Content for  TR 22.804  Word version:  16.3.0

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0  Introductionp. 13

5G systems will extend mobile communication services beyond mobile telephony, mobile broadband, and massive machine-type communication into new application domains, so-called vertical domains, with special requirements toward communication services. Communication for automation in vertical domains comes with demanding requirements -high availability, high reliability, low latency, and, in some cases, high-accuracy positioning.
Communication for automation in vertical domains has to support the applications for production in the corresponding vertical domain, for instance, industrial automation and energy automation, but also transportation. This focus-together with regulations specific for vertical domains-have led to tailored communication concepts in vertical domains such as dependable communication as well as specific security standards and mechanisms. The present document provides an overview on these concepts, in order to foster a common understanding used in communication for automation in vertical domains and 5G communication services, as well as the inference of a common terminology.
Many vertical use cases have been analysed by 3GPP and resulted in several vertical communication requirements that are already part of TS 22.261. Besides the already specified KPIs for latency, jitter, reliability, communication service availability, and data rate, other general vertical communication requirements need to be transposed into potential service requirements for 5G systems.
Communication for automation in vertical domains may take place in type-a and/or type-b networks. Network monitoring interfaces are necessary in order to assure network operation (SLAs). Multiple verticals and users might be using the same 5G communication network (multi-tenancy). Furthermore, vertical domains have their own security standards, implementations, and vertical-domain specific regulations, leading to stage-1 potential security requirements. Finally, integration between 5G communication systems and already existing communication networks of vertical domains is required.
Several missing representative vertical use cases for communication in automation in vertical domains are described in the present document and used for the derivation of further stage-1 potential requirements. These use cases focus on low latency, high reliability, and high communication service availability. Examples are automated guided vehicles and rail-bound mass transit (subways and suburban rail).
The present document provides new use cases and stage 1 potential requirements that have not yet been covered in previous stage 1 specifications. It is based on input from relevant stakeholders of the respective vertical domains.

1  Scopep. 14

The present document focuses on 5G communication for automation in vertical domains. This is communication that is involved in the production of and working on work pieces and goods, and/or the delivery of services in the physical world. Such communication often necessitates low latency, high reliability, and high communication service availability. Nevertheless, other types of communication are also possible in this area. Moreover, communications with low latency, high reliability, and high communication service availability, and other, not so demanding communication services, may run in parallel on the same 5G infrastructure.
The present document identifies stage 1 potential requirements for 5G communication for automation in vertical domains. The potential requirements are derived from different sources:
  • existing work on dependable communication as used in vertical domains; see, for instance, IEC 61907 [2];
  • use cases describing network operation in vertical domains with, for instance, common usage of the network (multi-tenancy) and network monitoring for assurance of service level agreements;
  • security mechanisms already used in vertical domains; supporting the specific security requirements of vertical domains;
  • new (additional to already existing stage-1 work), representative use cases in different vertical domains based on input from relevant vertical interest organisations and other stakeholders.
Furthermore, the present document provides an overview of relevant communication concepts for automation in vertical domains from the point of view of 5G systems. This overview is provided in order to facilitate the mapping between communication for automation in vertical domains and communication in 5G systems.

2  Referencesp. 14

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non-specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
IEC 61907: "Communication network dependability engineering", 2009.
TS 22.261: "Service requirements for the 5G system".
IEC 62290-1: "Railway applications - Urban guided transport management and command/control systems - Part 1: System principles and fundamental concepts".
TTA TTAK KO-06.0-369: "Functional Requirements for LTE-Based Communication System", Oct. 2014.
J. Kim, S. W. Choi, Y.-S. Song, and Y.-K. Kim, "Automatic train control over LTE: Design and performance evaluation": IEEE Comm. Mag., Vol. 53, No. 10, pp. 102-109, Oct. 2015.
IEEE 1474.1-2004: "IEEE Standard for Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) Performance and Functional Requirements".
[8]  (Void)
Deterministic Networking: bas-usecase-detnet, IETF, October 2015
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop, "Modern Control Systems": Pearson, Harlow, 13th Edition, 2017.
Ernie Hayden, Michael Assante, and Tim Conway, "An Abbreviated History of Automation & Industrial Controls Systems and Cybersecurity": SANS Institute, {accessed: 2017-05-23}, 2014.
Gartner, "Gartner IT Glossary - Operational Technology": {accessed: 2017-08-01}.
ITU Study Group Q.22/1, "Report on Best Practices for a National Approach to Cybersecurity: A Management Framework for Organizing National Cybersecurity Efforts", 2008.
Gartner, "Gartner Says the Worlds of IT and Operational Technology Are Converging": {accessed: 2017-08-01}, 2011.
[16]  (void)
BZKI, "Aspects of dependability assessment in ZDKI": June 2017.
BZKI, "Requirement Profiles in ZDKI": 2017.
IEC 62657-1: "Industrial communication networks - Wireless communication networks - Part 1: Wireless communication requirements and spectrum considerations".
ISO 10795: "Space systems - Programme management and quality - Vocabulary", 2011.
20/53/EU: "Directive 2014/53/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 April 2014 on the harmonisation of the laws of the Member States relating to the making available on the market of radio equipment and repealing Directive 1999/5/EC",, {accessed: 2017-08-03}.
ITU-T G.1000: "Communications quality of service: A framework and definitions", 2001.
NIST, "Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems": Release 1.0, {accessed: 2017-08-04}, 2016.
IEC 62673: "Methodology for communication network dependability assessment and assurance".
IEC 61784-3: "Industrial communication networks - profiles - part 3: functional fieldbuses - general rules and profile definitions", 2016.
IEC 62439-1: "Industrial communication networks - High availability automation networks - Part 1: General concepts and calculation methods".
H. Kagermann, W. Wahlster, and J. Helbig, "Recommendations for implementing the strategic initiative INDUSTRIE 4.0": Final report of the Industrie 4.0 working group, acatech - National Academy of Science and Engineering, Munich, April 2013
IEC 61158: "Industrial communication networks - fieldbus specification", 2014.
IEC 61784: "Industrial communication networks - profiles", 2014.
R. Zurawski, "Industrial communication technology handbook": second edition, CRC Press, September 2017.
IEC 61508: "Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems", 2010.
IEC 62061: "Safety of machinery - Functional safety of safety-related electrical, electronic and programmable electronic control systems" (IEC 62061:2005 + A1:2012).
A. Manjeshwar and D.P. Agrawal, "TEEN: a routing protocol for enhanced efficiency in wireless sensor networks.": In Proceedings 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium. IPDPS 2001. IEEE Comput. Soc., 2001.
M. A. Mahmood, W. K. G. Seah, and I. Welch, I., "Reliability in wireless sensor networks: A survey and challenges ahead.": Computer Networks, Vol. 79, pp. 166-187, 2015.
Bosch Connected Devices and Solutions GmbH, "Cross Domain Development Kit | XDK, Bosch XDK110 datasheet": April 2017. [Revised July 2017].
B. E. Keiser and E. Strange, "Pulse Code Modulation.": in Digital Telephony and Network Integration (pp. 19-34). Springer Netherlands., 1985.
ISO/IED 13818-3: "Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information - Part 3: Audio", 1998.
Zhao, G., "Wireless sensor networks for industrial process monitoring and control: A survey.": Network Protocols and Algorithms, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 46-63, 2011.
G. Ullrich, "Automated Guided Vehicle Systems - A Primer with Practical Applications.": ISBN 978-3-662-44813-7, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2015.
IEC 62443: "Industrial communication networks - Network and system security".
IEC 62443-3-2: "Industrial communication networks - Network and system security - Part 3-2: Security risk assessment and system design", in progress.
IEC 62443-3-3: "Industrial communication networks - Network and system security - Part 3-3: System security requirements and security levels", 2013.
ZVEI, "Working ZVEI Whitepaper - Security Interessen für die 5G Standardisierung": (in German), {accessed: 2017-07-25}, 2017.
Avizienis, Algirdas, et al. "Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing.": Dependable and Secure Computing, IEEE Transactions on, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 11-33, 2004.
DKE-IEV: German online edition of the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV), DKE - Deutsche Kommission Elektrotechnik Elektronik Informationstechnik in DIN und VDE, (German Commission Electrical Technology Electronics Information Technology),
RESERVE project, Deliverable D1.3, ICT Requirements:, September 2017.
RESERVE project, Deliverable D1.2, Energy System Requirements:, September 2017.
U. Feuchtinger, R. Frank, J. Riedl, and K. Eger, Smart Communications for Smart Grids, Siemens White Paper: 2012.
[49]  (Void)
J. Pilz, B. Holfeld, A. Schmidt, and K. Septinus, "Professional live audio production - A highly synchronized Use Case for 5G URLLC Systems": IEEE Network., Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 85-91, 2018.
TS 33.501: "Security architecture and procedures for 5G System".
Plattform Industrie 4.0, "Industrie 4.0 Plug-and-Produce for Adaptable Factories: Example Use Case Definition, Models, and Implementation": Working Paper, Berlin, June 2017.
ISO GUIDE 98-1: "Uncertainty of measurement - Part 1: Introduction to the expression of uncertainty in measurement", 2009.
ISO/IEC 20000-1:"Information technology, service management, part 1, service management requirements", 2011.
ETSI GS NFV 003: "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Terminology for Main Concepts in NFV", V1.2.1, 2014.
QuEST Forum, "TL 9000 Measurements Handbook": Release 5, 2012.
ETSI TR 103 375: SmartM2M IoT Standards landscape and future evolution
E. Grossman (Ed.), "Deterministic Networking Use Cases": IETF Draft draft-ietf-detnet-use-cases-13, Work in progress, September 2017.
VirtuWind, Deliverable D2.4, "Techno-economic Framework and Cost Models": EU H2020 Project VirtuWind, version 1.0, August 2016.
IEC 62657-2: "Industrial communication networks - Wireless communication networks - Part 2: Coexistence management", 2017.
G. Garner, "Designing Last Mile Communications Infrastructures for Intelligent Utility Networks (Smart Grids)": IBM Australia Limited, 2010.
B. Al-Omar, B., A. R. Al-Ali, R. Ahmed, and T. Landolsi, "Role of Information and Communication Technologies in the Smart Grid": Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences, Vol. 3, pp. 707-716, 2015.
Reliable Low Latency Wireless Communication Enabling Industrial Mobile Control and Safety Applications: Vodafone Chair Mobile Communications Systems, Technische Universität Dresden.
Network-based communication for Industrie 4.0: Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)
2015 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN): 13-16 October 2015, Banff, Alberta, Canada, Sensor Fusion for Indoor Navigation and Tracking of Automated Guided Vehicles, Risang Gatot Yudanto, Frederik Petré
2018 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN): 24-27 September 2018, Nantes, France, Location Awareness and Context Detection for hand-held Tools in Production Processes, Fraunhofer IIS, Paper is expected to be published via IEEE Digital Xplore in October 2018
IEC 61512: "Batch control - Part 1: Models and terminology"

3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviationsp. 18

3.1  Definitionsp. 18

For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
Service provider managing a system of electric generation units, storage systems, and load (consumers), with independent control and customer support in its own coverage area.
the automatic operation or control of a process, device, or system.
characteristic parameter:
numerical value that can be used for characterising the dynamic behaviour of communication functionality from an application point of view.
clock synchronisation service:
the service to align otherwise independent UE clocks.
clock synchronicity:
the maximum allowed time offset within the fully synchronised system between UE clocks.
communication service availability:
percentage value of the amount of time the end-to-end communication service is delivered according to an agreed QoS, divided by the amount of time the system is expected to deliver the end-to-end service according to the specification in a specific area.
communication service reliability:
ability of the communication service to perform as required for a given time interval, under given conditions.
end-to-end latency:
the time that takes to transfer a given piece of information from a source to a destination, measured at the communication interface, from the moment it is transmitted by the source to the moment it is successfully received at the destination.
factory automation:
automation application in industrial automation branches typically with discrete characteristics of the application to be automated with specific requirements for determinism, low latency, reliability, redundancy, cyber security, and functional safety.
IoT device:
a type of UE which is dedicated for a set of specific use cases or services and which is allowed to make use of certain features restricted to this type of UEs.
the time characteristic of an event or signal that is recurring at known, periodic time intervals.
influence quantity:
quantity not essential for the performance of an item but affecting its performance.
the maximum deviation of a time parameter relative to a reference or target value
Local grid, with own energy generation and power consumption; limited geographical area, typical example: power network for a university campus.
private slice:
a dedicated network slice deployment for the sole use by a specific tenant.
process automation:
automation application in industrial automation branches typically with continuous characteristics of the application to be automated with specific requirements for determinism, reliability, redundancy, cyber security, and functional safety.
renewable generators:
photovoltaic panels or wind turbines; energy generation unit.
survival time:
the time that an application consuming a communication service may continue without an anticipated message.
transmission time:
the interval from a start event at the reference interface of a source until a stop event of the same transmission at the reference interface of a target.
type-a network:
a 3GPP network that is not for public use and for which service continuity and roaming with a PLMN is possible.
type-b network:
an isolated 3GPP network that does not interact with a PLMN.
update time:
the interval from a start event at the reference interface of a target until a following stop event at the same reference interface.
up state: state of being able to perform as required.
up time: time interval for which the item is in an up state.
user equipment:
An equipment that allows a user access to network services via 3GPP and/or non-3GPP accesses.
user experienced data rate:
the minimum data rate required to achieve a sufficient quality experience, with the exception of scenario for broadcast like services where the given value is the maximum that is needed.
vertical domain:
a particular industry or group of enterprises in which similar products or services are developed, produced, and provided.

3.2  Symbolsp. 20

For the purposes of the present document, the following symbols apply:
Cycle time of a cyclic data communication service

3.3  Abbreviationsp. 20

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
Fifth Generation
Alternating Current
Automated Guided Vehicle
Augmented Reality
Controller Area Network
Closed Circuit Television
Cyclic Redundancy Check
Down Link
Distribution Management System
Differential Protection
Distribution System Operator
Distribution Termination Units
Extensible Authentication Protocol
Engine Control Unit
Energy Management System
Enterprise Resource Planning
First in, First out
Foundational Requirement
Grade of Automation
Global Navigation Satellite System
High definition
Heavy Good Vehicle
Human-Machine Interface
High-Voltage Alternating Current
High-Voltage Direct Current
International Electrotechnical Commission
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
In-Ear Monitor
Inverter, electronic power converter, with co-located communications and data processing unit
Isolated E-UTRAN Operation for Public Safety
Internet of Things
IP Security
Information Technology
Licensed-Assisted Access
Line of Sight
Micro Data Centre
Multi-Access Edge Computing
Manufacturing Execution System
Machine Learning
Mobile Network Operator
Manufactured Product as a Smart Client
Mass Transit Train Control
Operational Technology
Over the Top
Public Address
Protocol Data Unit
Packet Error Ratio
Programmable Logic Controller
Programme Making and Special Events
Phasor Measurement Unit
Power Station
Precision Time Protocol
Requirement Enhancement
Renewable Energy Sources
Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
Security Level
Security Requirement
Transmission System Operator
Up Link
Virtual LAN
Virtual Reality
Wireless Sensor Network
Wireless Wide Area Network

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