery over the other Access Type before indicating failure to SMSF;
if the MT-SMS delivery on both Access Types has failed, the AMF shall inform the SMSF immediately.
If the AMF informs the SMSF that it cannot deliver the MT-SMS to the UE, the SMSF sends a failure report to the first SMS-GMSC (which can be co-located with IP-SM-GW or SMS Router) as defined in TS 23.040 or TS 23.540. If the SMS-GMSC has more than one entity for SMS transport towards the UE, then upon receiving MT-SMS failure report, the SMS-GMSC, based on operator local policy, may re-attempt the MT-SMS delivery via the other entity.
After the first SMS-GMSC informs the UDM/HSS that the UE is not able to receive MT-SMS, the UDM shall set the URRP-AMF flag and store the SC address in the MWD list as defined in TS 23.040 or TS 23.540.
If the UE is registered in an AMF and the UDM has not subscribed to UE Reachability Notification in the AMF yet, the UDM immediately initiates a subscription procedure as specified in clause 220.127.116.11.
When the AMF detects UE activities, it notifies UDM with UE Activity Notification as described in clause 18.104.22.168. If the UE is registered in an SMSF, the UDM clears its URRP-AMF flag and the UDM/HSS clears the MWD list and alerts related SCs to retry MT-SMS delivery. Otherwise, if the UE is not registered in an SMSF, the UDM clears its URRP-AMF flag but the UDM/HSS keeps the MWD list to notify the SC upon subsequent SMSF registration for the UE.
When the SMS-GMSC requests routing information from UDM/HSS for a UE not registered in 5GC, or for a registered UE which has not been yet registered for SMS service, the UDM/HSS responds to the SMS-GMSC that the UE is absent, stores the SC address in the MWD list (if not yet stored) and indicates that to the SC as defined in TS 23.040 or TS 23.540.
When the UDM receives an Nudm_UECM_Registration Request from an SMSF for a UE for which the MWD list is stored and no URRP-AMF flag is set, the UDM/HSS alerts the related SCs to retry the MT-SMS delivery and clears the MWD list.