Content for  TR 23.976  Word version:  17.0.0

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1  Scopep. 5

The purpose of this technical report is to analyse the service requirements for push services as defined in TS 22.174 "Push service; Stage 1". It continues the work of TR 23.875 (3GPP internal report).
This technical report describes methods for supporting push services by 3GPP delivery networks. The mechanisms described apply to existing delivery networks for the 3GPP Packet Switched (PS) domain, Circuit Switched (CS) domain, IP Multimedia Core Network Subsystem (IMS), Multimedia Broadcast / Multicast Service (MBMS), and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). Any necessary changes identified during this work will be introduced by means of change requests to the appropriate specifications.
The definition of Push Functionality that applies to push Application Servers is outside the scope of this work. The definition of Push Functionality that is best implemented in push Application Servers such as a Push Proxy and Push Initiator will be undertaken by other standards bodies and industry forums.

2  Referencesp. 5

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TR 21.905: " Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications ".
TS 22.060: "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 1".
TS 22.174: "Push service; Stage 1".
TR 23.039: "Interface Protocols for the Connection of Short Message Service Centres (SMSCs) to Short Message Entities (SMEs)".
TS 23.040: " Technical realization of the Short Message Service (SMS)".
TS 23.060: " General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2".
TS 23.228: "IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS); Stage 2".
TS 23.002: "Network architecture".
TS 29.007: "General requirements on interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) and the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)".
TR 23.910: "Circuit switched data bearer services".
TS 29.061: "Interworking between the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) supporting packet based services and Packet Data Networks (PDN)".
TS 24.229: "Internet Protocol (IP) multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP); Stage 3".
RFC 3428:  "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension for Instant Messaging".
RFC 3265:  "Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) - Specific Event Notification".
TS 23.207: "End-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) concept and architecture".
TR 23.917: "Dynamic policy control enhancements for End to end Quality of Service (QoS)".
→ to date, withdrawn by 3GPP
RFC 2748:  "Common Open Policy Service protocol (COPS)".
ITU-T Recommendation E.164: "The international public telecommunication numbering plan".
RFC 792:  "Internet Control Message Protocol".
RFC 1035:  "Domain names - Implementation and specification".
RFC 2486:  "The Network Access Identifier".
TS 29.060: "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface".
TS 23.141: "Presence Service; Architecture and functional description".
TS 43.010: "GSM Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) connection types".

3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviationsp. 6

3.1  Definitionsp. 6

For the purposes of the present document, the terms and definitions given in TS 22.174 and the following apply.
delivery network:
transfers Push Data from Push Function to UE in a connectionless or connection oriented manner. A delivery network may be a GPRS bearer service.
Application Server:
a server that provides push services through a delivery network, e.g. via an IP connection
user IP address:
an IP address provided by the delivery network that can be used by an Application Server to provide push services to a user. The address may be permanently assigned (static) or temporarily assigned (dynamic).
an identity or name that can be used to deliver push content to a user in a delivery network. The format of user-ID is dependent on the protocol for the push services.
user availability:
the ability of an delivery network to transfer data to a subscribed user.
long-lived PDP Context:
a PDP Context that remains active/open for an indefinite period of time. Also referred to as "always-on PDP context".
always-on PDP Context:
this is a PDP Context that remains active/open for an indefinite period of time. Also referred to as "long-lived PDP context".
PDP Context:
Push Data:
data sent by the push initiator to the Push Recipient.
Push Function:
the entity in the PLMN that receives the Push Data from the Push Initiator. The Push Function is responsible for delivering the Push Data to the Push Recipient.
Push Initiator:
the entity that originates Push Data and submits it to the Push Function for delivery to a Push Recipient. A Push Initiator may be e.g. an application providing value added services.
Push Recipient:
the entity that receives the Push Data from the Push Function and processes or uses it. This may include the UE with which the PLMN communicates with, the user agent with the application level address, and the device, machine or person which uses the Push Data.
Push service:
a service capability offered by the PLMN that transfers Push Data (e.g. data, multimedia content) from the Push Initiator to the Push Recipient without a previous user action. The Push service could be used as a basic capability or as component of a value added service.
Push User agent:
any software or device associated with a Push Recipient that interprets Push Data to the user. This may include textual browsers, voice browsers, search engines, machine or device interface software, etc.

3.2  Abbreviationsp. 7

For the purposes of the present document, the following abbreviations apply:
Access Point Name
Address Resolver
Application Server
Circuit Switched
Call Server Control Function
Common Open Policy Service
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Domain Name Service
Delete Request
Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution
Gateway GPRS Support Node
General Packet Radio Service
Global System for Mobile communication
Home Location Register
Internet Control Message Protocol
IP Multimedia Subsystem
International Mobile Subscriber Identifier
Internet Protocol
IMS Service Control
Integrated Services Digital Network
InterWorking Function
Local Area Network
Notification Message
Mobile Switching Centre
Mobile Station ISDN number
Network Requested PDP Context Activation
Open Mobile Alliance
Proxy CSCF
Policy Decision Function
Packet Data Network
Packet Data Protocol
Protocol Data Unit
Push Function
Push Initiator
Public Land Mobile Network
Packet Switched
Presence Server
Public Switched Telephone Network
Radio Access Network
Serving CSCF
Serving GPRS Support Node
Session Initiation Protocol
Short Message Service
Short Message Service Centre
To Be Decided
Transaction Identifier
User Equipment
Uniform Resource Identifier
Universal Terrestrial RAN
Visited PLMN
Wireless Access Protocol
Wireless LAN

4  Architecture requirementsp. 8

4.1  Delivery network independent support for Push servicep. 8

The Push Function shall be able to transmit the Push Data over a delivery network independent of the other delivery networks. Therefore the Push service, as required by a Push Function, and within the capabilities of the delivery network shall be supported over circuit-switched (CS data and SMS) services, PS domain (PDP Context and SMS) services and IMS services, independently of the availability of other delivery network services within an operator network.
The above does not exclude the support of Push services by combining the capabilities of two or more delivery network services, but there shall be no direct dependence on the availability of a specific delivery network in order for another delivery network to support the Push service.

4.2  Selection of delivery networkp. 8

Where a network supports Push services the capabilities offered by the delivery network shall be configured in the Push Function to allow the Push Function to select a delivery network. If the network supports Push services and offers more then one delivery network, the network shall allow the Push Function to select the delivery network and, where practical, submit configuration settings to indicate desired services supported within that chosen delivery network. For example, where a 3G network supports multiple push delivery network options supporting different characteristics for delivery of Push Data (priority delivery, acknowledged or unacknowledged delivery, store and forward), the network shall allow the Push Function to select the appropriate delivery network and provide preferences for delivery of the Push Data.

4.3  Delivery network support of acknowledged and unacknowledged Push Data deliveryp. 8

When a delivery network has acknowledgement capability and the user has invoked the acknowledgment mode service, the delivery network shall provide some means to communicate to the Push Function the successful delivery of, or the failure to deliver, a push message.
In the case of unacknowledged delivery, where the delivery network has enough information to determine the delivery was unsuccessful, the delivery network may provide some means to communicate to the Push Function a message delivery failure.

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