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Content for  TS 45.008  Word version:  16.0.0

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1  ScopeWord‑p. 9

The present document specifies the Radio sub system link control implemented in the Mobile Station (MS), Base Station System (BSS) and Mobile Switching Centre (MSC) of the digital cellular telecommunications systems GSM.
Unless otherwise specified, references to GSM also include operation in any supported band (see TS 45.005).

1.1  References

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
[1]
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
[2]
TS 23.003: "Numbering, addressing and identification".
[3]
TS 23.009: "Handover procedures".
[4]
TS 23.122: "NAS Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode".
[5]
TS 25.101: "UE Radio transmission and reception (FDD)".
[6]
TS 25.123: "Requirements for support of Radio Resource Management (TDD)".
[7]
TS 25.133: "Requirements for support of Radio Resource Management (FDD)".
[8]
TS 25.304: "UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures for Cell Reselection in Connected Mode".
[9]
TS 25.331: "Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol Specification".
[10]
TS 26.093: "AMR Speech Codec; Source Controlled Rate operation".
[11]
TS 43.022: "Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode and group receive mode".
[12]
TS 43.064: "Overall description of the GPRS Radio Interface; Stage 2".
[13]
TS 43.246: "Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS) in the GERAN; Stage 2".
[14]
TS 43.068: "Voice Group Call Service (VGCS); Stage 2".
[15]
TS 44.004: "Layer 1; General requirements".
[16]
TS 44.006: "Mobile Station Base Station System (MS BSS) interface; Data Link (DL) layer specification".
[17]
TS 44.018: "Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification; Radio Resource Control Protocol".
[18]
TS 44.056: "GSM Cordless Telephony System (CTS), Phase 1; CTS radio interface layer 3 specification".
[19]
TS 44.060: "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Mobile Station (MS) - Base Station System (BSS) interface; Radio Link Control (RLC) / Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol".
[20]  Void.
[21]  Void.
[22]
TS 45.002: "Multiplexing and multiple access on the radio path".
[23]
TS 45.003: "Channel coding"
[24]
TS 45.005: "Radio transmission and reception".
[25]
TS 45.010: "Radio subsystem synchronization".
[26]
TS 45.056: "CTS-FP radio subsystem".
[27]
TR 45.902: "Flexible Layer One".
[28]
TS 46.011: "Full rate speech; Substitution and muting of lost frames for full rate speech channels".
[29]
TS 46.012: "Full rate speech; Comfort noise aspect for full rate speech traffic channels".
[30]
TS 46.031: "Full rate speech; Discontinuous Transmission (DTX) for full rate speech traffic channels".
[31]
TS 48.008: "Mobile services Switching Centre Base Station System (MSC BSS) interface, Layer 3 specification".
[32]
TS 48.058: "Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station (BSC BTS) interface; Layer 3 specification".
[33]
TS 51.010-1: "Mobile Station (MS) conformity specification".
[34]
TS 51.011: "Specification of the Subscriber Identity Module - Mobile Equipment (SIM - ME) interface".
[35]
TIA/EIA/IS-2000-5-A: "Upper Layer (Layer 3) Signaling Standard for cdma2000 Spread Spectrum Systems".
[36]
TIA/EIA/IS-833: "Multi-Carrier Specification for Spread Spectrum Systems on GSM MAP (MC-MAP) (Lower Layers Air Interface)".
[37]
TS 36.101: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception".
[38]
TS 36.104: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception".
[39]
TS 36.133: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Requirements for support of radio resource management".
[40]
TS 36.304: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); User Equipment (UE) procedures in idle mode".
[41]
TS 36.331: "Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Radio Resource Control (RRC); Protocol Specification".
[42]
TS 31.102: "Characteristics of the Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM) application".
[43]
TS 24.301: "Non-Access-Stratum (NAS) protocol for Evolved Packet System (EPS); Stage 3".
[44]
TS 22.268: "Public Warning System (PWS) requirements; Stage 1".
[45]
TS 23.251: "Network sharing; Architecture and functional description".
[46]
TS 24.008: "Mobile Radio Interface Layer 3 specification; Core Network Protocols - Stage 3".
[47]
TS 25.306: "UE Radio Access capabilities".
[48]
TR 45.926: "Solutions for GSM/EDGE BTS Energy Saving".
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1.2  AbbreviationsWord‑p. 11

Abbreviations used in the present document are listed in TR 21.905.
UFPS
Unique Frequency Parameter Set

1.3  Definitions |R9|

In addition to those below, abbreviations used in the present document are listed in TR 21.905.
Acceptable cell:
see definition in TS 43.022.
Coverage Class:
see definition in TS 43.064.
CSG Whitelist:
A list provided by NAS containing all the CSG identities and their PLMN IDs of the CSGs to which the subscriber belongs, see TS 23.122.
CSG cell:
The definition of CSG cell for UTRAN is given in TS 25.304; the definition of CSG cell for E-UTRAN is given in TS 36.304.
EC-GSM-IoT:
Extended Coverage GSM for Internet of Things.
EC-GSM-IoT cell:
A cell supporting EC-GSM-IoT.
EC operation:
See definition in TS 43.064.
Hybrid cell:
The definition of hybrid cell for UTRAN is given in TS 25.304; the definition of hybrid cell for E-UTRAN is given in TS 36.304.
Network sharing:
network sharing is an optional feature that allows different core network operators to connect to the same shared radio access network (see TS 23.251). When network sharing is in use within a given cell, the network broadcasts within system information the PLMN identities of the PLMNs sharing the cell. A mobile station supporting network sharing uses this information for its PLMN (re)selection processes and indicates the selected PLMN to the BSS.
Power Efficient Operation (PEO):
see definition in TS 43.064.
Suitable cell:
see definition in TS 43.022.
Timeslot number (TN):
timing of timeslots within a TDMA frame.
Unique Frequency Parameter Set:
defined by a single ARFCN or a MA. In case of a radio frequency channel assigned a frequency parameter set consisting of a single ARFCN, the UFPS is defined by that ARFCN. In case of a radio frequency channel assigned a frequency parameter set consisting of a MA, MAIO and HSN, that radio frequency channel belong to the same UFPS as other radio frequency channels assigned the same MA.
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1.4  Restrictions |R9|

Independently of what is stated elsewhere in this and other 3GPP specifications, mobile station support for PBCCH and PCCCH is optional for A/Gb-mode of operation. The network shall never enable PBCCH and PCCCH.

2  GeneralWord‑p. 12

The radio sub system link control aspects that are addressed are as follows:
  • Handover;
  • RF Power control in A/Gb mode, including fast power control for E-TCH and enhanced power control for TCH and O-TCH;
  • RF Power control in Iu mode, including fast power control for E-TCH and enhanced power control for DBPSCH (in MAC-Dedicated and MAC-DTM states);
  • Radio link Failure;
  • Cell selection and re-selection in Idle mode, in Group Receive mode, in GPRS mode, in broadcast/multicast receive mode and in EC operation and PEO (see TS 43.022);
  • Coverage class selection in EC operation;
  • CTS mode tasks.
Handover is required to maintain a call in progress as a MS engaged in a point to point call or with access to the uplink of a channel used for a voice group call passes from one cell coverage area to another and may also be employed to meet network management requirements, e.g. relief of congestion.
Handover may occur during a call from one TCH or multiple TCHs (in the case of multislot configuration) to another TCH or multiple TCHs. It may also occur from DCCH to DCCH or from DCCH to one or multiple TCH(s), e.g. during the initial signalling period at call set up. Additionally in Iu mode, handover may occur in MAC-Dedicated and MAC-DTM states:
  • on PDTCH or multiple PDTCHs (in the case of multislot configuration) on DBPSCH(s) to another PDTCH or multiple PDTCHs on DBPSCH(s);
  • for FLO, from one DBPSCH or multiple DBPSCHs (in the case of multislot configuration) to another DBPSCH or multiple DBPSCHs.
The handover may be either from channel(s) on one cell to other channel(s) on a surrounding cell, or between channels on the same cell which are carried on the same frequency band. Examples are given of handover strategies, however, these will be determined in detail by the network operator.
For a multiband MS, the handover described is also allowed between any channels on different cells which are carried on different frequency bands, e.g. between a GSM 900/TCH and a DCS 1 800/TCH. Handover between two co located cells, carried on different frequency bands, is considered as inter cell handover irrespective of the handover procedures used.
For a multi-RAT MS, i.e. an MS supporting multiple radio access technologies, handover is allowed between GSM and other radio access technologies.
Adaptive control of the RF transmit power from an MS and optionally from the BSS is implemented in order to optimize the uplink and downlink performance and minimize the effects of co channel interference in the system.
The criteria for determining radio link failure are specified in order to ensure that calls which fail either from loss of radio coverage or unacceptable interference are satisfactorily handled by the network. Radio link failure may result in either re establishment or release of the call in progress. For channels used for a voice group call, an radio uplink failure results in the freeing up of the uplink.
Procedures for cell selection and re selection whilst in Idle mode (i.e. not actively processing a call), are specified in order to ensure that a mobile is camped on a cell with which it can reliably communicate on both the radio uplink and downlink. The operations of an MS in Idle Mode are specified in TS 43.022.
Cell re-selection is also performed by the MS when attached to GPRS, except when the MS simultaneously has a circuit switched connection. Optional procedures are also specified for network controlled cell re-selection for GPRS. Cell re-selection for GPRS is defined in subclause 10.1.
For a multi-RAT MS, cell selection and re-selection is allowed between GSM and other radio access technologies.
An MS listening to a voice group call or a voice broadcast use cell re selection procedures to change cell. This may be supported by a list of cells carrying the voice group or voice broadcast call downlink, provided to the MS by the network. The operations of an MS in Group Receive Mode are specified in TS 43.022.
Information signalled between the MS and BSS is summarized in tables 1, 2 and 3. A full specification of the Layer 1 header is given in TS 44.004, of the Layer 3 fields in TS 44.018, and of the Layer 2 fields in TS 44.060.
When EC operation has been enabled, Coverage Class selection is performed by the mobile station in Idle mode to ensure that a mobile station will be able to communicate on the extended coverage common control channel (EC-CCCH). The Coverage Classes for uplink and downlink dedicated channels are assigned by the network in Packet Transfer mode to ensure that a mobile station will be able to communicate on the extended coverage packet data traffic channel (EC-PDTCH) and its associated control channel (EC-PACCH).
For CTS, information signalled between the CTS-MS and CTS-FP is summarized in tables 4, 5 and 6. A full specification of the CTS Layer 3 fields is given in TS 44.056.
For COMPACT, specific procedures are defined in clause 12.
During the reception of an MBMS session, the mobile station is in broadcast/multicast receive mode. In this state, the MS performs autonomous cell re-selection.
If the MS is a member of at least one Closed Subscriber Group, the MS may perform cell re-selection to CSG cells.
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3  HandoverWord‑p. 13

3.1  Overall process

The overall handover process is implemented in the MS, BSS and MSC. Measurement of radio subsystem downlink performance and signal levels received from surrounding cells, is made in the MS. These measurements are signalled to the BSS for assessment. The BSS measures the uplink performance for the MS being served and also assesses the signal level of interference on its idle traffic channels. Initial assessment of the measurements in conjunction with defined thresholds and handover strategy may be performed in the BSS. Assessment requiring measurement results from other BTS or other information resident in the MSC, may be performed in the MSC.
3GPP TS 23.009 describes the handover procedures to be used in PLMNs.
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3.2  MS measurement procedure

A procedure shall be implemented in the MS by which it monitors the downlink RX signal level and quality from its serving cell and the downlink RX signal level and BSIC of surrounding BTS. The method of identification of surrounding BTS is described in subclause 7.2. The requirements for the MS measurements are given in subclause 8.1.

3.3  BSS measurement procedure

A procedure shall be implemented in the BSS by which it monitors the uplink RX signal level and quality from each MS being served by the cell. In the case of a multislot configuration the evaluation shall be performed on a timeslot per timeslot basis. A procedure shall be implemented by which the BSS monitors the levels of interference on its idle traffic channels.

3.4  StrategyWord‑p. 14

The handover strategy employed by the network for radio link control determines the handover decision that will be made based on the measurement results reported by the MS/BSS and various parameters set for each cell. Network directed handover may also occur for reasons other than radio link control, e.g. to control traffic distribution between cells. The exact handover strategies will be determined by the network operator, a detailed example of a basic overall algorithm appears in annex A. Possible types of handover are as follows:
Inter cell handover:
Intercell handover from the serving cell to a surrounding cell will normally occur either when the handover measurements show low RXLEV and/or RXQUAL on the current serving cell and a better RXLEV available from a surrounding cell, or when a surrounding cell allows communication with a lower TX power level. This typically indicates that an MS is on the border of the cell area.
Intercell handover may also occur from the DCCH on the serving cell to a TCH or multislot configuration on another cell during call establishment. This may be used as a means of providing successful call establishment when no suitable TCH resource is available on the current serving cell.
Inter cell handover between cells using different frequency bands is allowed for a multi band MS.
Inter cell handover between cells using different radio access technologies is allowed for a multi-RAT MS.
Intra cell handover:
Intra cell handover from one channel/timeslot configuration in the serving cell to another channel/timeslot configuration in the same cell will normally be performed if the handover measurements show a low RXQUAL, but a high RXLEV on the serving cell. This indicates a degradation of quality caused by interference even though the MS is situated within the serving cell. The intra cell handover should provide a channel with a lower level of interference. Intra cell handover can occur either to a timeslot on a new carrier or to a different timeslot on the same carrier. Similarly, intra cell handover may occur between different multislot configurations in the same cell. These multislot configurations may comprise different number of timeslots and may partly overlap.
Intra-cell handover from one of the bands of operation to another one is allowed for a multiband MS.
3GPP TS 48.008 defines the causes for handover that may be signalled from BSS to MSC.
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