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Content for  TR 38.857  Word version:  17.0.0

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1  ScopeWord‑p. 8

The present document captures the findings of the study item "Study on NR positioning enhancements" [2]. The purpose of this technical report is to document the requirements, additional scenarios, evaluations and technical proposals treated during the study and provide a way forward toward enhancements to NR positioning in TSG RAN WGs.

2  References

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non-specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
TR 21.905: "Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications".
RP-193237: "new SID on NR Positioning Enhancements".
TR 38.855: "Study on NR Positioning (Release 16)".
R1-2009433 Evaluation results for Rel-16 positioning and Rel-17 enhancement Huawei, HiSilicon
R1-2007665 Evaluation of NR positioning performance vivo
R1-2007720 Evaluation of achievable positioning accuracy BUPT
R1-2007754 Evaluation of achievable accuracy and latency ZTE
R1-2007859 Discussion of evaluation of NR positioning performance CATT
R1-2007908 NLOS Identification and Mitigation FUTUREWEI
R1-2009390 Update of Evaluation Results for NR Positioning Performance in I-IoT Scenarios Intel Corporation
R1-2007997 NR Positioning Latency Evaluations Lenovo, Motorola Mobility
R1-2008225 Evaluation of NR positioning in IIOT scenario OPPO
R1-2009555 Results on evaluation of achievable positioning accuracy and latency Nokia, Nokia Shanghai Bell
R1-2009502 Discussion on Performance evaluation of Rel-17 positioning Sony
R1-2008416 Discussions on evaluation of achievable positioning accuracy and latency for NR positioning LG Electronics
R1-2008489 Evaluation of achievable positioning latency InterDigital, Inc.
R1-2009708 Evaluation of achievable Positioning Accuracy & Latency Qualcomm Incorporated
R1-2009428 Evaluation of positioning enhancements Fraunhofer IIS, Fraunhofer HHI
R1-2008720 Positioning evaluation results on potential enhancements for additional use cases CeWiT
R1-2008764 Evaluation of achievable positioning accuracy and latency Ericsson
R1-2008765 Potential positioning enhancements Ericsson
R1-2007666 Discussion on potential positioning enhancements vivo
R1-2005380 Evaluation of achievable positioning accuracy and latency vivo
TS 22.261: Service requirements for the 5G system; Stage 1 (Release 17)
RP-202094 Revised SID: Study on NR Positioning Enhancements CATT, Intel Corporation
TS 38.901: Study on channel model for frequencies from 0.5 to 100 GHz (Release 16)
TS 38.305: "NG Radio Access Network (NG-RAN); Stage 2 functional specification of User Equipment (UE) positioning in NG-RAN".
EGNOS Open Service (OS) Service Definition Document, European Commission, Version 2.3, 2017.
TS 24.571: Control plane Location Services (LCS) procedures (Release 16)
TR 22.872: "Study on positioning use cases".
R2-2006541, TP for Study on Positioning Integrity and Reliability, Swift Navigation, Deutsche Telekom, u-blox, Ericsson, Mitsubishi Electric, Intel Corporation, CATT, UIC.
Zhu, N., Marais, J., Betaille, D., Berbineau, M., "GNSS Position Integrity in Urban Environments: A Review of Literature", IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Vol. 19, No. 9, Sep 2018.
European Space Agency, "Integrity", Navipedia, 2018, <>.
Reid, T., Houts, S., Cammarata, R., Mills, G., Agarwal, S., Vora, A., Pandey, G., "Localization Requirements for Autonomous Vehicles," SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 173-190, Sep 2019.
GSA-MKD-RD-UREQ-250283, "Report on Road User Needs and Requirements: Outcome of the European GNSS' User Consultation Platform", Issue/Rev: 2.0, 2019.
GSA-MKD-RL-UREQ-250286, "Report on Rail User Needs and Requirements: Outcome of the European GNSS' User Consultation Platform", Issue/Rev: 2.0, 2019.
5GAA, "White Paper - C-V2X Use Cases Methodology, Examples and Service Level Requirements, 2019.
Global Positioning System Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) Performance Standard, Department of Transportation USA, Federal Aviation Authority, Edition 1, October 2008.
International Civil Aviation Organization, "Annex 10 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, Aeronautical Telecommunications: International Standards and Recommended Practices", 2006.
RTCA DO-178C, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," 2011.
DO-229D, RTCA, "RTCA DO-229D Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Global Positioning System/Satellite-Based Augmentation System Airborne Equipment," 2013.
SAE J3016, "Taxonomy and Definitions for Terms Related to On-Road Motor Vehicle Automated Driving Systems", SAE International, 2018.
European GNSS Agency, "GNSS User Technology Report issue 3", 2020.
Air Force Research Laboratory, "IS-AGT-100 Chips Message Robust Authentication (Chimera)", 2019.
TR 22.804: "Study on Communication for Automation in Vertical Domains".
Working Group C (WG-C), "EU-U.S. Cooperation on Satellite Navigation", ARAIM Technical Subgroup, Interim Report, Issue 1, December 2012.
5G ACIA White Paper, "5G for Automation in Industry: Primary use cases, functions and service requirements", July 2019.
Elliott D. Kaplan, Christopher J. Hegarty, "Understanding GPS/GNSS Principles and Applications" Third Edition, Artech House, 2017.
R2-2010075, Methodologies for network-assisted and UE-assisted integrity, Ericsson.
R2-2006674, Discussion on error sources, threat models, occurrence rates and failure modes, CATT.
R2-2101391, GNSS Integrity Methodologies, Ericsson.
R2-2009282, Error sources, threat models, occurrence rates, and failure modes, Fraunhofer IIS, Fraunhofer HHI.
R2-2101437, Text Proposal to methodologies for GNSS position integrity, ESA.

3  Definitions of terms, symbols and abbreviationsWord‑p. 10

3.1  Terms

For the purposes of the present document, the terms given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. A term defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same term, if any, in TR 21.905.
Positioning Integrity:
A measure of the trust in the accuracy of the position-related data provided by the positioning system and the ability to provide timely and valid warnings to the LCS client when the positioning system does not fulfil the condition for intended operation.
Integrity Availability:
The integrity availability is the percentage of time that the PL is below the required AL.
Feared Event:
Feared Events are considered to be all possible events (e.g., of natural, man-made, systemic or operational nature) that can cause the computed position to deviate from the true position, regardless of whether a specific fault can be identified in one of the positioning systems or not.
Target Integrity Risk (TIR):
The probability that the positioning error exceeds the Alert Limit (AL) without warning the user within the required Time-to-Alert (TTA).
Alert Limit (AL):
The maximum allowable positioning error such that the positioning system is available for the intended application. If the positioning error is beyond the AL, the positioning system should be declared unavailable for the intended application to prevent loss of positioning integrity.
Time-to-Alert (TTA):
The maximum allowable elapsed time from when the positioning error exceeds the Alert Limit (AL) until the function providing positioning integrity annunciates a corresponding alert.
Misleading Information (MI):
An MI event occurs when, the positioning system being declared available, the positioning error exceeds the PL.
Hazardous Misleading Information (HMI):
An HMI event occurs when, the positioning system being declared available, the positioning error exceeds the AL without annunciating an alert within the TTA.
Integrity Event:
An Integrity Event occurs when the positioning system outputs HMI.

3.2  SymbolsWord‑p. 11

For the purposes of the present document, the following symbols apply:

3.3  Abbreviations

For the purposes of the present document, the abbreviations given in TR 21.905 and the following apply. An abbreviation defined in the present document takes precedence over the definition of the same abbreviation, if any, in TR 21.905.
Angle of Arrival
Alert Limit
Downlink Angle-of-Departure
Downlink Positioning Reference Signal
Downlink Time Difference of Arrival
Enhanced Cell-ID
Horizontal Alert Limit
Hazardously Misleading Information
Horizontal Protection Level
LoCation Services
Location Management Function
LTE Positioning ProtocolMG Measurement Gap
Misleading Information
Mobile Originated Location Request
Mobile Terminated Location Request
Multi-Round Trip Time
NR Positioning Protocol A
Positioning Error
Protection Level
Positioning Reference Signal
Reference Signal Received Power
Reference Signal Time Difference
Sounding Reference Signal
Target Integrity Risk
Transmission-Reception Point
Uplink Angle of Arrival
Uplink Relative Time of Arrival
Uplink Time Difference of Arrival
Vertical Alert Limit
Vertical Protection Level

4  General description of NR positioning enhancementsWord‑p. 12

3GPP NR radio-technology is uniquely positioned to provide added value in terms of enhanced location capabilities. The operation in low and high frequency bands (i.e. below and above 6GHz) and utilization of massive antenna arrays provides additional degrees of freedom to substantially improve the positioning accuracy. The possibility to use wide signal bandwidth in low and especially in high bands brings new performance bounds for user location for well-known positioning techniques, utilizing timing measurements to locate UE. The recent advances in massive antenna systems can provide additional degrees of freedom to enable more accurate user location by exploiting spatial and angular domains of propagation channel in combination with time measurements.
3GPP Rel-16 has specified various location technologies to support regulatory as well as commercial use cases. The target horizontal positioning requirements for commercial use cases studied in Rel-16 were <3 m (80%) for indoor scenarios and <10 m (80%) for outdoor scenarios (TR 38.855). The 5G service requirements specified in TS 22.261 include High Accuracy Positioning requirements, which are characterized by ambitious system requirements for positioning accuracy in many verticals. For example, on the factory floor, it is important to locate assets and moving objects such as forklifts, or parts to be assembled. Similar needs exist in transportation and logistics, for example.
To address the higher accuracy location requirements resulting from new applications and industry verticals for 5G, a Rel-17 Study Item of "Study on NR Positioning Enhancements" was approved by TSG RAN [2][25]. The study item covers the enhancements and solutions necessary to support the high accuracy (horizontal and vertical), low latency, network efficiency (scalability, RS overhead, etc.), and device efficiency (power consumption, complexity, etc.) requirements for commercial uses cases (incl. general commercial use cases and specifically IIoT use cases).
This technical report documents the following accomplishments obtained during the study:
  • the target performance requirements for RAT dependent solutions for Rel-17 for both general commercial use cases and IIoT use cases;
  • the additional scenarios and channel models for evaluating NR positioning enhancements;
  • the NR positioning enhancements candidates for improving accuracy, reducing latency, and improving network and device efficiency for Rel-17;
  • evaluation of the achievable positioning performance, including the performance analysis of Rel-16 positioning solutions, the performance analysis, the efficiency analysis, and the observations obtained from the investigations for Rel-17 NR positioning enhancements;
  • the identified NR impacts for normative work for Rel-17.

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