Personal health monitoring devices are becoming more readily available to consumers and may be used by doctors to provide remote monitoring of patients. Doctors may provide the devices to their patients and ask the patients to regularly upload measurements to the doctor's office.
The personal health monitoring devices are PIN Elements that are designed to provide patient data to the doctor's servers via the 5G network through a gateway UE. The devices belong to doctors and/or hospitals, who are the owners of the devices, and are configured to use both cellular access networks as well as wifi networks. The devices are configured by the doctor's office or hospital with credentials belonging to the doctor or hospital to enable communications over the cellular network. Since the devices may be re-used for different patients at different times, the credentials must be offboarded and onboarded properly to ensure the collected data is associated with the correct patient. The devices can also use PIN direct connection to communicate with other PIN Elements in the network.
John has recently suffered from a heart attack and is recovering from treatments in a hospital. Before John is discharged, his cardiologist provides a heart rate monitoring device that he can use so the doctor can monitor his heart rate while doing light exercises at home. While at the hospital, the staff shows John how to associate the device with his smartphone so the device can send data to the doctor's office server through the smartphone using the cellular network. John needs to also participate in a cardiac rehabilitation program at a local clinic where nurses can monitor his heart rate when he participates in a medically supervised exercise program. He attends the clinic 3 days a week and for other days of the week, John is encouraged to exercise lightly at home. While at the clinic, the heart rate data is shared with the clinic, which is reported back to John's doctor. He uses the heart rate monitoring device provided by his doctor to record his heart rate while exercising at home and also when he is resting. However, John needs to be careful to maintain his heart rate within a safe range as to not overextend his heart and trigger another heart attack. To ensure the data can still be sent to the doctor's office in case there is an issue with John's smartphone, John also associate the device with his spouse's smartphone. This would provide redundancy for when John is walking outside.
John also suffers from diabetes and his endocrinologist has provided him with a glucose monitoring device. The glucose monitoring device is a PIN Element that is configured with credentials belonging to his endocrinologist so that measurements from the device can be sent to the endocrinologist's servers via the 5G network. Similar to the heart rate monitoring device, credentials must be offboarded and onboarded to ensure the collected data is associated with the correct patient. John needs to measure his glucose levels before and after each meal and sometimes on-demand if requested by his endocrinologist or when John experiences unusual symptoms. John needs to maintain his blood sugar level above a certain level to avoid experiencing hypoglycemia symptoms such as dizziness, trembling, weakness, seizures, or even loss of consciousness.
Since both the heart monitoring device and the glucose monitoring device may provide measurements that indicate a life-threatening situation, the devices are configured to provide redundant access to the 5G network to ensure John's doctors are notified in case the measurements are beyond safe levels. The devices are configured to be able to connect to multiple gateway UEs to provide concurrent access for the devices to send measurements to his doctors in case of emergency. The devices can connect to and send measurements through both John's smartphone and his spouse's smartphone in addition to connecting to and sending measurements through his home network.
When John visits his daughter's house, he brings both the heart rate monitoring device and the glucose monitoring device so he can continue to provide measurements to both his doctors. The PIN Elements may communicate concurrently to the gateway UE at his daughter's house (if one is available) John's smartphone, and his daughter's smartphone if an emergency arises. Either way, the data traffic sent from each device is charged to the respective doctor's. servers (PIN Elements).
John's doctors are able to monitor his health remotely through the measurements provided by the PIN Elements.
John doesn't need to see his doctors as often as he recovers and if his vitals show he is relatively in good health.
The 5G system can correctly identify traffic sent by each PIN Element and generate the appropriate charging records.
The 5G system can provide network access for PIN Elements in medical emergency situations.
From TS 22.101,
The 3GPP system shall be able to provide User Identities with related User Identifiers for a user.
The User Identifier may be provided by some entity within the operator's network or by a 3rd party.
The 3GPP network shall be able to provide a User Identifier for a non-3GPP device that is connected to the network via a UE that acts as a gateway.
From TS 22.115,
The 3GPP system shall be able to create charging data containing the User Identifier and the subscription to which it is linked for access and use of network services by a non-3GPP device that was authorized with its User Identifier linked to a subscription.
A PIN Element shall be aware in case of loss of its connectivity to 5GS.
The 5G system shall support a PIN Element to be configured with credentials of multiple user identities.
The 5G system shall support access to the 5G network and its services for an authorized PIN Element (linked to a 3GPP subscription and provisioned with credentials) via one or more PIN Element with Gateway Capability.
A PIN Element with Management Capability shall be able to assist a PIN Element that lost its connection to the 5G network in establishing a connection to another PIN Element with Gateway Capability.
A PIN Element shall be able to discover PIN Elements with Gateway Capability and PIN Elements with Management Capability.
Nowadays, most of the operators and smartphones provide a personal hotspot service, which allows the phone to become a WLAN hotspot that provides internet connections to other devices via the UE's mobile connections. But this only provides internet connectivity to those devices while the smartphone only acts as connection gateway. With the deployment of PIN and the support of the Mobile operators to use this as a new added value service, authorized mobile devices, such as smartphones, tablets, CPEs can be also used as a PIN gateway to dynamically create and manage an on-demand temporary PIN. This on-demand PIN will not only provides connectivity to the devices in the proximity, but also provides more flexibility and authority to the PIN-user to manage the PIN, such as to decide which devices to be connected into this PIN; to manage the service and the traffic within the PIN, so on.
The PIN uses licensed spectrum as well as unlicensed spectrum, Therefore, the creation and management of this type of on-demand PIN requires the authorization and supervision from the PLMN that owns the license spectrum. The PLMN can offer this new on-demand PIN service in certain constrained locations for authorized users with authorized devices. Although the on-demand PIN is provided and controlled by the PLMN, the authorized user of the on-demand PIN can have certain flexibility to manage this PIN, such as to decide when to create and terminate the PIN, coordinate with PLMN to authorize the devices to be allowed to access this PIN, manage the services being allowed in this PIN, so on.
Tom is an avid game player and his local operator M offers a service where by the operator allows a customer to create on-demand PIN and download games to PIN element(s) with gateway and management functionality (e.g. 5G home access router as example in this use case, but it can also be a mobile phone so that the players can create a gaming session everywhere, e.g. at the school yard or in the park), the home access router is provided by operator M and supports device connectivity using a variety of access technologies (e.g. operator managed 3GPP RAT, WLAN, Bluetooth®). Collectively operator M calls this "PIN Functionality"
The 5G home access router also stores games meta data that can be uploaded Operator's M network so that the game can be played later on other PIN element(s) or the same 5G home access router at different location.
Today is the game night, Tom invites his friend Mike, James and Howard to his house to try the new air-combat video game that he just bought recently. The air-combat video game provider has partnership with the Operator M which hosts the game edge server in its network. Tom installed a local version of the game applicationin the 5G home access router.
Mike, James and Howard bring their own wireless game consoles as well as wireless VR glasses. Mike, James's console and VR glasses are 5G capable of supporting 26GHz spectrum with the subscription of operator M. Howard has the subscription of Operator A for his 5G game console which also support WLAN and Bluetooth®. Howard also has a VR glass which can link to his 5G game console with PIN direct connection, such as Bluetooth®.
After his friends arrive, Tom turns on its PIN function in his 5G access router. This 5G router sends on-demand PIN creation authentication and authorization request to Operator M, for creating a PIN in this device for 4 hours in his house using mmWave spectrum owned by M. Per the subscription Tom bought, the maximum number of devices to be allowed in this PIN is 10, and tonight he only requires 8 devices. Because the on-demand PIN subscription which Tom bought is the basic and only allows local traffic, it means that guest devices in this PIN will not be able to access services outside the PIN. The PIN subscription also has other restrictions, such as the PIN only allowed operating in Tom's house and for maximum 10 hours for each time the PIN being created.
Mike and James have connected to Tom's game night PIN before on other game nights, so their devices automatically discover and connect their 5G home access router and VR glasses to this PIN after being authenticated & authorized via Tom's 5G home access router. It's Howard first time to use the PIN, and since he has no subscription of M, he has to manually select and connect his game console to "game night" PIN using WLAN.
An local game server is created and hosted in the 5G router after the PIN is up, so everyone's game consoles can be connected to that local game server for playing locally. Before coming to Tom's house, James played the game at his home and his game console was connected to the game server hosted in the PLMN's cloud. After being connected to "game night" PIN, James's connection with the game server is relocated to the local game service in the "game night" PIN. Within this PIN, Tom, Mike, James's game consoles and VR glasses can communicate with each other using direct device communication with the26Ghz spectrum, while their consoles communicate with the local game server via Tom's 5G home access router. Howard's console can communicate with others' consoles and the local game server via the connection to Tom's 5G Home access router using WLAN.
Tom's' 5G home access router monitors and controls the communication of those devices in "game night" PIN based on the policy from M, also may coordinate with M for some necessary network managements, such as interference management.
All the gaming content being exchanged between these players is conveyed locally, only the game status information can be conveyed back to the central game server in the cloud via the local game function in Tom's 5G home access router.
Because the PIN is created for only 4 hours, the service and connections associated with PIN elements as well as operators 5GC are configured accordingly to the lifetime of the PIN, to avoid sudden service disruption when the PIN has ended after time life expires.
Tom and Mike are one team to against the team of James and Howard in the game. Tom and Mike establish an encrypted communication between their game consoles to exchanges some private information (e.g. screen shots, game maps, private chat, voice etc), while another secured communication between James and Howard's devices is also created.
Tom, Mike, James and Howard happily play the game in Tom's house for 3 hours. After 3 hours, they are so into the game and don't want to finish in 1 hour and decide to extend the game night for 3 more hours. So, Tom sends the PIN modification request to M to extend the PIN for 3 more hour and is approved. When 7 hour PIN life time expires, all the game consoles and VR glasses have been disconnected from the PIN as well as the game service, then the "game night" PIN is terminated. 5G access route sends the charging information for this 7-hour operation of PIN.
5G system shall be able to support creation / termination / modification of an PIN in certain location for a requested period of time (e.g., hours) with the authorization from the operator based on the subscription of the PIN-User.
5G system shall be able to allow authorized PIN Elements automatically or manually to discover other PIN element(s) for communication.
5G system shall be able to support authentication and authorization of PIN elements whose subscriptions can belong to different operators to access the PIN.
5G system shall be able to support secured communications between two or more individual PIN elements within a PIN.
5G system shall be able to support mechanism to provide life span information of the PIN to an authorized party and/or the PIN elements when the PIN is created for limited time span.
5G system shall be able to support an authorized party to set policies on which PIN Elements can access which services or PIN elements in an PIN.
5G system shall be able to support an authorized party to set policies duration of access, IP connectivity type (local break out 5GC etc) local services etc.
Bob has a mobile subscription with MNOa.
Bob has a smart home network using a gateway (i.e. a PIN Element with Gateway Capability) that is provided and managed by MNOa.
Bob's smart home network supports several wireless technologies, including 3GPP direct device connection, WLAN, Bluetooth®, wireline, etc.
The 5G network of MNOa has a list (also referred to as a collection or group) of PIN Elements in Bob's smart home network, which can be managed by the 5G network. This list is called the list of managed PIN Elements. This list contains information for each PIN Element, such as an identity, connectivity capabilities, credentials, communication restrictions (e.g. other PIN Elements it cannot communicate with), etc.
The service requirements in TS 22.101, clause 26a provide the principle for user centric identifiers and authentication by the 3GPP system:
The 3GPP System shall support operators to act as User Identity provider and to authenticate users for accessing operator and non-operator deployed (i.e. external non-3GPP) services.
This use case and requirements consider that the application running on the PIN Element is a non-operator deployed (i.e. external non-3GPP) services behind a PIN Element with Gateway Capability in PIN.
Hummel is a 70-year-old cardiac patient who is equipped with a pacemaker at the TeleCare hospital, who have their own 5G network. During the recent remote intervention, the doctors decided that he must admit himself for a surgery to replace the batteries of his pacemaker. In order to monitor the health of his heart continuously, Hummel has received a 5G enabled wearable heart monitor from another hospital, which is capable of continuously monitoring the vitals including the heartrate and send its data via a 5G network to a cloud server. He also has other personal connected health devices such as an SpO2 monitor and a connected insulin pump attached to his body that are wirelessly connected to his mobile phone for complete overview of his health. He also has a special sleep mask enabling him to breathe better during his sleep and monitor the quality of his sleep that is also connected to his mobile phone when he is using it. It is assumed that all his health devices are clinically qualified to be used for diagnosis in a hospital.
Upon arriving at the hospital reception, Hummel is immediately directed to the cardiology department, where a 5G enabled smart hospital bed is allocated for him. The smart hospital bed is configured as a PIN element with gateway capability and with management capability. The smart hospital bed enables personal devices of the patient to be connected to the 5G network of the hospital. It also allows some of the PIN elements connected to the hospital bed, such as some controls over the elevation of the head of the bed and a personal screen connected to the bed (e.g. to watch TV or to stream some video content to watch). The hospital bed is also connected to a high-end patient monitor, located behind the patient. Although it cannot be controlled by the patient, the output of the monitor can be displayed and browsed by the patient on his mobile phone or the attached personal screen.
Upon reaching the smart hospital bed, the devices that are carried and worn by Hummel and the hospital bed (with its connected PIN elements) can discover each other, and together form a PIN. Via the smart hospital bed, the necessary credentials to securely communicate with each other, and to connect to the hospital 5G network are downloaded and configured in Hummel's devices. The data from Hummel's health devices can now be sent to the TeleCare's 5G network, where it can be processed and used for health monitoring by the hospital staff. The high-end patient monitor linked to the smart hospital bed can receive the data from Hummel's devices directly from the devices and generate an alarm if Hummel's condition deteriorates. Using the PIN, Hummel can also control the elevation of his bed via his mobile phone and stream some videos from his mobile phone on the screen connected to the bed, and browse the output of the patient monitor.
Hummel has a 5G PIN enabled mobile phone (i.e. a UE), with several personal health devices wirelessly connected to it. The mobile phone may be a PIN element with gateway capability and/or management capability.
Hummel also has a 5G PIN enabled wearable heart monitor capable of sending its data via a 5G network to a cloud server.
The hospital bed is 5G PIN enabled UE and is a PIN element with gateway capability and/or management capability. For its management capability it may use the attached screen to display a user interface to the user.
TeleCare may function as an NPN, preventing full access to the network services for unregistered devices. TeleCare may deploy not only a single NPN, but may deploy multiple NPNs, e.g. one for staff (with full access to the network services) and one for patients (with limited access to the network services).
Upon entering the cardiology department inpatient room, Hummel's mobile phone and the smart hospital bed can discover each other. Also the 5G PIN enabled wearable heart monitor and the smart hospital bed can discover each other.
When Hummel looks at his mobile phone, he notices that it has discovered the smart hospital bed. It also shows the list of connected PIN elements connected to the hospital bed.
Hummel can connect his mobile phone to the smart hospital bed and upon connecting, Hummel's mobile phone gets added to the hospital's bed PIN. Also the personal devices that are connected to Hummel's mobile phone can be discovered by the hospital bed and added to the hospital bed's PIN. Hummel can decide which personal devices can be discovered and added to the hospital bed's PIN. Similarly, the IT department of the hospital can decide which devices of the hospital bed's PIN can be discovered by Hummel's mobile phone and/or other UEs outside the PIN.
On the screen of the mobile phone (or the screen attached to the hospital bed), it also shows that the 5G PIN enabled wearable heart monitor in the list of discovered PIN elements. Hummel presses a button to also add that device to the hospital bed's PIN.
After exchange of credentials, the PIN elements can now securely communicate between each other. This allows Hummel to use the screen attached to the bed for streaming some videos from his mobile phone, allows the data from his heart monitor to be received by the high-end patient monitor, and show the patient monitor's data on his mobile phone.
As part of the PIN configuration, the PIN elements are also allowed to gain patient access to the hospital network (via the hospital bed's PIN gateway capability). On the screen of his mobile phone (or the screen attached to the hospital bed), Hummel allows his wearable heart monitor and his other connected health devices to send their data to the hospital network.
The data from the connected devices are useful in improving the pre-surgical preparation of Hummel and saves operational overhead for the hospital staffs.
Thanks to the PIN feature, Hummel had an easy transfer to the hospital and had a fairly comfortable experience (despite his condition) in his smart hospital bed.
Upon discharge, the network profiles from his mobile phone, his heart monitor and his personal connected health devices are decommissioned from the PIN and from the hospital network and return to their original operating state.