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Content for  TS 33.102  Word version:  16.0.0

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5  Security featuresWord‑p. 14

5.1  Network access security

5.1.1  User identity confidentiality

The following security features related to user identity confidentiality are provided:
  • user identity confidentiality: the property that the permanent user identity (IMSI) of a user to whom a services is delivered cannot be eavesdropped on the radio access link;
  • user location confidentiality: the property that the presence or the arrival of a user in a certain area cannot be determined by eavesdropping on the radio access link;
  • user untraceability: the property that an intruder cannot deduce whether different services are delivered to the same user by eavesdropping on the radio access link.
To achieve these objectives, the user is normally identified by a temporary identity by which he is known by the visited serving network. To avoid user traceability, which may lead to the compromise of user identity confidentiality, the user should not be identified for a long period by means of the same temporary identity. To achieve these security features, in addition it is required that any signalling or user data that might reveal the user's identity is ciphered on the radio access link.
Clause 6.1 describes a mechanism that allows a user to be identified on the radio path by means of a temporary identity by which he is known in the visited serving network. This mechanism should normally be used to identify a user on the radio path in location update requests, service requests, detach requests, connection re-establishment requests, etc.
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5.1.2  Entity authentication

The following security features related to entity authentication are provided:
  • user authentication: the property that the serving network corroborates the user identity of the user;
  • network authentication: the property that the user corroborates that he is connected to a serving network that is authorised by the user's HE to provide him services; this includes the guarantee that this authorisation is recent.
To achieve these objectives, it is assumed that entity authentication should occur at each connection set-up between the user and the network. Two mechanisms have been included: an authentication mechanism using an authentication vector delivered by the user's HE to the serving network, and a local authentication mechanism using the integrity key established between the user and serving network during the previous execution of the authentication and key establishment procedure.
Clause 6.3 describes an authentication and key establishment mechanism that achieves the security features listed above and in addition establishes a secret cipher key (see 5.1.3) and integrity key (see 5.1.4) between the user and the serving network. This mechanism should be invoked by the serving network after a first registration of a user in a serving network and after a service request, location update request, attach request, detach request or connection re-establishment request, when the maximum number of local authentications using the derived integrity key have been conducted.
Clause 6.5 describes the local authentication mechanism. The local authentication mechanism achieves the security features user authentication and network authentication and uses an integrity key established between user and serving network during the previous execution of the authentication and key establishment procedure. This mechanism should be invoked by the serving network after a service request, location update request, attach request, detach request or connection re-establishment request, provided that the maximum number of local authentications using the same derived integrity key has not been reached yet.
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5.1.3  Confidentiality

The following security features are provided with respect to confidentiality of data on the network access link:
  • cipher algorithm agreement: the property that the MS and the SN can securely negotiate the algorithm that they shall use subsequently;
  • cipher key agreement: the property that the MS and the SN agree on a cipher key that they may use sub-sequently;
  • confidentiality of user data: the property that user data cannot be overheard on the radio access interface;
  • confidentiality of signalling data: the property that signalling data cannot be overheard on the radio access interface;
Cipher key agreement is realised in the course of the execution of the mechanism for authentication and key agreement (see 6.3). Cipher algorithm agreement is realised by means of a mechanism for security mode negotiation between the user and the network (see 6.4.5). This mechanism also enables the selected ciphering algorithm and the agreed cipher key to be applied in the way described in 6.6.
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5.1.4  Data integrityWord‑p. 15
The following security features are provided with respect to integrity of data on the network access link:
  • integrity algorithm agreement: the property that the MS and the SN can securely negotiate the integrity algorithm that they shall use subsequently;
  • integrity key agreement: the property that the MS and the SN agree on an integrity key that they may use subsequently;
  • data integrity and origin authentication of signalling data: the property that the receiving entity (MS or SN) is able to verify that signalling data has not been modified in an unauthorised way since it was sent by the sending entity (SN or MS) and that the data origin of the signalling data received is indeed the one claimed;
Integrity key agreement is realised in the course of the execution of the mechanism for authentication and key agreement (see 6.3). Integrity algorithm agreement is realised by means of a mechanism for security mode negotiation between the user and the network (see 6.4.5). This mechanism also enables the selected integrity algorithm and the agreed integrity key to be applied in the way described in 6.5.
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5.1.5  Mobile equipment identification

The SN may request the MS to send it the IMEI or IMEISV of the terminal. The IMEI should be securely stored in the terminal. However, the presentation of this identity to the network is not a security feature and the transmission of the IMEI or IMEISV may be unprotected. Although it is not a security feature, it should not be deleted from UMTS however, as it is useful for other purposes.

5.2  Network domain security

5.2.1Void

5.2.2Void

5.2.3Void

5.2.4  Fraud information gathering systemWord‑p. 16

5.3  User domain security

5.3.1  User-to-USIM authentication

This feature provides the property that access to the USIM is restricted until the USIM has authenticated the user. Thereby, it is ensured that access to the USIM can be restricted to an authorised user or to a number of authorised users. To accomplish this feature, user and USIM must share a secret (e.g. a PIN) that is stored securely in the USIM. The user gets access to the USIM only if he/she proves knowledge of the secret.
This security feature is implemented by means of the mechanism described in TS 31.101.
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5.3.2  USIM-Terminal Link

This feature ensures that access to a terminal or other user equipment can be restricted to an authorised USIM. To this end, the USIM and the terminal must share a secret that is stored securely in the USIM and the terminal. If a USIM fails to prove its knowledge of the secret, it will be denied access to the terminal.
This security feature is implemented by means of the mechanism described in TS 22.022.

5.4  Application security

5.4.1  Secure messaging between the USIM and the network

USIM Application Toolkit, as specified in TS 31.111, provides the capability for operators or third party providers to create applications which are resident on the USIM (similar to SIM Application Toolkit in GSM). There exists a need to secure messages which are transferred over the network to applications on the USIM, with the level of security chosen by the network operator or the application provider.
Security features for USIM Application Toolkit are implemented by means of the mechanisms described in TS 23.048. These mechanisms address the security requirements identified in TS 22.048.
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5.4.2Void

5.4.3Void

5.4.4Void

5.5  Security visibility and configurabilityWord‑p. 17

5.5.1  Visibility

Although in general the security features should be transparent to the user, for certain events and according to the user's concern, greater user visibility of the operation of security features should be provided. This yields to a number of features that inform the user of security-related events, such as:
  • indication of access network encryption: the property that the user is informed whether the confidentiality of user data is protected on the radio access link, in particular when non-ciphered calls are set-up;
  • indication of the level of security: the property that the user is informed on the level of security that is provided by the visited network, in particular when a user is handed over or roams into a network with lower security level (3G → 2G).
The ciphering indicator feature is specified in TS 22.101.
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5.5.2  Configurability

Configurability is the property that that the user can configure whether the use or the provision of a service should depend on whether a security feature is in operation. A service can only be used if all security features, which are relevant to that service and which are required by the configurations of the user, are in operation. The following configurability features are suggested:
  • Enabling/disabling user-USIM authentication: the user should be able to control the operation of user-USIM authentication, e.g., for some events, services or use.
  • Accepting/rejecting incoming non-ciphered calls: the user should be able to control whether the user accepts or rejects incoming non-ciphered calls;
  • Setting up or not setting-up non-ciphered calls: the user should be able to control whether the user sets up connections when ciphering is not enabled by the network;
  • Accepting/rejecting the use of certain ciphering algorithms: the user should be able to control which ciphering algorithms are acceptable for use.
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