3GPP has introduced several features using unlicensed band for 3GPP RATs. As allocated amount of radio spectrum for unlicensed band increases, this will provide new opportunities for the increased usage of 3GPP RATs and further connectivity opportunities for users.
Because this unlicensed band can be used by any technology and any user as long as certain requirements are met, and because the coordination between the users in this spectrum are week, the QoS may not be equal to that can be provided over licensed band. Thus, the connectivity service provided over this band may be applicable to some applications, if provided with right usage policies.
Operator Universal owns a licensed spectrum. Also, in the region where Operator Universal operates, huge amount of unlicensed spectrum is available. Thus, the operator Universal decides to upgrade some of its NG-RANs to support both the unlicensed spectrum and the licensed spectrum.
Charlie has subscription with Operator Universal with certain monthly data quota. Due to heavy watching of online streaming service, Charlie almost used up his monthly data quota. Charlie's smartphone is advanced one which also supports NR operation over unlicensed band.
Charlie is a fan of pro-baseball. One day, he goes to nearby stadium to directly watch one of pro-baseball games.
At the pro-baseball stadium, due to huge demand for connectivity, the Operator Universal already upgrades the NG-RAN equipment to support also unlicensed spectrum.
The Operator Universal decides to allow some of its customers to use connectivity service over unlicensed spectrum.
Charlie finds out that the Operator Universal provides connectivity service over unlicensed band within the stadium. He configures his smartphone to use unlicensed band only when he is located within this stadium, because his monthly quota has almost run out. This configuration information is also shared to the Operator Universal.
The Operator Universal approves the connectivity over unlicensed band. Except some essential operator service such as IMS, all the other the user traffic for Charlie is delivered only using the unlicensed bands.
Finally, the pro-baseball game ends.
Charlie leaves the stadium. Outside of the stadium, the Operator Universal does not provide connectivity service over unlicensed spectrum. Thus, the Charlies smartphones are served by the NG-RAN of the operator using licensed bands.
When the user visits a foreign country for a few days, the user may want to have access to temporary mobile data service and prefer to have an arrangement directly with a local provider for the temporary mobile data service, while keeping an arrangement with its home provider for other services.
The use case in this section assumes that the UE uses the credential of the home provider also for the temporary mobile data service, though the subscription for the temporary mobile data service is bound to the local provider. The case where the local provider uses a separate independent credential for the temporary mobile data service is not in the scope of this use case.
Lily is traveling around the world. She has no strict schedule and always wanders off on her own. Sometimes she stays in a new place for several days if she likes there. In some place where Lily decides to buy the roaming data service provided by a local network e.g. via an app that she has obtained from a 3rd party data service provider.
the step 1 leads to a mobile data service shop which is displayed on the mobile screen, wherein there are several data combo services, each service is labelled with (network identifier, price, valid duration, valid location, data volume, type of service [e.g. data, voice etc] and optionally the mobile technology, e.g. 4G or 5G) and if there are anything that needs to be satisfied for that plan e.g. watching some advertisement may be required. Or, only foreigner is eligible for the service.
according the time that Lily plans to stay at current location, Lily chooses to buy the most cost-effective data combo service. For example, if Lily plans to stay there for one day, she buys the one-day data combo service; if Lily plans to stay there for one week, she buys the seven-days data combo service; if Lily just stay at the transfer airport for several hours and the WLAN connection is under bad condition, she buys the 1G data combo service.
Lily pays the bills for the data service she chooses at step 3. After a few seconds, Lily's mobile phone has download necessary information and is ready to provide temporary mobile data service to Lily. Since then, Lily becomes a temporary subscriber of the VPLMN for that temporary mobile data service.
Lily may activate the mobile data service immediately or Lily may decide to activate the mobile data service when she lost WLAN connection. While this temporary subscription is valid, the UE selects and camps on the selected network providing the temporary local service.
Lily can access to the internet and use apps via the mobile data service of the network where she is temporary subscriber now or can temporarily use the service during the validity period of the service within the valid location using the subscribed RAT, until the maximum data quota is reached.
Lily uses her normal phone number for making and receiving calls or SMS over the VPLMN by means of traditional roaming and charging information per the roaming agreement is reported to Lily home operator.
Existing specifications support the home-routed traffic service and local-breakout traffic service for roaming cases. For the local-breakout service, even if the traffic does not traverse the home network, the service is associated to the subscribed service toward the home network. In this use case, the temporary data service is different from the local-breakout service, because it is not the subscribed service toward the home network.
TS 22.261 has following requirements:
The 5G system shall enable users to obtain services from more than one network simultaneously on an on-demand basis. For a user with a single operator subscription, the use of multiple serving networks operated by different operators shall be under the control of the home operator.
Thus, following requirement is covered by above requirements:
5G system shall be able to provide the UE simultaneously with both the temporary local services subscribed to the local hosting network and the services subscribed to home operator.
The 3rd party service provider shall be able to agree the details of a temporary subscription for local services (such as validity period, location, QoS, services etc.) with a local hosting network.
The 5G system shall allow a UE to present available local hosting networks to the user, which the user is allowed to use.
Given the main objective of the study that UEs and their service providers are without previous relationship to the hosting network, automatic e-agreement mechanisms are needed to allow network operators to build short term relationship using application layer approaches. The e-agreement mechanisms allow the automation of multi-step processes in telecommunication domain to establish service level e-agreement among network operators for enabling the 5GS to facilitate the sharing of services and resources of the networks among network operators and to configure their networks and UEs accordingly at specific occasion, e.g. time and location.
The application layer approaches require 5G network to expose network capabilities. For example, as shown in Figure 5.3.1-1, the e-agreement is established among service operators, e.g. SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C have no SLAs in place for the services provided by SP-A's hosting network-A.
The SP-A operator creates an e-agreement which provides the localized service configuration. The SP-B and SP-C operators can subscribe this localized service with required service policies for their UEs. The SP-B and SP-C can then configure their UEs for localized service.
Based on the e-agreement, the hosting network can be configured with localized service at a specific time and location for its subscribers (other network operator), e.g. localized service policies of time, location, network-A access parameters, including spectrum, access technologies (3GPP or non-3GPP), network slice, charging policies, and subscriber's network policies for authentication, and routing.
Based on the e-agreement, the hosting network configuration creation and termination can be performed by SP-A or a trusted third-party application of the subscriber representing other network operator. With the application layer approach, the localized service can be used by authorized UEs of SP-A, SP-B, and SP-C which subscribes the service.
At the Monster theme park built with genetically engineered living monsters on an island having a surface of 30 square miles, which only opens once a year to allow visitors to onboard and enjoy three days adventures. From the lessons learned from disaster happened in Jurassic park in 1993, the Monster park management as SP-A decides to replace the wirelines with 5G networks around the island for better network coverage and advanced and secure 5G features.
For the past few years, the visitors had tons of service complains about the network connectivity for the availabilities of their home operators on the island. This year, SP-A decides to use their 5G network to offer a hosting network-A providing access to localized service for sharing this service using blockchain technologies with other service providers, e.g. SP-B, and SP-C, in which SP-B's network is not available in the whole island and SP-C's network is very spotty and available at some zones. Both SP-B and SP-C subscribe the localized service from SP-A for their UEs.
When the schedule event is started, the network-A starts to provision localized services based on service contract with SP-B and SP-C and to broadcast related information via hosting networks on the island.
Lexi and Timmy are Dr. Hammond's grandchildren who invited them to attend this annual event this year, and they have UEs, UE-C1 and UE-C2, with SP-C's subscriptions. The SP-C (NPN or PLMN) subscribed to SP-A's localized services configures their UEs with localized service provided by SP-A.
Hosting network-A knows that UE-C1 has been configured to use localized service by its SP-C which has subscribed to localized service for their UEs but UE-C2 seems not being configured to use localized services by its SP-C. The Hosting network-A can authenticate the UE-C1 and UE-C2 based on UEs' credentials.
Lexi happily finds that her UE-C1 which has been pre-configured with localized service can get connection from hosting network-A to call her Mom and grandfather for their safe arrivals. In the meantime, Timmy's UE-C2 has his UE-C2 configured for localized service on the spot via hosting network-A and then Timmy successfully gets data connection via hosting network-A automatically.
Lexi and Timmy don't feel any differences on the user experience of applications (e.g. social media, streaming music, text messages) of UE-C1 and UE-C2 via hosting network-A or their home SP-C network when touring around the park with their grandfather to watch live monsters in different zones and continue service seamlessly even with spotty network coverages provided by different network operators (PLMN or NPN). Well, their new friend met on the tour Jeep was upset for not having connections from his UE-X of SP-X which does not subscribe the localized service from SP-A. He decides to switch to SP-C subscription after going home.
The SP-A provides the localized service to authenticated and authorized visitors whose UEs' service providers subscribe the localized service based on the service contract. Lexi and Timmy enjoy good user experience on using their home network service of SP-C via network-A in the remote island.
The existing service requirements for roaming users assume that roaming policies are in place for UEs to use their home network services.
The UE is able to access visited network using UE's credential on UICC/eSIM based on its home network's subscription.
The 5G network shall support suitable mechanisms to allow automatically establishing localized services agreements for a specific occasion (time and location) and building temporary relationship among a hosting network operator (NPN or PLMN) and other service operators including network operators (NPN or PLMN) or third-party content service providers.
Subject to regulatory requirements, the 5G system shall support suitable mechanisms to allow another network operator to automatically negotiate roaming policies with the hosting network for allowing their subscribers to connect at a specific occasion, e.g. time and location, for their home network services.
Subject to localized services agreements, the 5G network shall enable a home network operator to authorize a UE for using its home network services via a visited hosting network for a certain period of time and/or location.
The 5G network shall be able to configure a UE with home operator policies on what services are preferred to be used from the home network for home routed services via authorized hosting networks.
Subject to localized services agreements between the hosting network operator and home network operator, for UE with only home network (NPN or PLMN) subscription and with authorization to access hosting networks (NPN or PLMN), the 5G system shall support:
access to the hosting network and use home network services or selected localized services via the hosting network.
seamless service continuity for home network services or selected localized services when moving between two hosting networks or a host network and the home network.
This use case assumes that network operators can build short term relationship using application layer approach, e.g. using smart contracts based blockchain technologies, for offering localized services provided by different service providers via a hosting network.
The application layer approaches require 5G network to expose network capabilities for the localized service. For example, for the automatic e-agreement mechanism deployed by SP-A for a localized service at a specific occasion (starting time, duration and location), which allows localized services to be shared among service providers. In addition, the e-agreement can also allow the hosting network to accommodate temporary localized services provided by different service providers.
Based on the e-agreement, the hosting network can be configured with localized service at a specific time and location for its service subscribers (other network operator), e.g. localized service policies of time (including duration, starting time), location, network-A access parameters, including spectrum, access technologies (3GPP or non-3GPP), network slice, charging policies, and subscriber's network policies for authentication, and routing. In the meantime, the SP-A and SP-B can further offer localized services via hosting network.
The 5G network provides suitable mechanisms to allow establishing automatic roaming (e)-agreements for a specific occasion (time and location) and building temporary relationship among hosting network operator (NPN or PLMN) and other service operators including network operators or third-party content service providers. The localized service configuration can be provisioned in the hosting network based on the e-agreement. For example, SP-C can subscribe SP-A's localized service of the hosting network and SP-B's localized service based on e-agreement for their UEs and configures their UEs with localized service. When a UE configured with localized service connects to hosting network SP-A which can present available localized services provided by different service providers for UEs configured with localized services to select any one of them. When using SP-B's localized service, the SP-C's UEs can be charged by their home network.
At the Monster theme park on an island hosting three days adventures for visitors, the park has SP-A network coverage for a hosting network-A providing access to localized service which has been subscribed by SP-B and SP-C for their UEs based on e-agreement established by SP-A for sharing this localized service. In the meantime, SP-B's network is not available on the island and SP-C's network is very spotty and only available at some zones.
For the on-demand dedicated services, SP-A deploys localized services on its owned Service Hosting Environment-A for streaming live video and immersive media in different monsters' zones. SP-B also provides localized services on its Service Hosting Environment-B connected to the hosting network for superhero interactive game via hosting network-A. SP-D is a content service provider which offers localized services on its application platform-D for streaming movies. The SP-C subscribes SP-A's and SP-B's localized services for their UEs attending adventures on the island. In addition, the SP-C rents the resource from the SP-A for providing localized services for interactive Monster hunting games on its owned Service Hosting Environment-C connected to the hosting network.
When the scheduled event is started, the network-A starts to provision localized services as well as the temporary localized services provided by different service providers.
Lexi and Timmy visit their grandfather and attend this annual event. Their UEs, UE-C1 and UE-C2, are both with SP-C's subscriptions. The SP-C subscribed SP-A's localized services configures their UEs with information of hosting network identity for selecting hosting network and credentials for accessing localized services via hosting network.
When visiting the genetic engineering center where both SP-A and SP-C networks are available, Lexi's UE-C1 and Timmy's UE-C2 configured with localized service can select and connect to hosting network-A and its SP-C's network simultaneously. The hosting network-A authenticates the UE-C1 and UE-C2 and both UEs use their configured user credentials for accessing to localized services via hosting network.
Jimmy selects the superhero interactive game provided by SP-B and chooses to be the Spiderman playing with holograms of live monsters at the park (which enables specific hosting network-A 5G services). In the meantime, Lexi selects one immersive media provided by SP-A to watch the live monsters running around the park. The hosting network-A gets localized service authorization from service providers and creates the service session for the authorized UEs
after one day's fun adventure at the park, Lexi is lying on the bed at the cabin where her UE-C1 finds only SP-A is available. Because the conditions (e.g., time, location) for selecting the SP-A are met according to the policy provisioned from SP-C, Lexi's UE connects to the hosting network.
Lexi and Timmy enjoy the adventure and good network services using their UE-C1 and UE-C2 for SP-A's and SP-B's localized service via hosting network, respectively. In the meantime, their UEs can connect SP-C networks and use home network services. Since SP-C subscribes to SP-A's and SP-B's localized service, the localized services charge will be in the next month statement from their SP-C's home network operator.
Use Case B:
Lexi needs to pay for the localized service provided by SP-D using online payment method before enjoying the movie. Lexi is happy to continue fun experience at night using her UE-C1 for localized services provided by SP-A and SP-D via SP-A's hosting network, respectively.
The hosting network shall provide suitable APIs to allow a trusted third party application (other service providers) to provision their localized services policies (e.g. network slice, required IP connectivity, QoS) and routing policies for the application of the localized services to the hosting network.
The 5G network shall provide capability to allow a trusted 3rd party to provision its UE with localized service policy (e.g. QoS, network slice, service restriction such as time and location) via the hosting network or the UE's home network.
The hosting network shall be able to allow a UE to manually/automatically select localized services which are provided via local breakout at the hosting network.
The 5G network shall be able to allow a UE to automatically select a hosting network with the desired localized services which are provided via local breakout at the hosting network, based on the policy provisioned by its home network.
The hosting network shall be able to provide required connectivity and QoS for a UE connected to the hosting network to simultaneously use its home network services and localized services.
A UE shall be able to connect to the hosting network for using home network service and localized services at the same time.
A UE shall be able to simultaneously connect to its home network and to a hosting network if both networks are available, e.g. to use its home network services and localized services at the same time.
The 5G system shall be able to collect charging records for the use of localized services via local breakout at the hosting network and provide the charging records to UEs' home operators based on service and charging policies provided by the localized service providers.
The 5G system shall enable a UE to be able to use hosting network provided user credentials for authenticating the UE to make use of localized services via the hosting network with a certain time (including starting time and the duration) and location validity.
A UE shall be able to select and connect to authorized localized services via a hosting network based on configured user credentials.