Content for  TR 22.844  Word version:  18.2.0

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5.13  Broadcast and Multicast Local Service Use Casep. 29

5.13.1  Descriptionp. 29

This use case describes a local service network that provides numerous spectators with simultaneous media services in an efficient manner. As a scenario, we consider a stadium, that periodically hosts events that can benefit from multicast and broadcast services for the benefit of spectators.

5.13.2  Pre-conditionsp. 29

Rajesh is big fan of Cricket and he loves watching Cricket matches in Stadium. Cricket matches are typically long e.g. about 7 hrs for one day matches and 3-4 hours for T20 matches. Rajesh looks forward to the variety of streaming videos / informative content for replays, scores and statistics that the organizers promise to provide to the spectator present.
Rajesh has his ticket and thereby the event organizers have some information about Rajesh and can provide information to Rajesh.
Commercial advertisements and other services in stadium e.g., related to food services etc. can be promoted via the communication services and may bring revenue generation options for host venue, host network and service providers.
Arrangements between the commercial advertisers and service providers in the location have been established before the event.

5.13.3  Service Flowsp. 29

Rajesh avidly watches a video streamed program using broadcast services provided by his home (or serving) PLMN.
When Rajesh enters the stadium, he obtains access to the hosting network.
Rajesh's broadcast service from his home (or serving) PLMN continues - with service continuity. While at the stadium, Rajesh continues to have access to the services in his home (or serving) PLMN, including multicast and broadcast services from his home network.
Rajesh obtains access to the services provided in the stadium. This access includes a clear directory of services available, so that Rajesh can tune to different content. Some local services are provided using multicast and broadcast. These include different views of the play (from different perspectives), continuously updated scores and statistics and commentary by professional announcers on site.
Both the streamed action and information may come with localized advertisement - included in the media stream as part of the content.
The content delivery is itself may be a service for which Rajesh will be charged. This charging may take different forms: permission to access to the content or use of the content (e.g., pay per minute of use, etc.)
Since Rajesh will access streamed services for long periods of time, it is extremely important that these services can be delivered in an energy efficient manner. Otherwise, Rajesh's UE will run out of batteries long before the exciting conclusion of the match.

5.13.4  Post-conditionsp. 30

Rajesh's services (including multicast and broadcast services) functioned with continuity, from before he entered the stadium, even as he accessed the local service network. While at the stadium, Rajesh still was able to receive calls and access other services of his home network.
He was able to access streaming and informative services at the stadium subsequent to getting access to the local service network. The costs of these services were either included in the cost of admission, covered by advertising or arranged for separately specifically for the services and content that Rajesh accessed. After hours of use, he had not drained his mobile device's battery due to the excellent energy efficient delivery of service.
Rajesh is impressed with the congestion free reception of services (without lags and delays) and excellent responsive ness of network services in the stadium environment. While in the stadium, Rajesh continued to use services from his home network. As he leaves the stadium, there is a seamless transition, as these services continue, using the macro network. Rajesh returns home happily.

5.13.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 30

Support for Flexible broadcast/multicast service as per clause 6.13 of TS 22.261.
Clause of TS 22.261
The 5G system shall support a UE with a 5G subscription roaming into a 5G Visited Mobile Network which has a roaming agreement with the UE's 5G Home Mobile Network.
The 5G system shall enable a Visited Mobile Network to provide support for services provided in the home network as well as provide services in the visited network. Whether a service is provided in the visited network or in the home network is determined on a service by service basis.
Clause 6.13.2 of TS 22.261
The 5G system shall support operation of downlink only broadcast/multicast over a specific geographic area (e.g. a cell sector, a cell or a group of cells).
Clause 6.25.2 of TS 22.261
Subject to an agreement between the operators and service providers, operator policies and the regional or national regulatory requirements, the 5G system shall support for non-public network subscribers:
  • access to subscribed PLMN services via the non-public network;
  • seamless service continuity for subscribed PLMN services between a non-public network and a PLMN;
  • access to selected non-public network services via a PLMN;
  • seamless service continuity for non-public network services between a non-public network and a PLMN.
Service delivery and continuity of applications over unicast and multicast, as controlled by the application, as described (without naming these modes) in TS 22.468 GCSE_LTE, more explicitly in TS 23.468 and TS 29.468. Also related are TS 26.346 Multicast operation on Demand and northbound APIs TS 26.348 (Northbound Application Programming Interface (API) for Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service (MBMS) at the xMB reference point).

5.13.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 30

The operator of a hosting network shall support a mechanism allowing different local service providers and content providers to disseminate their services and content over broadcast/multicast transport. This mechanism should also provide a means to include diverse content in the same transmission, e.g., to include advertisements with other content, or to include multiple content in the same media delivered to the user.
A hosting network shall provide multicast and broadcast services in an energy efficient manner to UEs receiving this service.
A hosting network shall support resource efficient content delivery through multicast/broadcast and intelligent caching of contents at UEs.
A hosting network shall support a mechanism to provide low latency signalling for efficient delivery of content to the UE.
Subject to home operator policy, a hosting network shall be able to prioritize specific services for local access over home routed access, even if the same service is available in both networks.

5.14  Use case: managing a high number of UEs returning from a local hosting network to home networkp. 31

5.14.1  Descriptionp. 31

This use case describes a scenario where a local hosting network has provided event-based temporary local services to PLMN users to enjoy during either a live event such as a sport game, concert or a several days long event such as industry fairs or conferences. Once the event is over, the PLMN users who have accessed and enjoyed the event-based local service(s) will no longer need to use these services and therefore wish to terminate the services. Therefore, a high number of users (e.g. thousands in stadium venues) are likely to want to terminate their access/service to the local hosting network and attempt a fairly simultaneous registration back to their home PLMN. The hosting network operator may also decide to switch off the local network while there still are many UEs that are connected to the local network. This may lead to a signaling peak in the home PLMN and result in longer time scales for users to re-register to/re-select their home PLMN. Therefore, it is desirable that user registrations are managed by spreading out the registration attempts over time and limiting the number of users attempting to register simultaneously, to avoid signaling overload and unnecessary waiting times for the returning users.

5.14.2  Pre-conditionsp. 31

The following pre-conditions and assumptions apply to this use case:
  • Hosting network and PLMN have an agreement (either short-term or long-term).
  • PLMN users are aware of the local services provided by the hosting network.

5.14.3  Service Flowsp. 31

  1. Before the event, PLMN users start to access the local services occasionally at different times.
  2. During the event, PLMN users consume the local services provided by the hosting network.
  3. When the event is over:
    1. the PLMN users terminate their access to the local services and attempt registration back to their home PLMN;
    2. the PLMN users leave the venue and attempt registration back to their home PLMN; or
    3. the hosting network is switched off and the PLMN users are forced to attempt registration back to their home PLMN.
  4. PLMN users register back to their home PLMN.

5.14.4  Post-conditionsp. 32

The PLMN users who have temporarily accessed the local services of the hosting network return to their home PLMN without causing signaling overload/congestion and within the shortest possible time scales.

5.14.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 32

There are existing features that may support management of simultaneous registration attempts from a high number of users:
Clause 4.3.1 of TS 22.011: Access Class Barring
  • The serving network shall be able to broadcast mean durations of access control and barring rates (e.g. percentage value) that commonly applied to Access Classes 0-9 to the UE.
Clause 4.3.2 of TS 22.011: Service Specific Access Control
  • The serving network shall be able to indicate (as specified in clause 4.3.1 of TS 22.011) whether or not a UE subject to SSAC shall also apply Access Class Barring.
  • The UE determines the barring status with the information provided from the serving network, and perform the access attempt accordingly.
Clause 4.3.4 of TS 22.011: Extended Access Barring
  • Extended Access Barring shall be applicable regardless of whether the UE is in a Home or a Visited PLMN.
Clause 6.22.2 of TS 22.261: Unified access control: Requirements
  • The UE shall be able to determine whether or not a particular new access attempt is allowed based on barring parameters that the UE receives from the broadcast barring control information and the configuration in the UE.
  • The unified access control framework shall be applicable to inbound roamers to a PLMN.
Clause 6.19.2 of TS 22.261: 3GPP access network selection: Requirements
  • The 5G system shall support, subject to operator policies, a User Controlled PLMN Selector list stored in the 5G UE, allowing the UE user to specify preferred PLMNs with associated RAT identifier in priority order.
Clause of TS 22.261: Minimization of Service Interruption: Requirements: Disaster Roaming:
  • Disaster Inbound Roamers shall perform network reselection when a Disaster Condition has ended.
  • The 3GPP system shall minimize congestion caused by Disaster Roaming.
It is worth to note that the given existing features in clause of TS 22.261 are only applicable in case there is a Disaster Condition. Specific procedures are followed to notify Disaster Condition and identify Disaster Inbound Roamers. Thus, the noted features above cannot be applied to any use case that is not in Disaster Condition.

5.14.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 32

[PR 5.14.6-1]
The 5G system shall provide mechanisms to mitigate overload caused by UEs returning from a temporary local access of a hosting network to their PLMN network.
[PR 5.14.6-2]
The 5G system shall provide mechanisms to minimize the impact on the UEs communication e.g. due to outages when returning to a PLMN after terminating their temporary local access to a hosting network.

5.15.1  Descriptionp. 32

Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, serving more than 13 million passengers worldwide. Cruise ships typically embark on round-trip voyages to various ports-of-call, where passengers may go on tours known as "shore excursions". Alternatively, cruise ships may also make two to three night round trips without visiting any ports of call, spending multiple days and nights in the sea. Telecommunication is one of the services offered onboard of the cruise ships enabling internet services for the passengers.
In this use case Truman, a tourist, is embarking on a round-trip voyage in a 5G PALS enabled cruise ship called SeaQueen. The SeaQueen will voyage across the Pacific Ocean and is intended to make three different shore excursions before returning to its port of embarkment. Truman has a 5G enabled mobile phone and has subscribed for the premium 5G telecommunication services offered by the SeaQueen's parent company "Royalty cruises". Being a regular customer of the SeaQueen and its sister ships operated by "Royalty cruises", Truman has provided some personal identification information (e.g. passport, picture, biometrics) and his personal preferences while making the booking to allow for fast automatic check-in and to quickly gain access to the premium 5G telecommunication services.
On the day of embarkment, Truman arrives at the port of embarkment. Upon entering the SeaQueen, Truman receives an invitation to an access portal on his mobile phone. The portal allows him to gain access to the SeaQueen's 5G system. Since Truman is a well-known customer, he does not fill in lengthy registration forms or fill in a user name and password. Instead, Truman identifies himself via a biometric scanner in his mobile phone to the access portal of the 5G system. Upon identification by the SeaQueen's 5G system, a network profile containing the necessary credentials and personalized network & device configurations for Truman (based on his premium service and personal preferences known to "Royalty cruises") is automatically provisioned in his 5G device. Truman's mobile phone can now obtain PALS services which, among others, are superfast 5G internet access (via backend satellite connection), access to premium video and payment services, and automatic access to specific locations in the ship (e.g. through ranging service). In addition, one or more profiles may be provisioned to Truman's mobile phone to allow 5G network access during activities on shore, for each country that they intend to visit, without having to worry about buying a local SIM card or identifying a roaming plan according to his personal preference during the excursion.
At the end of the cruise voyage the 5G system on board of the SeaQueen decommissions the network profile of the local 5G network from Truman's device (e.g. based on a trigger, such as a timer expiring at the end of the trip or location of the user, e.g. the gangway to exit the ship).

5.15.2  Pre-conditionsp. 33

Truman has a 5G enabled mobile phone UE with an eSIM.
Various personal details of Truman, including some biometric identity information, are pre-shared with SeaQueen's parent company "Royalty cruises" in accordance with GDPR and other privacy regulations.
The SeaQueen's 5G system has a direct satellite link for 5G services and may have contractual agreements with the local 5G network operators on shore (for each country that they plan to visit).
The SeaQueen's 5G system may be an NPN or a PLMN.

5.15.3  Service Flowsp. 33

  • Upon arrival at the port of embarkation, Truman receives an invitation to an access portal on his 5G mobile phone.
  • Since Truman is a known customer, Truman can identify himself via the biometric sensor of his mobile phone.
  • The identity service of the SeaQueen 5G system identifies Truman based on his biometric identity data that he provided beforehand.
  • Upon identification the corresponding network profile is generated, which contains the necessary credentials, and personalized network and device configurations for Truman, based on his premium services and his personal preferences known to "Royalty cruises".
  • The personalized network profile is securely downloaded to his mobile phone via the SeaQueen 5G system.
  • Truman can now make use of the superfast 5G network connection and localized services onboard the SeaQueen vessel are enabled in alignment with his profile. This includes premium video services, automatic access to specific locations on the ship, and also includes getting 5G service on shore during the excursions in each country that they will visit.
  • Truman completes the trip and returns to the port of origin, which automatically triggers the de-registration of Truman from the SeaQueen 5G system and the SeaQueen's 5G network profiles are automatically decommissioned from Truman's mobile phone and his own network profile is enabled.
  • Thanks to the 5G PALS system, Truman has truly carefree experience during his cruise trip.

5.15.4  Post-conditionsp. 34

5G device of Truman is decommissioned from the 5G system of SeaQueen. Truman continues to enjoy 5G services with his personal subscription with his home network operator.

5.15.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 34

From clause 8.3 of TS 22.261: "The 5G system shall support an efficient means to authenticate a user to an IoT device (e.g. biometrics)". However, it is not clear if this requirement also applies to UEs in general or only to a particular subset of UEs, and it is also not clear whether this requirement holds before the IoT device has a network profile for the hosting network installed on that device, i.e. to enable easy provisioning and installation of the respective network profile.
Clause 26a of TS 22.101: requirements related to user identity management.

5.15.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 34

The 5G system shall support a secure means for a UE with no prior subscription to the hosting network to receive human readable information on how to gain access to the hosting network (which may PLMN or NPN).
The 5G system shall support a secure means to authenticate a user of a UE to a hosting network, including cases in which a UE has no subscription to the hosting network yet and still needs to get authorized to gain full access to the hosting network and its services.
The 5G system shall be able to authorize the UE of a user authenticated to a hosting network to access the hosting network and its localized services on request of the service provider.
The 5G system shall be able to withdraw the UE authorization based on certain conditions, such as time or location of the user.

5.16  Localized network for a mass casualty incidentp. 34

5.16.1  Descriptionp. 34

A mass casualty incident (MCI) describes an event in which the emergency medical services may get overwhelmed by the number and severity of the casualties.
In this use case, a massive terrorist attack has taken place in the capital of the country Haniti. One of the multistorey buildings in the central market area has collapsed with more than 100 victims injured, classifying it as a mass casualty incident (MCI). The public telecommunication services are majorly interrupted since everyone in the vicinity of the incident is trying to contact their families and to stream videos of the incident. A team of first responders has arrived at the MCI location with an ambulance, with a built-in 5G base station. The base station is connected to a 5G network called HanCel capable of supporting PALS. The base station has a total coverage area of 500x500 meters. Also a team of the local police department has arrived and has secured the boundaries of the MCI area, requesting everyone that is not injured to leave the MCI area.
As a feature of PALS, HanCel is capable to make a temporary network available with a delimited 5G service area, providing very good quality of service for the first responders, their devices (such as health monitors), for the injured victims trying to reach their families (using their own UEs) and for the (existing) wireless video surveillance cameras in the area.
One of the first responders can demarcate the boundaries/contours of the MCI area on a map, and provides e.g. a set of coordinates/dimensions of the MCI area to the HanCel network. The HanCel network configures the temporary network in such a way that only the 5G devices present in the MCI area are allowed to connect. The MCI area may be smaller than the coverage of a single cell. In case of larger MCI areas, more cells may be needed to cover the area. The 5G devices of the bystanders that are present outside the crash area, but still within the coverage area of HanCel are not allowed to connect. In order to provide very good QoS in the MCI area, HanCel can configure the use of dedicated spectrum access in the targeted area.

5.16.2  Pre-conditionsp. 35

HanCel is an PALS enabled network in the country Haniti, and is the preferred operator for many first responder organizations in Haniti.
All the operators in the country Haniti have a roaming agreement with HanCel.

5.16.3  Service Flowsp. 35

  • A first responder configures the 5G system of HanCel with the dimensions/coordinates of the MCI area, which is a small area within the coverage area of the HanCel network.
  • The 5G system of HanCel network configures a temporary network in such a way that only the 5G devices present in the MCI area are allowed to connect. Bystanders and everyone else outside the MCI area are not allowed to access the network.
  • Thanks to the PALS ability to provide localized services in a targeted area within a larger coverage area, HanCel improved the communication and response time of the first responders in the MCI area, thereby reducing fatal casualties. Also, the victims were able to easily reach their families (using their own UEs), reducing the anxiety and stress of the victims, and the (existing) wireless video surveillance cameras in the area were able to capture all the details of the MCI event.

5.16.4  Post-conditionsp. 35


5.16.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 35


5.16.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 35

The 5G system shall be able to provide access to a hosting network only for UEs in a configurable targeted area within the coverage area in a privacy sensitive manner.

5.17  Steering of UEs between hosting local networks and PLMNsp. 35

5.17.1  Descriptionp. 35

A live concert with high-resolution video application service is provided by service provider A and made available in the concert arena both by a local hosting network A and a PLMN network B. The service is offered in PLMN B to users that have credentials to access PLMN B and, in addition, has subscribed to the service. The service is offered in hosting network A to users that have credentials to access the service through hosting network A. It is assumed that the service comes with access credentials through Hosting network A, irrespective of if a user also has access to PLMN network B. This means that there will be UE's in the concert that can access the service either using PLMN network B or hosting network A.
Before or during the concert, service provider A identify a need to move users from hosting network A (e.g., due to capacity limits, expected or occurring service quality issues) and would then update policies (UE policies) for UEs in hosting network A that also has credentials to access the service through PLMN network B, to leave network A and continue the service in PLMN network B.
In the end of the concert, the situation in hosting network A may improve and the service provider A can then request PLMN network B to update UE policies for UE's that are being served by PLMN network B to instead continue the service in hosting network A. When users are, via updated UE policies, instructed to continue services in other network, this can be done without user interaction as long as availability of other services are not impacted.

5.17.2  Pre-conditionsp. 36

The service provider A has a service agreement with the operator of PLMN network B and hosting network A and provides the same service in both networks.
The operator of hosting network A may optionally have a (service or roaming) agreement with the operator of PLMN network B

5.17.3  Service Flowsp. 36

Step 1.
Users use their UEs (e.g., smart phones) to buy tickets to the concert through the portal provided by service provider A. The service provider A provides the UE with credentials to access hosting network A and get the service. Additionally, the UE informs the service provider A about presence of credentials for PLMN network B.
Step 2.
The service provider A request PLMN network B to configure the UE with a UE policy for the network selection to receive the high-resolution video application service of the concert via hosting network A.
Step 3.
Service provider A identify a need to move users from hosting network A (e.g., due to capacity limits, expected or occurring service quality issues). Service provider A then request updates of the UE policies for UEs in hosting network A that also has credentials to access the service through PLMN network B, to leave network A and continue the service in network B.
Step 4.
The UEs that switch to PLMN network B connects to the network and start using the service from service provider A.
Step 5.
Service provider A identify that there are opportunities to move users into hosting network A for the service provided, and then trigger a request to PLMN B to update the UE policies for relevant users/UEs to instead continue the service in hosting network A.
Step 6.
PLMN network B may choose to change policies for some of the UE's using the service in its network and subsequently, those UE's will select hosting network A and continue the services from service provider A

5.17.4  Post-conditionsp. 36

Users who select the high-resolution video service can enjoy the service of the live concert from either of the network which service provider A has agreement with and the UE has credentials to.
After the concert ends the UE will automatically select the best network according to normal network selection procedures.

5.17.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityp. 36


5.17.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use casep. 36

The 5G system shall enable the home network to instruct a UE under which conditions (e.g. predefined time, location) it could select a certain hosting network based on the request from a service provider.
The UE shall be able to select a hosting network or change to another hosting network, using the corresponding credentials as may be indicated, without any additional user consent as long as the delivered services, including the localized services, are unchanged.

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