The present document is aiming at documenting potential new use cases and service requirements to enhance 5GS for the support of Personal IoT networks (PINs), including when the PIN is connected to 5GC.
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Christiane Attig, Nadine Rauh, Thomas Franke, & Josef F. Krems (May 2017) "System Latency Guidelines Then and Now - is Zero Latency Really Considered Necessary? https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317801643_System_Latency_Guidelines_Then_and_Now_-_Is_Zero_Latency_Really_Considered_Necessary/link/5ae18fc4458515c60f662370/download
For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
direct device connection:
For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
IoT capabilities have been designed for devices that communicate using the traditional cellular network, including battery constrained devices where it is expected that the battery should last in the order of years. Recently standards have been extended to support more vertical IoT devices for factory based, audio visual, medical, mission critical and vehicular solutions. In some contexts, e.g. factory based solutions the concept of a private network has been introduced, this has the added benefit for devices that generate very little user plane traffic (e.g. sensors etc.) the traditional cellular operator might not have to dedicate resources to them in the network and the traffic can stay within the local "factory (private network) environment". There are 2 consumer segments that have similar traffic characteristics where private networks provide an advantage, where communications are predominately within the constraints of a localized IoT network:
For the purpose of this discussion these will be called "Personal IoT networks" (PINs). These types of networks are very different to commercial IoT device, they are usually less rugged, most highly battery constrained and lifespan of the battery typically a couple of days or weeks. User plane traffic typically stays with a constrained environment, around the body or in the home i.e. within the PIN. Notifications can be received on smartphones that events have occurred within the PIN.
PINs have been around for a long time using others standards however their take up / adoption rate has been low compared to the general smartphone UE.
An example of a home automation PIN can be seen in Figure 4-1 where there are a number of devices in the home that either communicate directly with the hub or indirectly via a relay to the hub. A smartphone in the 5G system can receive notifications regarding events (e.g. door opens) from the home automation PIN.
Wearables can use a multitude of different access technologies, battery life can in some situations be severely constrained just by the physical dimension limitations e.g. glasses frames, earbuds, blood pressure monitor, pacemaker and rings. Space is also at a premium, capabilities are limited (memory, processing power, even USIM functionality might not be available). Location requirements on wearable devices, especially those with Uu interfaces can contribute to battery drain. Earbuds / Rings are very small, even an ESIM chip takes up valuable space, battery consumption and adds weight to the device. Figure 4-2 shows two wearable networks, one where all the devices communicate via the smartphone and another where glasses act as a relay for smart earbuds.