Tech-invite3GPPspaceIETF RFCsSIP
Quick21222324252627282931323334353637384‑5x

Content for  TR 22.859  Word version:  18.2.0

Top   Top   Up   Prev   Next
1…   5…   5.5…   5.10…   6…   A…

 

5  Use casesWord‑p. 11

5.1  Traffic Scenario: inHomeWord‑p. 11

5.1.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 11

Houses, offices, light industrial have many opportunities to be automated, the traditional light bulbs, power sockets, thermostats, sprinkler systems, leak detection and the new smart appliances such as ovens, washing machines, faucets etc. can communicate with each other via a Personal IoT Network (PIN). These devices, to be known as PIN Elements, can have the following characteristics:
  1. some have continuous power and others don't;
  2. some have strict latency requirements e.g. items that are part of an alarm system, while others provide delay tolerant data;
  3. some need to perform an action so an individual sees an action as instantaneous (e.g. ask the voice assistance to turn the light bulb on and its appears instantaneous); and
  4. need to perform an action but they don't have strict latency requirements e.g. sprinklers need to come on but it doesn't matter if its few seconds late.
The PIN Elements listed above and many others that are not listed above can communicate with hubs / gateways within the PIN where some control can take place at the gateway (e.g. thermostats and sprinkler controllers are usually self-contained within the PIN Element, whereas power sockets and light bulbs might communicate with a PIN Element that manages the PIN that control their actions). In addition, thermostats etc. can also communicate with these PIN Elements that manage the network known as PIN Element with Management Capability. Power sockets, light bulbs and switches can also act as relay type devices extending the coverage of the PIN.
In case of the PIN Element that provides access to the 5GS, known as PIN Element with Gateway Capability (shown as a GW in Figure 5.1.1-1) these could be placed in one corner of the house.
When planning a network in a house many houses suffer from problems of coverage due to the number of floors and other obstacles (i.e. walls, doors, columns, furniture), users will plan or configure their PIN Networks based on their needs and may install or move PIN Elements. When the PIN Element with Management Capability connects to a broadband (also acting as a PIN Element with Gateway Capability) network most houses have only one entry network point where the PIN Element with Gateway Capability can be installed.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.859, Fig. 5.1.1-1: inHome scenario
Figure 5.1.1-1: inHome scenario
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)
Up
Furthermore, with the use of millimetre waves there is the danger that the signal is blocked even by people while moving and alternative connection paths are needed. Therefore, enhanced "fully meshed relays" will play a key role in achieving extensive fault tolerant coverage in inHome scenarios. These fully meshed relays allow the resident of the home to position relays (PIN Elements) to create a network that is fault tolerant e.g. should a relay fail, devices such as those that detect motion or a door opening can still reach the PIN Element with Management Capabilities. Data is encrypted from the end device to the PIN Element with Management Capabilities.
Up

5.1.2  Pre-conditionsWord‑p. 12

Let's consider an average house can be around 100m2-120m2 with 3 floors. Regarding devices and applications within the home we can categorize them in the following groups:
  1. Lighting, appliances, sockets and climate control: This is the traditional home automation and control network where continuous power is available to each PIN Element. These PIN Elements can act as fully mesh relays due to being continually powered. Their time to change state (e.g. light bulb from off to on) needs to occur within 200ms [4].
  2. Security Systems: This includes traditional security components such as motion detector, door / window sensors, automatic lock (PIN Elements). These items are battery powered, in case of door / window sensors it can be expected that the battery should last for 2+ years. Due to nature of these PIN Elements the delay to inform the PIN Element with Management Capabilities that an event has occurred needs to be 200ms [4]. Some devices will need to rely on mesh relays for routing their data. PIN Elements that are also critical to life and safety e.g. motion sensors, alarms, door locks, alarm systems etc can only been offline for seconds a week. Using an availability calculator [16] 99.999% equates to 1 second or less per day.
PIN-user is aware that they need to plan their network (PIN) and walls, doors etc can present challenges to planning a network. Given PIN Elements can be moved the configuration of a network can change e.g. PIN Element A might have used PIN Element B and Element C as relays however PIN Element B is moved and thus the user who created the PIN needs the PIN Elements within the PIN to discover the network configuration/layout/plan has changed. A user can request the PIN to perform a network configuration/layout/plan test to see what PIN Elements can communicate with other PIN Elements with or without relays.
PIN-user is aware which PIN Elements can act as a relay and which ones cannot.
Some example dimensions of products PIN Elements are:
  1. Light switch: 1.76 x 2.2 x4.1 inches (USA), 86 x 86 x 41 mm (EU);
  2. Power outlet: 1.75 x 2.1 x 4.2 inches (USA), 86 x 86 x 50 mm (EU);
  3. Motion sensor: 18 x 71 x 19 mm, Battery ER14250;
  4. Light bulb: 3 x 4.9 x 3 inches (USA), 6.5 × 6.5 × 14 cm (EU).
A PIN has at least one PIN Element with Management Capabilities. This PIN Element contains a list of PIN Elements that are in the PIN, what each PIN Element is allowed to do (act as a relay in the PIN, end device), if the PIN Element can be communicated with and what credentials they use to access the PIN. A PIN Device may be used to provision each PIN Element in the PIN Element that manages the PIN (PIN Element with Management Capabilities). The PIN Element with Management capability will need to know information about a PIN Element, some attributes could include:
  • Unique identifier for the PIN Element within that PIN;
  • Application(s) (e.g. Application ID) hosted on the PIN Element;
  • PIN direct connections types supported by a PIN Element
  • Metadata associated with the application (e.g. event has occurred, type of event, timestamp etc);
  • Security credentials;
Approximate no more than [500] bytes of data.
PIN Elements use PIN direct connections to communicate with each other.
Up

5.1.3  Service FlowsWord‑p. 13

5.1.3.1  GeneralWord‑p. 13

Florence (PIN-User) has decided to build a home automation network (PIN) and has purchased a number of PIN devices i.e. some light bulbs, power sockets, a gateway that acts as a voice assistant and door / window sensors (these are known as PIN Elements). The instructions on the PIN Elements indicate that the PIN Device should be no more than 100m direct line of sight from the PIN device managing the PIN however this might be affected by walls, furniture etc. To improve connectivity some PIN Elements can help extend coverage of the PIN e.g. relays (PIN Relay). The light bulbs and power sockets indicate that these devices can help extend the coverage and that the purchaser should position them around their house / condominium so that devices that cannot communicate directly with the device acting as a gateway can use multiple relays if necessary. PIN relays can also be daisy chained together to greatly improve coverage. Florence provisions her PIN Elements into the PIN Element with Management Capabilities. Checking her APP she sees one of the PIN Elements, a door sensors, is offline. Florences moves a PIN Element that acts as a relay, smart light bulb, per instructions she does a "Network configuration check" and then opens and closes the door and sees in real time the door sensor reports the action. A while later, at 10am, her son turns the light switch off as he sees it in the wrong position. Later that day Florence sees the PIN Device, door sensor, offline again as a notification has been provided on her smartphone and finds out her son turned the light switch off at 10am. She decides to install a smart light switch near the door sensor to prevent that issue of the door sensor going offline from occurring again.
Florence speaks to the voice assistant to give it a command to change the state of the light bulb, the light bulbs turns on and off in real time. The door sensor reports when the door is opened and closed with notifications on her smartphone in real-time. Later Florence install a smart door lock on the door with the door sensor. The door lock created a secure connection with the PIN. When she activates the door to open using her app she notices it takes a second before the bolt moves.
Figure 5.1.3.1-1 gives a pictorial view of the new configuration that Florence network can support where if a PIN Element fails communications can still take place via alternative route/path (see dotted blue lines). The diagram shows if the lightbulb is turned off communications can still take place via a power socket or light switch. It also shows Florence's smartphone receiving a notification of the failures.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.859, Fig. 5.1.3.1-1: light bulb failure (turned off)
Figure 5.1.3.1-1: light bulb failure (turned off)
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)
Up
When Florence installs a new PIN Element into the PIN the instructions indicate that the PIN Element with Management Capabilities has to be within 2m so that the 2 PIN Elements can successfully communicate. After that a PIN Element may use a PIN Element that extends the PIN network coverage to successfully communicate with the PIN Element with Management Capabilities.

5.1.3.2  OnboardingWord‑p. 14

When Florence first setup her PIN she had one device that was designated as a gateway UE. She is aware of the following capabilities of the gateway (it is in the instruction manual and available by the UI). Florence also configures one PIN Element to be able to adds subsequent PIN Element to the PIN by scanning in a QR or bar code from the PIN Element.
She knows that the PIN Element that needs to be added has to be within communications range of the gateway device (i.e. no relay devices can be used yet) so that it can be provisioned into the PIN. Florence is aware that she can provision devices without the gateway UE being connected to the 5G network, but if the gateway UE is connected to the 5G network it will give her the option to:
  1. allow her PIN to be more secure. In this situation the PIN Element vendor provides the credentials that need to be downloaded into the PIN Element with Gateway capability; and
  2. if a PIN Element, if it supports the capability, to have a better user experience e.g. security equipment, door locks have guaranteed real time operation. (e.g. using operator managed PIN direct connection).
In both a) and b) the PIN can function (continue to operate) when the PIN Element with Gateway capability has connectivity to Florence's service provider or does not have connectivity. In the case of b) and operator managed PIN direct connection is used the PIN element has to be in coverage of Florence's service provider.
Feature, b), requires Florence to call her service provider to activate the capability. The service provider also provides a service that allows Florence to easily move a PIN Element from using one gateway to another gateway. Service provider services are flat rate or volume charged (e.g. data size, number times operation occurs).
Florence also has the option to allow which PIN Elements can interact with other PIN Elements via the UI of the PIN device that acts as a gateway.
Up

5.1.4  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord‑p. 15

See sub-clause 5.5.5.

5.1.5  Potential RequirementsWord‑p. 15

[PR 5.1.5-1]
The 5G system shall support the ability for a network operator or authorised 3rd party to create a Personal IoT Network.
[PR 5.1.5-2]
A PIN shall support both delay and non-delay tolerant services. Maximum delay for non-delay tolerant services can be up to 200ms [4] from the sending PIN Element to the receiving PIN Element (e.g. ask the voice assistant [sending PIN Element] to turn a light on [receiving PIN Element]). Other communication KPIs are shown in Table 5.1.5-1.
Use case # Characteristic parameter Influence quantity
Communication service availability: target value [%] Communication service reliability: mean time between failures End-to-end latency: maximum Message size [byte] Transfer interval Survival time PIN Element speed # of PIN Elements in the service area Service area (note 1)
US Home99.999TBD200ms[4]TBDTBDTBDstationary[150]
(3)
214 sq m [11]
UK Home99.999TBD200ms[4]TBDTBDTBDstationary31 [12] + [12]
NOTE 1
90 sq m [13]
NOTE 1:
This assumes a UK house has medium rooms of: 3 bedrooms (2 double, 1 single), living room, kitchen, garage, 2 bathrooms, hallway and dining room. 31 sockets plus 12 lightbubs
(3)
This is based on calculation done at this website (below). However accurate references need to be provided. Figure has been increased to account for lights, appliances, door bells etc https://www.quora.com/How-many-electrical-outlets-exist-in-the-United-States-Or-how-should-I-calculate-this
[PR.5.1.5-3]
The PIN shall support fault tolerant operations.
[PR.5.1.5-4]
The 5G system shall support mechanisms to provision a PIN to use PIN direct connection in non-operator managed spectrum when it has no connectivity to the 5G system.
[PR.5.1.5-5]
The 5G system shall support mechanisms for the PIN to collect charging information (e.g. timestamp for start and stop of communications, amount of data sent/received) regarding PIN Elements that use operator managed spectrum for PIN direct connections, and to report charging data to the 5G system.
[PR.5.1.5-6]
The 5G system shall support a PIN Element using either non-operator managed credentials (e.g. provided by a third party), or credentials that are managed by a service provider (e.g. see TS 22.101, clause 26a).
[PR.5.1.5-7]
A PIN shall be able to still operate when no connectivity exists from a PIN Gateway to the 5CN and or internet.
[PR.5.1.5-8]
A PIN shall have a least one PIN Element with Management Capabilities.
[PR.5.1.5-9]
The 5G network shall be able to provide backup of management data for PIN elements with management capability based on operator's policy and local regulations.
[PR.5.1.5-10]
A PIN Element shall efficiently support a PIN discovery mechanism where PIN Elements can discover, subject to access rights:
  • identity of other PIN elements;
  • status of other PIN Element (e.g. on/off);
  • if the topology of the PIN has changed;
  • capabilities of other PIN Elements (e.g. relay, PIN Element with management capabilities, PIN Element with gateway capabilities);
  • PIN Element with gateway capability has external IP connectivity.
  • connection types support by other PIN Elements (e.g. operator managed, non-operator managed); and/or;
  • battery operated.
[PR.5.1.5-11]
The 5G System shall support mechanism(s) to identify a PIN and a PIN Element.
Up

5.1A  The lost dogWord‑p. 16

5.1A.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 16

As more and more Personal IoT Networks are deployed there starts to become ubiquitous coverage provided by these networks. This allows for new service offerings to be offered to subscribers. One such offering is where PIN network owners, via user and or service provider authorisation can allow nomadic (guest) PIN Elements to use their PIN networks to reach a specific service in the cloud or in their own personal PIN. A small amount of bandwidth can be dedicated to this. One such offering can be found here [17].
In addition, the PIN network can contain multitude of devices, some using PIN direct connection's that use operator managed spectrum and some that do not. Figure 5.1A.1-1 shows a possible guest PIN Element obtaining access via a PIN2. The user plane data is sent transparently (via a user plane pipe) from the guest PIN2 to a server in the cloud and then server communicates the user plane data to the smartphone (PIN Element) in PIN1.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.859, Fig. 5.1A.1-1: Guest PIN Element accessing a PIN
Figure 5.1A.1-1: Guest PIN Element accessing a PIN
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)
Up

5.1A.2  Pre-conditionsWord‑p. 17

Florence (Usecase 5.1 as described in Clause 5.1) who lives at number 5 has installed her PIN. Florence has signed up for the guest PIN Element offering from her MNOa.
Houses Number 7 and 25 have installed PINs. They have been given a discount by their respective MNOs if they allow guest PIN Element usage of their PINs. Guest PIN Elements only get small amount of bandwidth from the PIN Network.
Houses 7 MNOc connection is having issues and has no connectivity to the 5G system.
Adrian has a wearables PIN and has been given the same respective discount by his MNOd. He has signed up as he is pet lover and wants lost dogs to be found.
Ellen has a PIN network and has a PIN Element (dog collar) on her dog Pilot to keep a track of him, it is configured to be a guest PIN Element. When the collar detects its outside of a geofence it will report its location (10 bytes in length [18] (note)) and Ellen will be alerted within 1 second. Ellen uses MNOc. According to the instructions that came with the dog collar it states it will report its location by using other PINs that have been deployed by people (e.g. doorbells, cameras, power sockets, watches etc) and that a person who deployed them has allowed them to use guest PINs. The owner of the dog collar does not have to ask every PIN owner to allow access.
ThreeDLocation ::= SEQUENCE {
 latitude Latitude,
 longitude Longitude,
 elevation Elevation
}
MNOs provide a guarantee that guest PIN Elements will only consume X bytes a month.
Up

5.1A.3  Service FlowsWord‑p. 17

Pilot is a very smart and naughty dog, he loves to explore the neighbourhood and is an escape artist. Ellen has put a PIN Element (i.e low power tracking device) on his collar which when it is outside of a geofence area reports Pilots location. One day Pilot chases some squirrels and escapes from the backyard. As he roams the neighbourhood he passes houses with PINs, his collar reports its location via Florences network (light bulb PIN element in House 5) to a dog tracking service.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.859, Fig. 5.1A.3-1: Pilot accessing Florence's PIN
Figure 5.1A.3-1: Pilot accessing Florence's PIN
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)
Up
House 7 is next, but as it has no connectivity the dog collar makes no report. He also passes Adrian who is in the park with his dog Pongo, Pilot says hello to Pongo and runs off. Adrian has a wearable PIN network and was listening to music so didn't spot Pilot. As Pilot passed his collar reported its location via Adrians PIN.
Copy of original 3GPP image for 3GPP TS 22.859, Fig. 5.1A.3-2: Pilot accessing Adrians PIN.
Figure 5.1A.3-2: Pilot accessing Adrians PIN.
(⇒ copy of original 3GPP image)
Up
Ellen is out grocery shopping and gets notifications on her phone, Pilot was seen at 1:10pm outside House 5 (House 7 also has a PIN but had no 5G connectivity) and later in the park near the dog park area. Ellen pays for her grocery's and starts home. She sees on her smartphone Pilot has stopped at his favourite spot which happens to be by House 25 whose PIN Element door lock picked up pilots tracking device.

5.1A.4  Post-conditionsWord‑p. 18

Ellen picks up naughty Pilot and takes him home. House 5, 25 and Adrian are not even aware that Pilot was by them. They are aware that some bandwidth was used but not by whom.

5.1A.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord‑p. 18

3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.14 contains requirements regarding IoT devices accessing 5G system using a relay UE:
An IoT device which is able to connect to a UE in direct device connection mode shall have a 3GPP subscription, if the IoT device needs to be identifiable by the core network (e.g. for IoT device management purposes or to use indirect network connection mode).
This also applies when using a non-3GPP direct device connection between the IoT device and the relay UE. In this use case the IoT device needs to be identifiable by the core network as the host UE and the guest PIN element have no relationship with each other, the host UE probably does not know the guest PIN element and is not responsible for its traffic. As such lawful interception and data retention etc. as well as charging should not be based on the identity of the host UE but of the guest PIN element.
Up

5.1A.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord‑p. 18

None identified.

5.2  Positioning with VR and ARWord‑p. 19

5.2.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 19

It is more and more popular that immersive visual and game with the development of AR and VR. People are always looking for a realistic and interactive experience in the virtual and mixed world. Position tracking of UE devices (such as glasses, Handheld, and wearable devices) is crucial for the interactive experience.

5.2.2  Pre-conditionsWord‑p. 19

The PIN Element (termed for glasses, smartphone, etc. wearable devices, power point, light bulb etc.) can send out signals that can enable other PIN Elements to measure and conduct positioning based on the measurements from the signals. The PIN user is aware that they need to position a number of PIN Elements in their room / house so that their PIN Elements that participate in AR/VR games can provide precise position into AR/VR games.
The PIN Devices use PIN direct connections to communicate with each other.
There is an immersive game called NEXGalaxy. In the game, the BOAT(s) are chasing and competing for limited resources on different planets in the universe. Each player has control of the speed and direction of a BOAT with a smartphone (PIN Element). Each player is also viewing the planet with the glasses (PIN Element) they are wearing. The BOAT can also be moved laterally if the controller/player walks or jumps left and right. Depending where the player stands in the room dictates where the player starts in the game e.g. which lane etc. When the game console was setup that hosts the NEXGalaxy game the user (PIN User) had to enter the game consoles position in the room, including room rough dimensions and a rough map of major obstacles e.g. sofa, dining table etc. The map is such that participants in the game are kept at least half a bodies distance from obstacles. This allows the game console to allow a person to move around in the room without hitting obstacles there as the game requires a lot of movement, the movement being reflected as actions in the game. E.g. in NEXGalaxy there is volcano that you can look around, the game console can setup the AR such as a dining table could be the volcano and as person walks around the dining able they walk around the volcano. Players also jump to perform actions in the game, however as a person jumps they change their position in the room and the game display has to adapt to ensure the person does not hit a table, sofa, chair etc.
Friends Yuan and Xun each other their own smartphone (PIN Element) and a smartring (PIN Element). Yuan owns a pair of VR glasses (PIN Element). Each has configured a personal PIN:
  • Yuan's PIN consists of the following PIN Elements: her smartphone, smartring, 2 VR glasses, a number of smart home automation devices e.g. power socket, light bulbs;
  • Xun's PIN consists of the following PIN Elements: her smartphone and smartring.
Each PIN Element has at least an accelerometer in it.
Yuan has subscribed to a service from her service provider to provide an operator managed games service that among other things provides the ability to provide accurate absolute positioning. This operator managed game services uses the operator direct device connections capability using the operators managed spectrum.
Up

5.2.3  Service FlowsWord‑p. 19

Yuan and her friend Xun want to play the immersive game NEXGalaxy in Yuan's home. They want to enjoy virtual scenarios and real interaction in Yuan home through some PIN Elements (e.g. glasses, smartphone, and wearable devices). Yuan scans a QR code on Xun's smartphone (PIN Element) screen so that Yuan can allow Xun to play the game via Yuan smartphone (PIN Element). Yuan also lets Xun borrow one of her VR glasses (PIN Element). Xun configures her smartphone (PIN Element) to communicate with the borrowed set of VR glasses (PIN Element).
  • Yuan and Xun put on some VR glasses (PIN Element) and hold their smartphone (PIN Element) and began the games. They each control a BOAT. They start the BOAT using the smartphone (PIN Element) at the same time from the Base in MARs and compete to see who get to the Volcano first.
  • Yuan starts more quickly by controlling the BOAT using the smartphone (PIN Element).
  • Xun launches a missile targeting Yuan by using the smartphone (PIN Element) to aim at Yuan.
  • Yuan jumps right and left to avoid the missile.
  • During the time when Yuan tries to avoid the missile, Xun accelerates her BOAT through the smartphone (PIN Element) and begins to lead in the race.
  • Xun wins the game. She walks off the plane and turns her head around to check the views around the volcano. It's really beautiful.
Yuan and Xun feel excited about the games. They continue to play the game about an hour.
Up

5.2.4  Post-conditionsWord‑p. 20

Yuan and Xun take off their glasses (PIN Element) and put their smartphone (PIN Element) down. They are discussing the details in the game and check the details through replay on their smartphones.

5.2.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord‑p. 20

None identified.

5.2.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord‑p. 20

[PR 5.2.6-1]
The 5G system shall support that a PIN Element may be a member of more than one PIN.
[PR 5.2.6-2]
The 5G system shall support a PIN Element being added or removed from a PIN by an authorised 3rd party.
[PR 5.2.6-3]
The 5G system shall enable PIN direct connections between PIN Elements in a PIN to use licensed spectrum (under the control of a MNO) or between PIN Elements to use unlicensed spectrum (may be under the control of the MNO, or not).
[PR 5.2.6-4]
The 5G system shall be able to support positioning for PIN Elements in a PIN.

5.3  Media share within PINs Use caseWord‑p. 20

5.3.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 20

Nowadays a person has many electronic devices, such as smart phone, TV, earbuds, speaker, watch, and AR glasses (known as PIN Elements). Ideally the user should be able to choose the device he/she wants to watch the video/listen to the audio among all the devices the user has, with simple operation, without interruption the media being watched.
The media transmitted by a PIN Element could voice, video, Game audio/video and other type of data traffic. The media could be generated locally in the PIN network or from application server. Media share within PINs mean:
  • the owner of PIN could choose any device to play the media; or
  • the owner of PIN could switch from one PIN Element to anther PIN Element and the media continue to play during the switch between the PIN Elements.
Up

5.3.2  Pre-conditionsWord‑p. 20

The User has a smartphone (PIN Element) and at least one of smart earbuds, AR glasses, watch and TV, baby monitor speaker (PIN Elements). The first 3 (smart earbuds, AR glasses, watch) are collectively known as wearables. The collection of all 6 is known as a Personal IoT Network (PIN). All the PIN Elements communicate wirelessly using PIN direct connections.
The user uses the PIN Elements for entertainment, for example, listening to music, watching videos and having WeChat video and phone calls. The earbuds will play notifications, sound and the AR glasses will display video images and notifications. The speaker will play sound.
The user uses the PIN Element to check the real-time monitoring recording (baby camera) of the baby or the house when in or outside of house.
Media (video, audio, voice and etc.) originates from within the PIN e.g. music from smartphone, video and audio from the baby monitor.
Up

5.3.3  Service FlowsWord‑p. 21

Whenever the user listens to music, watches movie and has WeChat video and phone calls, the media(audio/video) can be shared among all the devices belonging to the same PIN, and therefore the media can be easily switched to other PIN Elements in the same PIN without interruption to the user entertainment.
Service flow 1_watch a movie:
Step 1.
The user starts to watch a movie on the smart phone. The movie is coming from a streaming platform.
Step 2.
The user finds this movie very interesting and decide to watch the movie using AR glasses for 3D audio-visual enjoyment which uses PIN direct connections to transfer the media from the smartphone to AR glasses.
Step 3.
The user wears the AR glasses and choose the movie that was being watched on the smart phone.
Step 4.
The AR glass continue to play the movie from the part that was paused on the smart phone.
Step 5.
The user starts enjoying the movie on the AR glass with better 3D audio-visual enjoyment.
Service flow 2_listening to an audio book or music
Step 1.
The User is doing housework with the speaker playing some audio book or music that are stored on the user's smartphone. The connection from the smartphone to the speaker is using PIN direct connection.
Step 2.
The user decides to go running after finishing the house work.
Step 3.
The User wears the earbuds and the audio seamlessly switched from the speaker to the earbuds that communication with the smartphone using PIN direct connection.
Step 4.
The user goes out for running wearing the earbuds and watch, without carrying the smart phone.
Step 5.
The audio continues to play while the user runs outside using the cellular network to communicate with the watch which subsequently uses direct device connection to communicate with the earbuds.
Service flow 3_ baby monitor
Step 1.
The user has bought a baby monitor (PIN Element) in their house, the instructions indicate that other PIN Elements can be used to extend the range of the baby monitor and as well if the purchaser wants they can use multiple PIN devices to make the baby monitor solution more resilient.
Step 2.
The baby is put for a daytime nap and the user needs to do some housework. The video from the camera that is in the house is sent to his smartwatch via a PIN direct connection so he can keep an eye on the baby.
Step 3.
In a few rooms of the house he has a large TV and as he goes into a room with a TV the video then appears on the TV from the baby monitor using PIN direct connections to the TV so the user can get on with what he needs to do but can keep an eye on the baby, this is more convenient than looking at a small image on the smartwatch.
Step 4.
The TV/smartwatch detects when the user cannot see the TV and stops displaying the video stream.
Step 5.
The user enters another room with a large TV and the same thing happens, again PIN direct connection is used from the video camera to the TV.
Step 6.
He then moves to the kitchen. As he is cleaning in the kitchen the baby wakes up and he hears the baby crying on the voice assistant that is in the kitchen. The voice is from the video camera and uses PIN direct connections to communicate with the voice assistant.
Step 7.
The user uses the PIN Element to check the real-time monitoring recording of the baby when outside of house.
Service flow 4_Over the top application call
Step 1.
when the user is running outside wearing his watch, that uses direct network connection, he receives an over the top application call from his friend.
Step 2.
The user starts to talking to his friend on the over the top application using his watch and his earbud while walking back home.
Step 3.
When the user arrives home, he got a notification that the battery of his watch is low, so he picks up his smartphone that uses a direct network connection and continues to talk to his friend on the over the top application using his smartphone and earbuds.
Step 4.
During his over the top application call with his friend, his friend experiences no interruption at all.
Up

5.3.4  Post-conditionsWord‑p. 22

The users can freely switch the video and/or audio between PIN Elements used and enjoy the same media (audio/video/voice calls) without interruption.

5.3.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord‑p. 22

3GPP TS 22.228 specifies the IP Multimedia (IM) Core Network (CN) subsystem inter-UE transfer (IUT), which provides the capability of continuing ongoing communication sessions with multiple media across different user equipment's (UEs) under the control of the same or different subscribers, and as part of Service Continuity (SC).
3GPP TS 22.228 is not applicable to non-IMS session inter-UE transfer when using direct device connections.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.2.3 has following requirements
  • The 5G system shall support service continuity for a remote UE, when the remote UE changes from a direct network connection to an indirect network connection and vice-versa.
  • The 5G system shall support service continuity for a remote UE, when the remote UE changes from one relay UE to another and both relay UEs use 3GPP access to the 5G core network.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.9.2.1 has the following requirements:
The 5G system shall support the relaying of traffic between a remote UE and a gNB using one or more relay UEs.
The 5G system shall be able to support a UE using simultaneous indirect and direct network connection mode.
3GPP TS 22.278 defines ProSe Group Communication:
ProSe Group Communication: a one-to-many ProSe Communication, between more than two UEs in proximity, by means of a common ProSe Communication path established between the UEs.
In TS 22.278, clause 7A.1 defines precisely the means and constraints by which ProSe Group Communication can be enabled and used.
Up

5.3.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord‑p. 22

[PR 5.3.6-1]
For intra-PIN communications, a PIN Element shall be able to transmit media to one or more PIN Element at the same time.
[PR 5.3.6-2]
A PIN Element shall support service continuity when a PIN Element changes the communication path from one PIN Element to another PIN Element. The communication path between PIN devices may include both 3GPP and non-3GPP access.
[PR 5.3.6-3]
The 5G system shall be able to support a PIN which has more than one PIN Element with Gateway Capability.
Editors Note: SA3 need to be consulted on the security aspects of having more than one PIN Element with Gateway Capability in the PIN.
Up

5.4  Switching between non-3GPP RAT and 3GPP RAT direct device connections Use caseWord‑p. 23

5.4.1  DescriptionWord‑p. 23

There are lots of cases that Smart glasses are paired with a smartphone using non 3GPP RAT for transmitting video information from the smartphone to smart glasses. However, non 3GPP RATs are based on unlicensed frequency. In some areas, if lots of people use unlicensed frequency, the quality of service will be bad. If and when the quality of service goes down the service could be switched to a 3GPP RAT (direct communications) autonomously and the user could have a better experience. In addition, the opposite could be true in that the direct communications could be congested, and therefore it makes sense that both non 3GPP RAT and direct communications could be used together.
Up

5.4.2  Pre-conditionsWord‑p. 23

Lihua has one smartphone and one smart glass. The Smartphone (PIN Element) can connect with the Smart glasses (PIN Element) using non 3GPP RAT direct device connections capability. This is Lihua's Personal IoT Network (PIN).
Lihua has also subscribed to her service provider for an operator managed video service, therefore, the Smartphone (PIN Element) can also connect with the Smart glassed (PIN Element) using the operator direct device connections capability using operators managed spectrum. The service provider bills based on data consumption, time, or the operator managed resources used for the service data transmission, e.g. operators managed spectrum. The Smart glasses (PIN Element) can determine if non 3GPP RAT and or the operator managed direct device connections capabilities are congested or not. If operator managed direct device connection service is not available e.g. out of 3GPP coverage the service will not be used by a PIN Element and non 3GPP RAT direct device connection can be used.
The Smart glass (PIN Element) can transmit the video service via both the WLAN and the operator managed direct device connections capability simultaneously. The smartphone is allowed to select to transmit over non 3GPP RAT direct device connection or the non-operator managed spectrum based on some criteria, which are provided by lihua or the operator. The smartphone (PIN Element) allows Lihua to set up a set of parameters to control the video quality when her operator managed video service will be used so that she can control the usage of her operator managed direct device connections provided service.
If requested by the operator, the Smartphone (PIN Element) collects and reports to the operator network the statistics information of the non 3GPP RAT direct device connection, such as the data volume transmitted over non 3GPP RAT direct device connection or the non-operator managed spectrum, if 3GPP authentication was used, service discovery was used.
Up

5.4.3  Service FlowsWord‑p. 23

Lihua has one smartphone (PIN Element) and one smart glasses (PIN device). The Smartphone (PIN Element) connects with the Smart glasses (PIN Element) using non 3GPP RAT direct device connection for transmitting video data from the smartphone (PIN Element) to the smart glasses (PIN Element). After work Lihua take the subway back home, she lives in Vienna that has great continuous coverage in the subway system. Lihua watches the video on her smart glasses (PIN Element). The video is being played from her smartphone (PIN Element). When Lihua enters the subway station where there are lots of people, the smart glasses (PIN Element) detects that the quality of non 3GPP RAT direct device connections is bad and the smart glasses (PIN Element) requests the smart phone (PIN Element) to switch all or some of the video packets to operator managed direct device connection service. Lihua may get a notification that this happens however it's the start of the month and she has turned off notifications. Based on some criteria, which are provided by lihua or the operator, the smart phone (PIN Element) requests from the network for some operator managed direct device connections resource to stream the video from the smartphone (PIN Element) to smart glasses (PIN Element). While the video service is transmitted from the smart phone (PIN Element) to smart glasses (PIN Element) using the operator managed direct device connection resource and when requested by the operator, the smart phone gathers the information needed for charging and reported to the operator network. The information needed for charging includes the data transmitted for the video service over the operator managed direct device connection between the PIN Element, time, the operator managed resources used for the service data transmission, e.g. operators managed spectrum and etc.
As Lihua rides the subway, more and more passengers get on. These passengers have also subscribed to the same video service. After some time, the network has limited operator managed direct device connections service resources to give Lihua. However, the smart glasses (PIN Element) finds that some non 3GPP RAT direct device connections resources can be used. The smart phone then aggregates non 3GPP RAT with operator managed direct device connection services Lihua can receive uninterrupted viewing experience.
If requested by the operator, the Smartphone (PIN Element) collects and reports to the operator network the statistics information of the non 3GPP RAT direct device connection, such as the data volume transmitted over non 3GPP RAT direct device connection or the non-operator managed spectrum if 3GPP authentication was used, service discovery was used.
Up

5.4.4  Post-conditionsWord‑p. 24

Lihua watches the movie and notices no degradation in video quality moving into and out of the subway as other people around have issues with their connectivity.

5.4.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord‑p. 24

3GPP TS 22.261 "The 5G system shall be able to support a UE using simultaneous indirect and direct network connection mode" indicates that a UE can transmit simultaneously however direct network mode is between a UE and the network. The use case in sub-clause 5.4.3 has no user plane traffic (i.e. movie) going to the network.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.3.2.1 has the following requirements:
"Based on operator policy, the 5G system shall be able to provide simultaneous data transmission via different access technologies (e.g. NR, E-UTRA, non-3GPP), to access one or more 3GPP services.
When a UE is using two or more access technologies simultaneously, the 5G system shall be able to optimally distribute user traffic over select between access technologies in use, taking into account e.g. service, traffic characteristics, radio characteristics, and UE's moving speed.
The 5G system shall be able to support data transmissions optimized for different access technologies (e.g. 3GPP, non-3GPP) for UEs that are simultaneously connected to the network via different accesses."
These requirements talk about "access technologies" which if you read TS 22.261, clause 6.3.1 identifies NR, E-UTRA and non 3GPP. There is no reference to direct device connection in the section.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.5.2 " Based on operator policy, application needs, or both, the 5G system shall support an efficient user plane path between UEs attached to the same network, modifying the path as needed when the UE moves during an active communication." This requirement is regarding a UE that connects to the network and not using direct device connectivity.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.9.2,1 contains following requirements:
"The connection between a remote UE and a relay UE shall be able to use 3GPP RAT or non-3GPP RAT and use licensed or unlicensed band.
The connection between a remote UE and a relay UE shall be able to use fixed broadband technology.
The 5G system shall be able to support a UE using simultaneous indirect and direct network connection mode."
These requirements do not make mention to any aggregating, switching or splitting of data across non-3GPP RAT and licensed 3GPP RAT.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.19,1 contains selection criteria for 3GPP access network selection. These requirements, as they for "access network" have same deficiencies as list above when analysing TS 22.261, clause 6.3.1.
3GPP TS 22.278, clauses 7A - 7C contain numerous requirements for ProSe Communication path and EPC Path. ProSe Communications path can also be WLAN. An extract from TS 22.278 is below.
7A.0A.2 ProSe Communication
ProSe Communication enables establishment of new communication paths between two or more ProSe-enabled UEs that are in Communication Range. The ProSe Communication path could use E-UTRA or WLAN. In the case of WLAN, only ProSe-assisted WLAN direct communication (i.e. when ProSe assists with connection establishment management and service continuity) is considered part of ProSe Communication.
The network controls the use of E-UTRAN resources used for ProSe Communication for a ProSe-enabled UE served by E-UTRAN. The use of ProSe Communication must be authorised by the operator.
According to operator policy a UE's communication path can be switched between an EPC Path and a ProSe Communication path and a UE can also have concurrent EPC and ProSe Communication paths.
These requirements make no reference to using non-3GPP RAT and licensed 3GPP RAT direct network connection at the same time, and hence do not cover aggregating, switching or splitting of data across. The last sentence from TS 22.278, clauses 7A illustrates that concurrent direct network connection and direct device connections are possible.
3GPP TS 22.278 "Subject to operator policy and user consent the EPC and a ProSe-enabled UE shall be capable of negotiating the move of a traffic flow between the EPC Path and the ProSe-assisted WLAN direct path." Indicates that a UE can move traffic between an EPC Path and ProSe WLAN direct path however the use case in sub-clause 5.4.3 has no user plane traffic (i.e. movie) going to the network
3GPP TS 22.278 "Both the HPLMN and VPLMN operators shall be able to charge for ProSe-assisted WLAN direct communications." however these requirements are written in the context of the network being involved and user plane traffic going to the network.
Up

5.4.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord‑p. 25

[PR 5.4.6-1]
The PIN Element can act upon user and operator preferences to aggregate, switch or split the service between non-3GPP RAT and operator managed PIN direct connection services.
[PR 5.4.6-2]
When operator managed PIN direct connections are used for PIN UE Element communications the 5G System shall be able to collect charging data, including data transmitted over the operator managed PIN direct connections between the PIN Elements, time, the operator managed resources used for the data transmission, e.g. operators managed spectrum and etc.
[PR 5.4.6-3]
When PIN UE Element uses unlicensed spectrum for direct device connections for intra PIN UE device communications the 5G System may, subject to local/regional regulations and user consent, collect statistics data, including if 3GPP authentication was used.
Up

Up   Top   ToC