Content for  TR 22.856  Word version:  19.2.0

Top   Top   None   None   Next
1…   5…   5.2…   5.3…   5.4…   5.5…   5.6…   5.7…   5.8…   5.9…   5.10…   5.11…   5.12…   5.13…   5.14…   5.15…   5.16…   5.17…   5.18…   5.19…   5.20…   5.21…   5.22…   5.23…   5.24…   5.25…   5.26…   5.27…   5.28…   6   7…   7.2   8   A   B   C…


1  Scopep. 8

The present document investigates specific use cases and service requirements for 5GS support of enhanced XR-based services, (as XR-based services are an essential part of "Metaverse" services considered in this study,) as well as potentially other functionality, to offer shared and interactive user experience of local content and services, accessed either by users in the proximity or remotely. In particular, the following areas are studied:
  • Support of interactive XR media shared among multiple users in a single location, including:
    • performance (KPI) aspects; e.g. latency, throughput, connection density
    • efficiency and scalability aspects, for large numbers of users in a single location.
    • the combination of haptics type of XR media and other non-haptics types of XR media.
  • Identification of users and other digital representations of entities interacting within the Metaverse service.
  • Acquisition, use and exposure of local (physical and digital) information to enable Metaverse services, including:
    • acquiring local spatial/environmental information and user/UE(s) information (including viewing angle, position and direction);
    • exposing local acquired spatial, environmental and user/UE information to 3rd parties to enable Metaverse services.
  • Other aspects, such as privacy, charging, public safety and security requirements.
The study also investigates gaps between the identified new potential requirements and the requirements already specified for the 5G system.
It is acknowledged that there are activities related to the topic Metaverse outside of 3GPP, such as the W3C Open Metaverse Interoperability Group (OMI). These activities may be considered in the form of use cases and related contributions to this study, but there is no specific objective for this study to consider or align with external standardization activities.
A difference between this study and TR 22.847 "Study on supporting tactile and multi-modality communication services" is that Metaverse services would involve coordination of input data from different devices/sensors from different users and coordination of output data to different devices at different destinations to support the same task or application.

2  Referencesp. 8

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non-specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
TS 22.228: "Service requirements for the Internet Protocol (IP) Multimedia core network Subsystem (IMS)".
TS 22.173: "IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS) Multimedia Telephony Service and supplementary services".
TS 22.101: "Service principles".
TS 22.261: "Service requirements for the 5G system".
Talaba D, Horvath I, Lee K H, "Special issue of Computer-Aided Design on virtual and augmented reality technologies in product design," Computer-Aided Design 42:361 - 363.
Wang X, Tsai J J-H, "Collaborative Design in Virtual Environments," In: ISCA 48:1-2.
Benford S, Greenhalgh C, Rodden T, "Collaborative virtual environments." Communications of the ACM 44: 79-85.
M. Eid, J. Cha, and A. El Saddik, "Admux: An adaptive multiplexer for haptic-audio-visual data communication", IEEE Tran. Instrument. and Measurement, vol. 60, pp. 21-31, Jan 2011.
K. Iwata, Y. Ishibashi, N. Fukushima, and S. Sugawara, "QoE assessment in haptic media, sound, and video transmission: Effect of playout buffering control", Comput. Entertain., vol. 8, pp. 12:1-12:14, Dec 2010.
N. Suzuki and S. Katsura, "Evaluation of QoS in haptic communication based on bilateral control", in IEEE Int. Conf. on Mechatronics (ICM), Feb 2013, pp. 886-891.
E. Isomura, S. Tasaka, and T. Nunome, "A multidimensional QoE monitoring system for audiovisual and haptic interactive IP communications", in IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference (CCNC), Jan 2013, pp. 196-202.
A. Hamam and A. El Saddik, "Toward a mathematical model for quality of experience evaluation of haptic applications", IEEE Tran. Instrument. and Measurement, vol. 62, pp. 3315-3322, Dec 2013.
O. Holland et al., "The IEEE 1918.1 "Tactile Internet" Standards Working Group and its Standards," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 2, Feb. 2019.
Lee, Donghwan et. al., "Large-scale Localization Datasets in Crowded Indoor Spaces, " NAVER LABS, NAVER LABS Europe, CVPR 2021.
TR 22.837: "Study on Integrated Sensing and Communication."
Alriksson, F., Kang, D.H., Phillips, C., Pradas, J.L. and Zaidi, A., 2021. XR and 5G: Extended reality at scale with time-critical communication. Ericsson Technology Review.
TR 26.928: "Extended Reality (XR) in 5G."
Ge, Y., Wen, F., Kim, H., Zhu, M., Jiang, F., Kim, S., Svensson, L. and Wymeersch, H., 2020. 5G SLAM using the clustering and assignment approach with diffuse multipath. Sensors, 20(16), p.4656.
Kim, H., Granström, K., Gao, L., Battistelli, G., Kim, S. and Wymeersch, H., 2020. 5G mmWave cooperative positioning and mapping using multi-model PHD filter and map fusion. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 19(6), pp.3782-3795.
Liu, A., Huang, Z., Li, M., Wan, Y., Li, W., Han, T.X., Liu, C., Du, R., Tan, D.K.P., Lu, J. and Shen, Y., 2022. A survey on fundamental limits of integrated sensing and communication. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 24(2), pp.994-1034.
Dwivedi, S., Shreevastav, R., Munier, F., Nygren, J., Siomina, I., Lyazidi, Y., Shrestha, D., Lindmark, G., Ernström, P., Stare, E. and Razavi, S.M., 2021. Positioning in 5G networks. IEEE Communications Magazine, 59(11), pp.38-44.
Suhr, C. "S.L.A.M. and Optical Tracking for XR", <accessed 1.9.22>
Kim, H., Granstrom, K., Svensson, L., Kim, S. and Wymeersch, H., 2022. PMBM-based SLAM Filters in 5G mmWave Vehicular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
5GAA "C-V2X Use Cases Volume II: Examples and Service Level Requirements", 5G Automobile Association White Paper, <accessed 02.09.22>
A. Ebrahimzadeh, M. Maier and R. H. Glitho, "Trace-Driven Haptic Traffic Characterization for Tactile Internet Performance Evaluation," 2021 International Conference on Engineering and Emerging Technologies (ICEET), 2021, pp. 1-6.
Lee, L.-H., Braud, T., Zhou, P., Wang, L., Xu, D., Lin, Z., Kumar, A., Bermejo, C., and Hui, P. All One Needs to Know about Metaverse: A Complete Survey on Technological Singularity, Virtual Ecosystem, and Research Agenda, 2021.
Halbhuber, David & Henze, Niels & Schwind, Valentin. (2021). Increasing Player Performance and Game Experience in High Latency Systems. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction. 5. 1-20. 10.1145/3474710.
ITU-T Recommendation Y.3090 (02/22): "Digital twin network - Requirements and architecture" (
Skalidis, I., Muller, O. and Fournier, S., 2022. CardioVerse: The Cardiovascular Medicine in the Era of Metaverse. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine.
Koo, H., 2021. Training in lung cancer surgery through the metaverse, including extended reality, in the smart operating room of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Korea. Journal of educational evaluation for health professions, 18.
Mozumder, M.A.I., Sheeraz, M.M., Athar, A., Aich, S. and Kim, H.C., 2022, February. Overview: technology roadmap of the future trend of metaverse based on IoT, blockchain, AI technique, and medical domain metaverse activity. In 2022 24th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT) (pp. 256-261). IEEE.
Ning, H., Wang, H., Lin, Y., Wang, W., Dhelim, S., Farha, F., Ding, J. and Daneshmand, M., 2021. A Survey on Metaverse: the State-of-the-art, Technologies, Applications, and Challenges. arXiv preprint arXiv:2111.09673.
Senk, S., Ulbricht, M., Tsokalo, I., Rischke, J., Li, S.C., Speidel, S., Nguyen, G.T., Seeling, P. and Fitzek, F.H., 2022. Healing Hands: The Tactile Internet in Future Tele-Healthcare. Sensors, 22(4), p.1404.
Chen, D. and Zhang, R., 2022. Exploring Research Trends of Emerging Technologies in Health Metaverse: A Bibliometric Analysis. Available at SSRN 3998068.
TS 23.501: "System architecture for the 5G System (5GS)".
TS 38.300: "NR; NR and NG-RAN Overall description; Stage-2".
TS 22.826: "Study on communication services for critical medical applications".
Tataria, H., Shafi, M., Molisch, A.F., Dohler, M., Sjöland, H. and Tufvesson, F., 2021. 6G wireless systems: Vision, requirements, challenges, insights, and opportunities. Proceedings of the IEEE, 109(7), pp.1166-1199.
TS 23.682: "Architecture enhancements to facilitate communications with packet data networks and applications".
TS 23.273: "5G System (5GS) Location Services (LCS); Stage 2".
"MPEG-4 Face and Body Animation", (accessed 2.11.22).
TS 22.105: "Services and service capabilities".
Kwang Soon Kim, et al., "Ultrareliable and Low-Latency Communication Techniques for Tactile Internet Services", PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE, Vol. 107, No. 2, February 2019
I.-J. Hirsh and C. E. J. Sherrick, "Perceived order in different sense modalities, " Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 423-432, 1961.
VESA Compression Codecs -
TR 23.700-80: "Study on 5G System Support for AI/ML-based Services".
EU data protection rules | European Commission ( (
California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) | State of California - Department of Justice - Office of the Attorney General (
Y. Sun, Z. Chen, M. Tao, and H. Liu, "Communications, caching, and computing for mobile virtual reality: Modelingand trade off, " IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 67, no. 11, pp. 7573-7586, Nov. 2019.
Y. Cai, J. Llorca, A. M. Tulino and A. F. Molisch, "Compute- and Data-Intensive Networks: The Key to the Metaverse," 2022 1st International Conference on 6G Networking (6GNet), 2022.
TS 22.226: "Global Text Telephony"
ITU-T SG16 "ITU-T SG 16 Work on Accessibility - How ITU is Pioneering Telecom Accessibility for All",, accessed 30.1.23.
Ankit Ojha, Ayush Pandey, Shubham Maurya, Abhishek Thakur, Dr. Dayananda P, "Sign Language to Text and Speech Translation in Real Time Using Convolutional Neural Network," INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY (IJERT) NCAIT - 2020 (Volume 8 - Issue 15).
R. Kazantsev and D. Vatolin, "Power Consumption of Video-Decoders on Various Android Devices," 2021 Picture Coding Symposium (PCS), Bristol, United Kingdom, 2021, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/PCS50896.2021.9477481.
glTF 2.0 specification,, accessed 02/02/2023..
B. Egger, W. A. P. Smith, A. Tewari, S. Wuhrer, M. Zollhoefer, T. Beeler, F. Bernard, T. Bolkart, A. Kortylewski, S. Romdhani, C. Theobalt, V. Blanz, and T. Vetter. "3D Morphable Face Models-Past, Present, and Future". ACM Trans. Graph. 39, 5, Article 157 (Jun 2020)
M. Zollhöfer, J. Thies, P. Garrido, D. Bradley, T. Beeler, P. Pérez, M. Stamminger, M. Nie쎟ner, and C. Theobalt. "State of the Art on Monocular 3D Face Reconstruction, Tracking, and Applications". Computer Graphics Forum (2018).
TS 23.503: "Policy and charging control framework for the 5G System (5GS); Stage 2".

3  Definitions of terms, symbols and abbreviationsp. 11

3.1  Termsp. 11

For the purposes of the present document, the terms given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
a digital representation specific to media that encodes facial (possibly body) position, motions and expressions of a person or some software generated entity.
An IP multimedia session with two or more participants. Each conference has a "conference focus". A conference can be uniquely identified by a user. Examples for a conference could be a Telepresence or a multimedia game, in which the conference focus is located in a game server.
Conference Focus:
The conference focus is an entity which has abilities to host conferences including their creation, maintenance, and manipulation of the media. A conference focus implements the conference policy (e.g. rules for talk burst control, assign priorities and participant's rights).
digital asset:
digitally stored information that is uniquely identifiable and can be used to realize value according to their licensing conditions and applicable regulations. Examples of digital assets include digital image (avatar), software licenses, gift certificates and files (e.g. music files) that have been purchased under a license that allows resale.
digital representation:
the mobile metaverse media associated with the presentation of a particular virtual or physical object. The digital representation could present the current state of the object. One example of a digital representation is an avatar, see Annex A.
digital twin:
A real-time representation of physical assets in a digital world.
a change in the pose that is considered significant, i.e. as a discriminated interaction with a mobile metaverse service.
a characteristic of a service experience or AR/MR/VR media, seeming to surround the user, so that they feel completely involved.
A known location in 3 dimensional space, including an orientation, e.g. defined as pitch, yaw and roll.
location related service experience:
user interaction and information provided by a service to a user that is relevant to the physical location in which the user accesses the service.
location agnostic service experience:
user interaction and information provided by a service to a user that has little or no relation to the physical location in which the user accesses the service. Rather the service provides interaction and information concerning either a distant or a non-existent physical location.
mobile metaverse media:
media communicated or enabled using the 5G system including audio, video, XR (including haptic) media, and data from which media can be constructed (e.g. a 'point cloud' that could be used to generate XR media.)
mobile metaverse:
the user experience enabled by the 5G system of interactive and/or immersive XR media, including haptic media.
mobile metaverse server:
an application server that supports one or more mobile metaverse services to a user access by means of the 5G system.
mobile metaverse service:
the service that provides a mobile metaverse experience to a user by means of the 5G system.
the relative location, orientation and direction of the parts of a whole. The pose can refer the user, specifically used in terms of identifying the position of a user's body. The pose can also also refer to an entity or object (whose parts can adopt different locations, orientations, etc.) that the user interacts with by means of mobile metaverse services.
predictive digital representation model:
a model used for creating a digital representation (e.g. avatar) of a user or object in AR/MR/VR communication that helps to compensate for communication latency and/or conceal negative effects of high communication latency between the users by predicting for example events, changes or outcomes that impact the digital representation, such as predicting the current position or pose of a remote user.
service information:
this information is out of scope of standardization but could contain, e.g. a URL, media data, media access information, etc. This information is used by an application to access a service.
spatial anchor:
an association between a location in space (three dimensions) and service information that can be used to identify and access services, e.g. information to access AR media content.
spatial map:
A collection of information that corresponds to space, including information gathered from sensors concerning characteristics of the forms in that space, especially appearance information.
spatial mapping service:
A service offered by a mobile network operator that gathers sensor data in order to create and maintain a Spatial Map that can be used to offer customers Spatial Localization Service.
spatial localization service:
A service offered by a mobile network operator that can provide customers with Localization.
User Identifier:
a piece of information used to identify one specific User Identity in one or more systems.
User Identity:
information representing a user in a specific context. A user can have several user identities, e.g. a User Identity in the context of his profession, or a private User Identity for some aspects of private life.
User Identity Profile:
A collection of information associated with the User Identities of a user.
digital wallet:
one type of digital asset container, also known as an e-wallet or mobile wallet, is a software application that securely stores digital credentials, such as payment information, loyalty cards, tickets, and other digital assets. It allows users to make electronic transactions, such as payments and transfers, conveniently and securely using their digital credentials.

3.2  Symbolsp. 13


3.3  Abbreviationsp. 13

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
Artificial Intelligence
ClosedCircuit TeleVision
Degrees of Freedom
Distributed Virtual Environment
Facial Action Coding System
Field Of View
Light Detection And Ranging
Vulnerable Road User

4  Overviewp. 13

Mobile metaverse services are discussed in this technical report both in the abstract and concrete. Specific services mentioned in the TR include:
  • Situational awareness for drivers, pedestrians, cyclists, to increase safety and efficiency of transport (see clause 5.2).
  • XR enabled collaborative and concurrent engineering, to enable local and remote collaboration (see clause 5.3).
  • Participatory in and passive observation of virtual reality events, e.g. basketball (see clause 5.6).
  • Presentation of AR content, e.g. a feature length movie, on a virtual screen (see clause 5.7).
  • Remote critical health care, including surgery and treatment (see clause 5.10).
The study also considers a number of use cases that feature new service enablers, including:
  • Providing users with information and services that are of local relevance (see clause 5.1).
  • Enhancements to IMS to support multiple users and multi-modal XR communication (see clause 5.3).
  • Support for spatial anchors to link service information to specific locations (see clause 5.4).
  • Support for spatial localization and mapping services, and enablers for them in the 5GS (see clause 5.5).
  • Support for multi-service coordination for different input and output devices and diverse services (see clause 5.8).
  • Support for synchronization of different data streams and predicted network conditions (especially latency) to enable immersive remote collaboration despite significant distance and therefore communication delay between participants (see clause 5.9).

Up   Top   ToC