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Content for  TS 22.078  Word version:  16.0.0

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0  IntroductionWord‑p. 8

Unlike earlier releases of this document, no markers are used to indicate the changes from the previous CAMEL release, namely, CAMEL Phase 3 Release 99.

1  ScopeWord‑p. 9

This standard specifies the stage 1 description for the CAMEL feature (Customised Applications for Mobile network Enhanced Logic) which provides the mechanisms to support services consistently independently of the serving network. The CAMEL features shall facilitate service control of operator specific services external from the serving PLMN. The CAMEL feature is a network feature and not a supplementary service. It is a tool to help the network operator to provide the subscribers with the operator specific services even when roaming outside the HPLMN.
If an IPLMN or VPLMN supports CAMEL Phase 4, it shall also provide the functionality of all previous CAMEL phases.
Phase 4 network signalling shall support interworking with CAMEL Phases 3 and 2.
The CAMEL feature is applicable
  • To mobile originated and mobile terminated call related activities;
  • To supplementary service invocations;
  • To SMS MO, to GPRS sessions and PDP contexts, to the control of HLR subscriber data, to the control of network signalling load.
The mechanism described addresses especially the need for information exchange among the VPLMN, HPLMN and the CAMEL Service Environment (CSE) for support of such operator specific services. Any user procedures for operator specific services are outside the scope of this standard.
This specification describes the interactions between the functions of the VPLMN, HPLMN, IPLMN and the CSE.
The second phase of CAMEL enhances the capabilities of phase 1 where the following capabilities have been added:
  • Additional event detection points;
  • Interaction between a user and a service using announcements, voice prompting and information collection via in band interaction or USSD interaction;
  • Control of call duration and transfer of Advice of Charge Information to the mobile station;
  • The CSE can be informed about the invocation of the supplementary services ECT, CD and MPTY;
  • For easier post-processing, charging information from a serving node can be integrated in normal call records.
The third phase of CAMEL enhances the capabilities of phase 2. The following capabilities are added:
  • Support of facilities to avoid overload;
  • Capabilities to support Dialled Services;
  • Capabilities to handle mobility events, such as (Not-)reachability and roaming;
  • Control of GPRS sessions and PDP contexts;
  • Control of mobile originating SMS through both circuit switched and packet switched serving network entities.
  • Interworking with SoLSA. (Support of Localised Service Area). Support for this interworking is optional.
  • The CSE can be informed about the invocation of the supplementary services CCBS.
Detailed information is given in the respective sections.
The fourth phase of CAMEL enhances the capabilities of phase 3. The following capabilities are added:
  • CAMEL support for Optimal Routeing of circuit-switched mobile-to-mobile calls;
  • The capability for the CSE to create additional parties in an existing call;
  • The capability for the CSE to create a new call unrelated to any other existing call;
  • Capabilities for the enhanced handling of call party connections;
  • The capability for the CSE to control sessions in the IP Multimedia Subsystem.
  • Enhanced CSE capability for Dialled Services.
  • The capability to report basic service changes during ongoing call.
  • The CSE capability to select between preferred and less preferred bearer service.
  • The capability for the CSE to control trunk originated calls.
  • The capability for the CSE to request additional dialled digits.
With CAMEL Phase 4, it is possible that only a limited subset of the new functionalities is supported, in addition to the complete support of CAMEL Phase 3.
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2  ReferencesWord‑p. 10

The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
  • References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non specific.
  • For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
  • For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
[1]
TS 22.093: "Completion of Calls to Busy Subscriber (CCBS); Service description, Stage 1".
[2]
TS 22.079: "Support of Optimal Routeing (SOR); Service definition (Stage 1)".
[3]
TS 22.030: "Man-machine Interface (MMI) of the Mobile Station (MS) (Stage 1)".
[4]
TS 22.090: "Stage 1 Decision of Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD)".
[5]
TS 22.097: "Multiple Subscriber Profile (MSP); Service definition (Stage 1)".
[6]
TS 22.060: "General Packed Radio Service (GPRS); Service definition (Stage 1)".
[7]
TS 22.057: "Mobile Environment (MExE); Service definition (Stage 1)".
[8]
TS 22.071: "Location Services; Service Definition (Stage1)".
[9]
TS 23.018: "Basic Call Handling; Technical Realization".
[10]
TS 22.003: "Circuit teleservices supported by a public land mobile network (PLMN)".
[11]
TS 22.228: "Service Requirements for IP multimedia Core Network; (Stage1)".
[12]
TS 23.228: "IP Multimedia (IM) Subsystem - Stage 2".
[13]
TS 23.060: "General Packet Radio Service (GPRS); Service description; Stage 2".
[14]
TS 23.172: "Technical realization of Circuit Switched (CS); multimedia service; UDI/RDI fallback and service modification; stage 2".
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3  Definitions and abbreviationsWord‑p. 11

Operator Specific Service (OSS):
Any non-standardised service offered to a mobile user.
Interrogating PLMN (IPLMN):
The PLMN which interrogates the HPLMN for information to handle a mobile terminating call.
CAMEL Service Environment (CSE):
A CSE is a logical entity which processes activities related to Operator Specific Services (OSS).
Route select failure:
A condition when routeing to the called party fails. Route Select Failure can be reported in an existing relationship or a new relationship can be initiated.
Service event:
A specific event of a process which may be used as part of an operator specific service.
Initial service event:
A service event which triggers the establishment of a relationship between the CSE and the controlled entity.
Subsequent service event:
A service event which is reported in the context of an existing relationship between the CSE and the reporting entity.
Service procedure:
A part of the CAMEL feature to be used when a specific CAMEL service event is detected.
Network CAMEL Service Information (N-CSI):
Identifies services offered by the serving PLMN operator equally for all subscribers.
CAMEL Subscription Information (CSI):
Identifies that CAMEL support is required for the subscriber and the identities of the CSEs to be used for that support. The CSI also contains information related to the OSS of the subscriber, e.g. Service Key.
The OSS may include both services provisioned for individual subscribers and services provisioned equally for all users of a VPLMN.
Location Area Code:
Indicates the global identity of that part of the service area of a VLR in which the subscriber is currently located, and in which the subscriber will be paged for mobile terminated traffic
Location Information:
The location information shall be an identification of the location of the served subscriber.
The following location information shall be sent to the CSE (if available):
  • Geographical information: indicates the location (latitude and longitude) of the served subscriber. When Cell ID or Location Area Code is known the latitude and longitude may be calculated as the nominal central point of the cell or of the location area; alternative mechanisms for determining latitude and longitude may also be supported. The uncertainty of the indicated location is part of the geographical information.
  • Geodetic Information: provides the same functional capability as geographical information; however it is encoded differently.
  • Cell ID: indicates the global identity of the current or last cell which the subscriber is using or has used if the subscriber is using GERAN. The VPLMN shall update the stored Cell ID at establishment of every radio connection and whenever the subscriber is handed over between cells.
  • Routing Area ID: indicates the global identity of the current or last GPRS routing area which the subscriber is using or has used if the subscriber is using GERAN radio access in a GPRS serving network.
  • Service Area ID: indicates the global identity of the current or last service area which the subscriber is using or has used if the subscriber is using UTRAN radio access. The VPLMN shall update the stored Service Area ID at establishment of every radio connection and whenever the subscriber is handed over between service areas.
  • VLR number: is the number of the serving VLR stored in the HPLMN.
  • Location status: indicates whether or not the location information has been confirmed by radio contact. If the location information has not been confirmed by radio contact a time stamp is sent indicating the time elapsed since the last radio contact with the subscriber.
  • Location number: is the number received on the incoming circuit (for an incoming call) or to be sent on the outgoing circuit (for an outgoing call).
Service Key:
An identifier of the OSS which shall be transparent to the IPLMN/VPLMN.
Subscriber Status:
An indication of the status of a subscriber, determined by the state of the subscriber's MS. The subscriber status depends on the domain for which it is requested:
The Subscriber Status in the circuit switched domain can take one of three values:
  • CAMEL-busy: The MS is engaged in a mobile-originated or mobile-terminated circuit-switched call.
  • Network determined not reachable: The network can determine from its internal data that the MS is not reachable. This includes detached and purged mobile stations.
  • Assumed idle: The MS is not CAMEL-busy or network determined not reachable.
The Subscriber Status in the packet switched domain can take one of five values:
  • Detached: The network can determine from its internal data that the MS is not registered to the GPRS data network.
  • CAMEL-attached, MS not reachable for paging: The MS is registered to the GPRS data network, but there are no PDP contexts active for this MS; the GPRS data network can determine from its internal data that the MS is not reachable for paging.
  • CAMEL-attached, MS may be reachable for paging: The MS is registered to the GPRS data network, but there are no PDP contexts active for this MS; the GPRS data network has not determined from its internal data that the MS is not reachable for paging.
  • CAMEL-PDP context active, MS not reachable for paging: The MS is registered to the GPRS data network, and there is at least one PDP context active for this MS; the GPRS data network can determine from its internal data that the MS is not reachable for paging. The status includes the information for each active PDP context, as specified in TS 23.060.
  • CAMEL-PDP context active, MS may be reachable for paging: The MS is registered to the GPRS data network, and there is at least one PDP context active for this MS; the GPRS data network has not determined from its internal data that the MS is not reachable for paging. The status includes the information for each active PDP context, as specified in TS 23.060.
GPRS session:
The period during which the GPRS subscriber is registered to the GPRS data network. A GPRS session starts when the GPRS subscriber attaches to the GPRS data network. It ends when the GPRS subscriber detaches from the GPRS data network.
PDP Context:
A transaction for the exchange of data between an MS and a peer entity, which is addressed by the Access Point Name. A PDP context starts when the request from a GPRS subscriber successfully establishes the PDP context and ends when the subscriber deactivates the PDP context.
PDP:
Packet Data Protocol (as defined in TS 22.060)
Carrier Identification Code:
Identifies uniquely the Carrier (NAEA).
Carrier Selection Information:
An indication of whether the subscriber selected a carrier, or the carrier is predefined for the subscriber (NAEA).
Originating Line Identification:
Identifies uniquely the subscriber to be charged for the usage of the carrier (NAEA).
Charge Number:
Identifies uniquely the organisation to be charged for the usage of the carrier (NAEA).
North American Equal Access (NAEA):
A service used in the North American region whereby a subscriber may select the carrier to be used for long distance calls.
Subscribed Dialled Services:
Identifies a set of at most ten service numbers. The served subscriber can originate calls by entering a service number for the destination. This is in addition to the possibility to route calls by entering the destination number. Each service number is defined at the HPLMN operator's discretion. The set of service numbers forms part of the subscriber's profile, whether she is registered in the HPLMN or another PLMN.
Call Party Handling (CPH):
A method of manipulating call legs which includes creating new parties in a call, placing individual call parties on hold, reconnecting them to the group of call parties and disconnecting individual call parties.
CPH Configuration:
One or more groups of call legs that share a common dialogue to the CSE.
Call Leg:
The connection joining the call party to the CPH configuration.
Call Party:
A party (e.g. served subscriber, called party, PSTN subscriber etc.) in the CPH configuration.
IP multimedia session (IPMM session):
See [11] for definition.
IM CN subsystem (IP Multimedia Core Network subsystem):
See [11] for definition.
IM application level registration:
See [12] for definition.
Trunk Originated CAMEL Service Information (TO-CSI):
Identifies services offered by the PLMN operator to all incoming calls on a specific MSC trunk.
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