In many cases, residential indoor coverage will require the deployment of indoor base stations or access points. Especially for multimedia services like UHD TV, or AR/VR gaming high bitrates are needed. This in turn requires the use of higher frequency bands (e.g. 3.5 GHz or 26/28 GHz for NR or 5 GHz, 6 GHz or 60 GHz for WiFi based radio access). At these frequencies, outdoor to indoor coverage from an outdoor PLMN is challenging. Also indoor penetration throughout a house is problematic, requiring multiple Premises Radio Access Stations (PRASs).
For 5G services that require specific QoS (e.g. guaranteed bitrate, latency) or e.g. that rely on edge applications, it is important that the 5G network can differentiate the related service data flows in order to treat them accordingly. This also applies in case a PRAS is connected via an evolved Residential Gateway (eRG) and an indoor infrastructure. In the Wireline Wireless Convergence work between 3GPP and BBF, the eRG is seen as an UE. That way the eRG can request QoS for the fixed access network. Also on the radio interface between the UE and the PRAS, QoS control can work as normal. An issue however is how QoS is provided on the backhaul between the PRAS and the eRG and in the eRG. It is not guaranteed that this backhaul has sufficient QoS. Also prioritization of specific service data flows may be needed to provide the expected QoS. Finally, the eRG may have to request specific QoS for the fixed access network for specific service data flows.
Teenagers Oliver and Scott are avid gamers. They get together in the games room in the basement of Scott's house and discuss the new game that has become available that day. Scott decides to download the new game on his laptop. The size of that game is over 100 Gbyte so even on 5G it will take a while. Good thing that Scott's parents had PRASs installed in the house. 5G coverage would otherwise have been dismal in the basement and downloading would have taken forever.
While the game is downloading, Oliver and Scott decide to play their favorite multi-user AR/VR game. Each put on a VR headset, get a controller and start gaming. The AR/VR game they play is cloud based with rendering in an edge node. This way they can play the game wherever they want and still have optimal quality of experience. The low latency ensures they have no 'lag' when they move their head or when they try to shoot each other in the game. Good thing also that the 5G system makes sure that the AR/VR game is prioritized over downloading the game. That the download takes a bit more time is not a big issue, but without the usual settings for frames per second and resolution or with additional lag because of the download the game would be 'unplayable'.
The game consoles have set up a 5G connection to the Premises Radio Access Stations (PRAS). They have requested the same session with the same QoS, DNN, Slice, et cetera as they would have done with an outdoor base station.
The eRG ensures that prioritization within the eRG and Customer Premises Network takes requested QoS into account. This e.g. implies that the AR/VR game gets priority over the downloading of the game.
The eRG also ensures that the 5G core network can differentiate the service data flows for the AR/VR games from general Internet access, to ensure that specific handling of these service data flows (e.g. routing to an edge node) is possible.
3GPP TS 22.220"Service requirements for Home Node B (HNB) and Home eNode B (HeNB)" specifies requirements for indoor base stations in a 3G (HNB) or 4G (HeNB) context. It is not very clearly specified whether these requirements also apply for 5G. Requirements are included to request resources from the IP backhaul in the fixed broadband access. Note that TS 22.220 does not assume WWC convergence. There are no requirements for the provision of QoS within the Customer Premises Network itself.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 188.8.131.52 mentions indoor small base stations connected in the context of 5GLAN: "The 5G system shall enable the network operator to provide the same 5G LAN-type service to any 5G UE, regardless of whether it is connected via public base stations, indoor small base stations connected via fixed access, or via relay UEs connected to either of these two types of base stations."
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 184.108.40.206 discusses fixed broadband access. It does not really use WWC terminology (e.g. 5G-RG), but either assumes a residential gateway that functions as a relay UE, or a residential gateway that integrates an indoor base station. There is no mentioning of a base station that is connected to the residential gateway. TS 23.316 is the architecture specification for Wireline Wireless Convergence.
In many cases, residential indoor coverage will require the deployment of Premises Radio Access Stations (PRASs). The assumption is that these PRASs are installed by the home owner (Authorised Administrator). Nevertheless, it is quite possible that these PRASs can also be used by visitors to the home.
Visitor access is only possible with a few security provisions. Communication for the visitor has to be protected against eavesdropping or manipulation in the residential in-home network and/or evolved residential gateway. These elements are not under control of the operator and cannot be sufficiently trusted.
From the other hand, the homeowner needs to be shielded from the visitor. One aspect is that the homeowner may not want to be charged for traffic, services, and applications initiated by the visitor. Another aspect is that the homeowner may not want the visitor to access his private devices in the home (e.g., working PCs, security cameras, etc.) via PRAS and evolved residential gateway. For example, when the visitor's UE is connecting to the eRG, may receive unintended broadcast communication/data from the homeowner's devices, which are also connecting to the eRG. Also for lawful intercept, traffic originating from a visitor should be identifiable as such.
In existing customer premises networks, generally internal credentials are used (e.g. WiFi username/password). Using 3GPP credentials to access a CPN will be an improvement of security and will relieve the home owner of having to manage (and remember) CPN internal credentials.
Doctor Joe is a general practitioner (GP) that works from a practice next to his home in a small village. Every day patients visit his practice for all kinds of consultations.
Because of the local radio conditions (small village) and the construction of his home (concrete walls), there is very poor outdoor-to-indoor coverage in his practice. Doctor Joe has therefore installed Premises Radio Access Stations (PRASs) in his practice, both for himself and for waiting patients.
Doctor Joe is happy that 3GPP credentials can be used for communication within the CPN. He no longer has to manage and configure username/password combinations for his devices and security is improved; he no longer needs the sticky note with the WiFi password he had on his computer.
Doctor Joe does not mind that patients are using the PRAS that he has paid for. However, Doctor Joe does not want to pay for traffic, services, or applications that his patients may initiate via his PRAS and fixed access. Doctor Joe also does not want that these patients are able to access his PC or control the lights/cameras via his PRAS and eRG. Furthermore, he does not want to get in trouble when patients e.g. download illegal content via his fixed access. Therefore, Doctor Joe prefers that communication from/for his patients is identified as such.
Patient Mary is waiting in the waiting room. She wants to communicate in private with her mother. Even though she is using a PRAS installed by Doctor Joe, she can trust that her communication remains private.
3GPP TS 22.220"Service requirements for Home Node B (HNB) and Home eNode B (HeNB)" specifies requirements for indoor base stations in a 3G (HNB) or 4G (HeNB) context. It is not very clearly specified whether these requirements also apply for 5G. TS 22.220 also includes requirements on security and privacy.
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 220.127.116.11 mentions indoor small base stations in the context of 5GLAN: "The 5G system shall enable the network operator to provide the same 5G LAN-type service to any 5G UE, regardless of whether it is connected via public base stations, indoor small base stations connected via fixed access, or via relay UEs connected to either of these two types of base stations."
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 18.104.22.168 discusses fixed broadband access and the use of a home base station. It mentions: "The 5G system shall support use of a home base station that supports multiple access types (e.g. 5G RAT, WLAN access, fixed broadband access)."
The 5G system shall enable the network operator to provide any 5G services via a Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) to any 5G UE with a valid subscription to the HPLMN associated with the PRAS.
The 5G system shall enable the network operator to provide any 5G services via a Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) to any 5G UE with a valid subscription to any VPLMN that has a roaming agreement with the HPLMN.
The 5G system shall ensure the use of a Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) does not compromise the security of any PLMN or broadband access network.
The 5G system shall ensure the use of a Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) does not compromise the security of the UE. The PRAS (and its associated backhaul connectivity) shall provide a level of security equivalent to regular 5G base stations.
The 5G system shall enable the network operator associated with the Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) to control the security policy of the PRAS.
The 5G system shall ensure the Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) does not compromise user privacy for UEs that are using the PRAS, including communication confidentiality, location privacy and identity protection.
The 5G system shall be able to generate charging information that can differentiate between UEs connected to the Premises Radio Access Station (PRAS) and between backhaul for the PRAS and other data traffic over the same access.
The 5G system shall provide a mechanism to prevent or allow a (guest) UE to discover and/or use the services provided by the devices on the CPN.
The 5G system shall support authentication of a UE with 3GPP credentials for communication with entities (UEs, devices) in a CPN.
The 5G system shall ensure that communications associated with individual UEs in a CPN be identifiable (e.g., subscriber identifier) in the 5G network.
UEs can get all way QoS support from the 5G system when accessing the network with 3GPP RATs outdoors. However, due to the issue of 5G outside-to-inside coverage, UEs will probably access to 5GC through an evolved residential gateway (eRG) when moving from outdoor to indoor. If the all way QoS control can still be guaranteed at this moment, especially when high bandwidth or low latency consuming service is ongoing (e.g. video gaming), users might have a better service experience.
Tom has a mobile phone which is registered to MNO1. Tom loves to play video game at his leisure time. He even made a specific QoS setting with MNO1 to guarantee the high quality of the gaming service.
There is a eRG at Tom's house. The eRG also subscribes to the same MNO as Tom's mobile phone. Devices in Tom's house can automatically be connected to the eRG via non-3GPP (R)ATs (e.g. WIFI).
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 6.7.2 mentions the support of harmonised QoS framework to multiple accesses :"The 5G system shall be able to support a harmonised QoS and policy framework applicable to multiple accesses. "
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 22.214.171.124 mentions QoS requirement between remote UE and relay UE: "The 5G network shall be able to provide a remote UE using 5G LAN-type service with same level of service as if the remote UE would be using a direct network connection (i.e. provide required QoS for the Ethernet packets transferred between remote UE and relay UE if they are using 3GPP access)."
3GPP TS 22.261, clause 8.5 mentions different identifier association: "The HPLMN shall be able to associate a temporary identifier to a UE's subscriber identity."But it doesn't specify whether other entity (e.g., evolved residential gateway) can also perform the identity association.
The 5G system shall be able to indicate to the evolved residential gateway that a specific UE connected to it either via 3GPP RAT or non-3GPP (R)AT needs specific QoS and what the required QoS characteristics are.
The 5G system shall minimize service disruption for a UE that is moving between CPN access and operator provided mobile access.
This use case assumes that Premises Radio Access Stations were already deployed in individual rooms behind the Evolved Residential Gateway, to provide better cellular coverage at home. This use case is to enable efficient routing for the communications between UE and non-3GPP device via the Evolved Residential Gateway.
The following pre-conditions and assumptions apply to this use case:
Multiple Premises Radio Access Stations were deployed in individual rooms insuide a residential home
The Premises Radio Access Station provides cellular access to UEs
The Premises Radio Access Station is connected to an Evolved Residential Gateway via wireline or wireless link
In particular, a Premises Radio Access Station is deployed in the living room.
There is a smart TV in the living room, which is a non-3GPP device, connecting to the Evolved Residential Gateway via wireline.
Alice is sitting in the living room. Her smartphone is connecting to the Premises Radio Access Station.
Alice finds an interesting video in her smartphone and want to project to the smart TV in the living room.
The request sent from the smartphone reaches the Evolved Residential Gateway via the Premises Radio Access Station and then routed by the residential gateway to the smart TV via the wireline.
3GPP TS 22.220"Service requirements for Home Node B (HNB) and Home eNode B (HeNB)" specifies the requirements for local IP Access for 3G and 4G.
3GPP TS 22.261 specifies the requirements for routing efficiency, e.g., private communication for 5G LAN-type service, however, the efficient routing on Evolved Residential Gateway is not covered yet.