Tech-invite3GPPspecsSIPRFCs
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Content for  TS 22.101  Word version:  17.2.0

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4  GeneralWord‑p. 15
4.1  Aims of 3GPP specifications
It shall be capable of delivering audio, text, video and graphics direct to people and provide them with access to the next generation of information based services. It moves mobile and personal communications forward from existing systems, delivering mass market low-cost digital telecommunication and IP-based multimedia services.
The aims are:
  • to enable users to access a wide range of telecommunications services, including many that are today undefined as well as multi-media and high data rates.
  • to facilitate the provision of a high quality of service (particularly speech quality) similar to that provided by fixed networks;
  • to facilitate the provision of small, easy to use, low cost terminals with long talk time and long standby operation;
  • to provide an efficient means of using network resources (particularly radio spectrum).
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4.2  Standardisation of Service Capabilities
Existing systems have traditionally standardised the complete sets of teleservices, applications and supplementary services which they provide. As a consequence, substantial efforts are often required to introduce new services or simply to modify the existing one (customisation). This makes it more difficult for operators to differentiate their services. At the same time however, this may reduce the complexity of providing a service across different operators' networks.
3GPP shall therefore preferentially standardise service capabilities. In circumstances where the service is meant to be used across different operators' networks, hence a common specification set is of paramount importance, the service should be standardised to a level of detail sufficient to ensure interoperability and interworking across different operators' networks. Service capabilities consist of bearers defined by QoS parameters and the mechanisms needed to realise services. These mechanisms include the functionality provided by various network elements, the communication between them and the storage of associated data. This TS provides a conceptual description of a service architecture and architecture requirements which aim to provide service capabilities. It is intended that these standardised capabilities should provide a defined platform which will enable the support of speech, video, multi-media, messaging, data, teleservices, user applications and supplementary services and enable the market for services to be determined by users and home environments.
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4.2.1  Provision of service capabilities in shared networks |R6|
The provision of services and service capabilities that is possible to offer in a network shall not be restricted by the existence of the network sharing It shall be possible for a core network operator to differentiate its service offering from other core network operators within the shared network.
It shall be possible to control the access to service capabilities offered by a shared network according to the core network operator the user is subscribed to.
4.3  Efficient Use of Network Resources
4.3.1  Network Traffic Patterns |R10|
Service capabilities shall take account of the discontinuous and asymmetric nature of most teleservices, multimedia services and user applications and consider the overheads and signalling surge caused by frequent transmissions of small amount of data by mobile data application, in order to make efficient use of network resources (particularly radio resources).
4.3.2  Mass Simultaneous Registration |R10|Word‑p. 16
When a large number of subscribers enter in a registration area in which they have not registered, the core and radio access network shall be able to provide a capability to optimize the mass simultaneous registration traffic at a given instance of time. The core and radio access network shall be able to keep providing the service (e.g. mobile originated and mobile terminated services) without interruption for those subscribers who are originally in the cell which receive the mass simultaneous registration traffic.
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4.3.3  Radio Interface |R10|
Service capabilities shall be provided in a wide range of radio operating environments (where a radio environment is characterised in terms of propagation environment, mobile equipment relative speeds and traffic characteristics). Although 3GPP aims to minimise the number of radio interfaces and to maximise commonality between them, it may utilise several radio interfaces, each optimised for different environments. Each radio interface may provide differing service capabilities. 3GPP specifications include UTRA(N) radio interface supporting two modes (TDD and FDD), an Evolved UTRA(N) radio interface and GERAN radio interface. Additionally, it may be possible to connect to the 3GPP system using radio interfaces and fixed access technologies specified outside of 3GPP.
3GPP specifications shall provide a mechanism which will enable a piece of user equipment (UE) to adapt to different radio interfaces as necessary and to determine the service capabilities available. The specifications shall also provide a mechanism which will enable a UE to select radio interfaces capable of providing appropriate service capabilities and support mobility between multiple radio interfaces.
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4.3.4  Real-time Resource Usage |R10|
To enable network operators to render services efficiently, dimension their networks and set tariffs that more accurately reflect radio resource usage, real time information on resource usage is needed. When requested, it shall be possible for the serving cell type (e.g. RAT), cell ID / UTRAN Service Area Identity and cell / Service Area capability usage (e.g. HSDPA, E-DCH) information to be made available to the core network. Cell / Service Area capability usage information may include, for example, user(s) identity, start and finish time of data transfer, up-link and down-link data rates, volumes of data and other statistical information.
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4.3.5  Selected IP Traffic Offload (SIPTO) for PS Domain only |R10|
4.3.5.1  Common Requirements for SIPTO in the Mobile Operator Network and SIPTO at the Local Network
The 3GPP system shall be able to offload selected traffic (e.g. internet) towards a defined IP network close to the UE's point of attachment to the access network.
The following requirements apply to Selected IP Traffic Offload:
  • The mobile operator may enable/disable Selected IP Traffic Offload on a per UE per defined IP network basis (e.g. based on tariff, subscription type etc.).
  • It shall be possible for IP traffic of a UE associated with a particular defined IP network to be offloaded while IP traffic of that same UE associated with other defined IP network(s) is not offloaded.
  • It shall be possible to perform Selected IP Traffic Offload for pre-Release 10 UEs.
  • Offloading selected IP traffic for a UE shall not affect services running in parallel for the same UE.
  • The mobile operator shall be able to collect signalling performance measurements (e.g. session connection/disconnection, etc) related to Selected IP Traffic Offload for each user.
  • Selected IP Traffic Offload shall not compromise the security of the mobile operator's network.
  • Service Continuity of IP data session(s) for Selected IP Traffic Offload may be supported during the following mobility events:
    • mobility between the macro network and H(e)NBs; and
    • mobility between H(e)NBs.
      During both these mobility events, based on home mobile operator policies, the impact of mobility events as perceived by the user shall be reduced by minimising any interruption to the data flow.
  • It shall be possible for the HPLMN to provide the VPLMN with the following information for a particular user:
    • An indication of whether the user's IP traffic is permitted to be subjected to Selected IP Traffic Offload in the visited network;
    • The defined IP network(s) for which Selected IP Traffic Offload is permitted.
Requirements specific to SIPTO at the local residential/enterprise IP network can be found in section 5.9 in [48].
Some types of services (e.g. streaming services, VOIP, VPN, HTTPS-Based Services) cannot tolerate a change of IP address of the UE without disruption of the service.
SIPTO can be performed with or without coordination between the UE and the network. The following requirements apply to coordinated SIPTO:
  • The 3GPP system shall be able to support multiple connections that are associated with the same defined IP network where each connection may or may not support IP address preservation.
  • The 3GPP system shall be able to determine if an IP flow requires IP address preservation or not. Based on this determination, the 3GPP network shall be able to offload selected IP traffic in coordinated manner between UE and the network, in order to minimize service disruption.
  • The 3GPP system shall be able to detect when a connection becomes suboptimal and decide when to establish a new optimal connection to the same defined IP network or use an existing connection.
  • The 3GPP system shall minimize the number of connections of a UE without disrupting the UE's services, e.g. to ensure economical use of network resources.
  • The 3GPP system shall be able to ensure that the actual average aggregate bit rate for IP flows of packet data network connections associated with the same packet data network does not significantly exceed the subscribed aggregate maximum bit rate for this packet data network when two connections are used with the same defined IP network.
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4.3.5.2  Requirements for SIPTO in the Mobile Operator Network |R11|Word‑p. 17
The following requirements apply to Selected IP Traffic Offload in the mobile operator network:
  • The mobile operator shall be able to enable/disable Selected IP Traffic Offload for certain parts of the network.
  • Selected IP Traffic Offload shall not compromise integrity and confidentiality of offloaded traffic.
  • The mobile operator shall be able to collect statistics for the offloaded traffic for each user.
  • The network shall be able to perform Selected IP Traffic Offload without any user interaction based on mobile operator policies.
  • Service Continuity of IP data session(s) within the mobile operator network shall be supported for Selected IP Traffic Offload. Based on home mobile operator policies, the impact of mobility events within the macro network as perceived by the user shall be reduced by either:
    • minimising any interruption to the data flow; or
    • preventing interruption to the data flow e.g. for voice services.
  • Service Continuity of IP data session(s) for Selected IP Traffic Offload may be supported during the following mobility events:
    • mobility between the macro network and H(e)NBs; and
    • mobility between H(e)NBs.
    During both these mobility events, based on home mobile operator policies, the impact of mobility events as perceived by the user shall be reduced by preventing interruption to the data flow e.g. for voice services.
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4.3.6  Paging policy selection for LTE |R14|Word‑p. 18
The 3GPP core network shall be able to use these additional criteria for selecting a paging policy:
  • mobility information on the UE (e.g. the UE is stationary, or moving only in a specified area)
  • application characteristics that are known and trusted at the serving network (e.g. communication pattern, expected QoS (e.g. latency, reliability), and priority)
  • likely location of the UE within the paging area
4.4  Compatibility with Global Standards
3GPP specifications aim to be compatible with IMT-2000 and to provide global terminal mobility (roaming), enabling the user to take his/her terminal to different regions of the world and to be provided with services. It is probable that different regions of the world will adopt different radio interface technologies. IMT-2000, as a global standard, should therefore enable a IMT-2000 terminal to determine the radio interface technology and the radio interface standard used in a region. Global terminal roaming also requires the global standardisation of service capabilities. As far as possible the method of indication of the radio interface standard and available service capabilities shall be aligned with IMT-2000.
3GPP specifications shall enable users to access the services provided by their home environment in the same way via any serving network provided the necessary service capabilities are available in the serving network.
The 3GPP specifications will be available for the partner organisations to adopt as their regional standards. For example in Europe, ETSI may adopt them as standards for both GSM and UMTS.
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4.5Void
4.6  Functionality of Serving Network and Home Environment
The following functionality shall be the responsibility of the home environment:
  • User Authentication.
  • SIM/USIM Issue.
  • Billing.
  • User Profile/VHE Management.
The following functionality shall be the responsibility of the serving network:
  • Radio or other means of access.
  • Transport and signalling.
The following functionality may be the responsibility of either the serving network, the home environment or an appropriate combination of both
  • Service Control.
  • QoS negotiation.
  • Mobility management, including roaming.
  • Automatic establishment of roaming agreements.
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4.7  PLMN ArchitectureWord‑p. 19
The network is logically divided into a radio access network and a core network, connected via an open interface. From a functional point of view the core network is divided into a Packet Switched CN Domain, IP Multimedia (IM) CN subsystem [27] and a Circuit Switched CN Domain. IM CN subsystem utilises PS CN domain bearer services.
CS CN domain supports bearer independent transport. There is no difference in service offering or UE functionality due to different transport.
A PS only 3GPP core network is possible as defined within the specification for the Evolved Packet System (EPS) [42].
For further information see TS 23.221.
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4.8  Interworking Between PLMN and Wireless LANs |R6|
Aspects related to interworking between PLMN and WLAN are captured in TS 22.234.
4.9  Network Sharing |R6|
Network sharing shall be transparent to the user.
The specifications shall support both the sharing of:
    (i) radio access network only;
    (ii) radio access network and core network entities connected to radio access network
It shall be possible to support different mobility management rules, service capabilities and access rights as a function of the home PLMN of the subscribers.
4.10  The Evolved Packet System |R8|
Evolved Packet System is an evolution of the 3G UMTS characterized by higher-data-rate, lower-latency, packet-optimized system that supports multiple RATs. The Evolved Packet System comprises the Evolved Packet Core together with the evolved radio access network (E-UTRA and E-UTRAN).The service requirements for the Evolved Packet System are specified in TS22.278 [42].
4.11  User Data Convergence |R9|
4.11.1  Introduction
The UDC concept [45] supports a layered architecture, separating the data from the application logic in the 3GPP system, so that user data is stored in a logically unique repository allowing access from core and service layer entities, named application front-ends. And such unique repository shall be possible to be shared among different PLMNs that have trusted relationships.
Network elements and functionalities should be designed to access profile data remotely and without storing them permanently locally, i.e. the front-ends shall work in a subscriber dataless configuration.
In some cases, services may depend on user data scattered over UDC and other network elements. UDC may support the ability to access necessary network elements to fetch user data on behalf of these services, while minimizing impacts on existing Network Elements in which the data is located.
Applications can subscribe to specific events which will likely occur on specific user data, and those should be notified when those events do appear. The events can be changes on existing user data, addition of user data, and so on.
Third party applications and non trusted network elements should only be able to access the user data after proper authentication and authorization taking into account security and privacy requirements, i.e. it should be possible to present different views on the data to the parties which require access, dependent on the authorization. UDC concept is backwards compatible with 3GPP systems, i.e. it does not have an impact on traffic mechanisms, reference points and protocols of existing network elements.
The UDC concept preserves user authentication and authorization of services across domains, ensuring secured users' access to network.
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4.11.2  Management of user dataWord‑p. 20
Due to the logical centralization of user data, it is necessary for UDC to support the provisioning of the user data, that is, user data manipulation like creation, deletion, reading, modification and other operations. Provisioning shall be possible via an external system, self care or dynamically via applications offering e.g. user service configuration facilities.
Operations carried out in the framework of UDC shall support the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability) characteristics.
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4.11.3  User Data Modelling
User Data Modelling refers to the different models that apply to user data convergence: Information Models and Data Models.
An Information Model denotes an abstract, formal representation of entity types, including their properties and relationships, the operations (e.g. read, write…) that can be performed on them, and related rules and constraints. In the information model, entities might have network topology relationship with each other.
In order to accommodate multiple applications and services, existing and new ones, a common baseline information model shall be developed and shall, at minimum, clearly distinguish a number of concepts as entity types:
  • Subscriber with relation to several users (e.g. a company and its employees),
  • A user attached to different subscriptions (e.g. for a private and a professional service usage)
  • A user using multiple devices (e.g. mobiles or fixed)
  • Grouping of users to certain categories
  • A particular user as member of a certain group
  • Service providers' services provided by network operators
  • Enterprise services provided by network operators
The baseline information model shall be future proof. It shall not be tied to any specific implementation of the data base or its interfaces. It shall provide flexibility (in its data structure and content), extensibility and multi-application approach.
By extensible, it shall be understood that new applications and/or new service profiles can be added by the operator, if necessary. The flexibility shall permit new data for existing applications to be introduced, or modified.
Data Models are practical implementations of the information model, e.g. Tree-like modelling. The common information model shall allow deriving one or more data models. A reference data model shall be standardized for the message exchange over Ud interface [50], in order to enable multivendor interoperability.
Each application shall only interface the UDC for the data it is dealing with, and not be impacted by other data that UDC stores for other applications. It corresponds to the concept of a data view specific to a given application.
An application can allow access by other applications to data for which it is responsible. This can be done under certain constraint customized by operators.
Access to the UDC data shall be independent of the structure of the data models, i.e. the changes in the data models shall not affect the interface.
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