Mobile metaverse for Critical HealthCare Services
. Immersive interactive mo]]bile ]services encompass multiple services such as gaming, education, healthcare, shopping, recreation etc. Healthcare is a lifesaving critical service, which will benefit the most from mobile metaverse services. Remote surgery and surgeon training are already emerging examples, for geographically spread specialized surgeons, students and patients. Healthcare making use of mobile metaverse services can save lives by providing healthcare services at the earliest, train students better and free surgeons/doctors from being physically present at patient's location. This area will encompass services such as surgery, medical student training, surgeon training. It will enable remote physician and patient examination. Mobile metaverse services can be characterized as a typical class of application that involves a server and a client device. This class of application will typically exchange haptic signals (forces, torques, position, velocity, vibration etc.), video and audio signals. Mobile metaverse services largely depend on low latency, highly reliable, secure wireless communication networks. 
. Normally, surgeons have to be physically present at hospital to perform their surgeries. Surgeons and patients may have to travel a great distance for surgeries, which is resource intensive and burdensome. The outbreak of coronavirus has further proves the case for remote surgeries. At present, there are increasingly more surgical rooms adapted with advanced surgical robots and doctors can remotely operate on the patients by controlling these surgical robots as shown in Figure-5.10.1-1b . Mobile metaverse services can bring doctors and patients closer virtually, which further improves the accuracy and surgery flexibility. It can also facilitate consultation to provide suggestions and domain knowledge to reduce risks in actual operation. Recently, a real time remote breast cancer surgery was performed using private 5G network and head mounted display. Dr. G, physically present in the operating room, wore a head mounted display and could see the crucial information displayed by the goggles and performed breast cancer surgery remotely. Dr. G received constant advice from Dr. A, who was seated on the stage at the congress of Spanish association of Breast Surgeons, 900 km away from the surgery room 
Mobile metaverse Physician Consultation
. With the outbreak of COVID, virtual consultation through audio and video conference calls has gained considerable momentum. Mobile metaverse services enabled by tactile sensors along with video and audio media can provide a rich and successful experience to both physician and patient. The ability to perform mobile metaverse service consultation without the need for the doctors and patient to be physically co-located is an extremely efficient prospect. Doctors can potentially use mobile metaverse services to examine and interact with representations of aspects and views of the patient, and benefit from a plethora of medical advice database as shown in Figure-5.10.1-1.c. 5G communication is one the key factors to enable mobile metaverse service based physician consolation. Doctors and patients both need high throughput, ultra-reliable and low latency 5G communication for these services to succeed. 
Mobile metaverse Body scan and vitals
. Mobile metaverse services can significantly improve and change the way current body scan diagnostics and vital statistics are gathered. Mobile metaverse services can be utilized to see the real-time diagnostic data of the patient such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate along with MRI, CT and 3D scans as show in Figure-5.10.1-1.d. Medical challenges such as vein detection for IV, shots etc., can easily be resolved using mobile metaverse services. These will help medical professionals to detect, diagnose and treat a patient 
The examples in Figure 5.10.1-1
feature the use of mobile metaverse services for a) Training Surgeons, b) remote surgery, c) physician consultation d) remote medical diagnostics. (Image source: healthcareoutlook.net, courthousenews.com, gmw3.com, ourplnt.com)
Mobile metaverse Training Medical Students
. Surgeries performed by surgeons all over the world can be used to train students using mobile metaverse services. Students can observe a live surgery with almost all the important vital and view on display, as they would be displayed to a surgeon. Further, the students can view the live surgery from different viewing perspectives, hear surgeon's instruction, display of suggestions and domain knowledge as show in Figure 5.10.1-1.a. In May 2021, a live lung surgery was performed using an extended reality (XR) technology platform. More than 200 thoracic surgeons from Asian countries attended the outreach program and received training. The participants wore a head-mounted display (HMD) at their respective locations and participated in the program virtually represented by a digital representation (e.g. an avatar). They participants viewed the live lung surgery with lecture and 360deg high resolution surgical scenes as show in Figure 5.10.1-2
The source of Figure 5.10.1-2
(Image source: Journal of Educational Evaluation for Health Professions (Jeehp)).
Hospital Y has an enterprise subscription with MNO X, with which MNO provides the hospital and its staff with fault-tolerant and ultra-high reliable 5G communication as well as mobile metaverse services. Dr. Alex and Dr. Bob are renowned surgeons of Hospital Y, who are also trained to perform surgeries using immersive interactive mobile healthcare services.
Dr. Alex and Dr. Bob both have 5G based head mounted device (HMDs) and tactile gloves, which can communicate with those in the hospital surgery room virtually using digital representation of themselves (an avatar). The doctors are able to make remote use of actuators in operating room, though remote. The service requires extremely high reliability as a patient's life is at risk. 5G allocates sufficient communications resources, e.g. through the use of GBR QoS policy, to both the surgeons communications for the entire duration of the surgery.
After the surgery, the doctors and surgeons stay connected virtually to read the vitals of the patients. Once the patient's condition has stabilized, Dr. Alex and Dr. Bob disconnect their devices. The 5G system then releases dedicated communication resources (GBR QoS policy) from the devices used for surgery using 5GS.
The 5G system shall provide a means to synchronize multiple service data flows (e.g., heart rate, video, audio) of multiple UEs associated with Critical HealthCare services.