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Content for  TS 22.078  Word version:  16.0.0

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4  DescriptionWord‑p. 13

The CAMEL network feature enables the use of Operator Specific Services (OSS) by a subscriber even when roaming outside the HPLMN.

4.1  Provision of CAMELWord‑p. 13

CAMEL subscribers have one or more CAMEL Subscription Information (CSI) elements. CAMEL Subscription Information is provided by the HPLMN operator by administrative means.
The following CSIs may be administered per subscriber:
D-CSI
Dialled Services CAMEL Subscription Information (D-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN (at location update), IPLMN (for an incoming call in GMSC) or the IM CN subsystem. D-CSI contains trigger information which is required to invoke a CAMEL service logic for subscribers dialled services. See clause 5.3.2 and clause A.2.2 for the usage of D-CSI.
GPRS-CSI
GPRS CAMEL Subscription Information (GPRS-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. GPRS-CSI contains trigger information which is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for GPRS Sessions and PDP Contexts.
See clause 10 for the usage of GPRS-CSI.
M-CSI
Mobility Management CAMEL Subscription Information (M-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. M-CSI is used to notify the CSE about Mobility Management events for the CS subscriber.
See clause 12.1 for the usage of M-CSI.
MG-CSI
Mobility Management for GPRS CAMEL Subscription Information (MG-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. MG-CSI is used to notify the CSE about Mobility Management events for the GPRS subscriber.
See clause 12.1 for the usage of MG-CSI.
MO-SMS-CSI
Originating Short Message Service CAMEL Subscription Information (MO-SMS-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. MO-SMS-CSI contains trigger information that is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for Mobile Originating Short Message submissions.
See clause 9 for the usage of MO-SMS-CSI.
MT-SMS-CSI
Terminating Short Message Service CAMEL Subscription Information (MT-SMS-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. MT-SMS-CSI contains trigger information that is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for Mobile Terminating Short Message delivery.
See clause 9 for the usage of MT-SMS-CSI.
O-CSI
Originating CAMEL Subscription Information (O-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN (at location update),to the IPLMN (for an incoming call in the GMSC) and to the IM CN subsystem. O-CSI contains trigger information that is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for Mobile Originating calls (in the VMSC) and Mobile Forwarding calls (in the VMSC and the GMSC).
See clause 5 and Annex A for the usage of O-CSI.
SS-CSI
Supplementary Service Invocation Notification CAMEL Subscription Information (SS-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. SS-CSI is used to notify the CSE about the invocation of certain Supplementary Services.
See clause 12.3 for the usage of SS-CSI.
T-CSI
Terminating CAMEL Subscription Information (T-CSI) is transferred to the IPLMN for an incoming call in the GMSC. T-CSI contains trigger information which is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for Mobile Terminating calls in the GMSC.
See clause 6 for the usage of T-CSI.
TIF-CSI
Translation information Flag CAMEL Subscription Information (TIF-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN. TIF-CSI is used in the HLR for registering short Forwarded-to-Numbers (FTNs). When TIF-CSI is present, the subscriber is allowed to register short FTNs.
When the subscriber invokes Call Deflection, TIF-CSI in the VPLMN allows the subscriber to deflect to short Deflected-to-Numbers.
See clause 18.3 for the usage of TIF-CSI.
U-CSI
USSD CAMEL Subscription Information (U-CSI) is held in the HLR; it is not sent to any other node. U-CSI contains trigger information which is used to invoke a USSD application in the CSE for the served subscriber.
See clause 14.3 for the usage of U-CSI.
UG-CSI
USSD General CAMEL Subscription Information (UG-CSI) is held in the HLR; it is not sent to any other node. UG-CSI contains trigger information which is used to invoke a USSD application in the CSE for all subscribers.
See clause 14.3 for the usage of UG-CSI.
VT-CSI
VMSC Terminating CAMEL Subscription Information (VT-CSI) is transferred to the VPLMN at location update and to the IM CN subsystem. VT-CSI contains trigger information which is required to invoke a CAMEL Service Logic for Mobile Terminating calls in the VMSC.
See clauses 6 and A for the usage of VT-CSI.
Refer to TS 23.078 for detailed descriptions of the various types of CAMEL Subscription Information.
The CSI may include the Default Call Handling, Default GPRS Handling or Default SMS Handling.
The Default Call Handling indicates whether the call shall be released or continued if the contact with the CSE is not confirmed or is interrupted.
Network -based services may be provided by the serving PLMN operator. The provisioning mechanism is out of the scope of this specification.
Trunk originated services may be provided by the PLMN operator. The provisioning mechanism is out of the scope of this specification.
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4.2  General ProceduresWord‑p. 14

Each process is made up of a series of telecommunication events, some of which are service events. At a service event, the IPLMN or VPLMN may:
  • Suspend the handling of the telecommunication service and make contact with a CSE to ask for instructions, or
  • Send a notification to the CSE and continue the handling of the telecommunication service, or
  • Continue the handling of the telecommunication service without sending a notification to the CSE.
When a service event is reported to the CSE, the IPLMN or VPLMN shall send to the CSE the information listed in this specification. All information sent to the CSE relates to the served CAMEL subscriber unless otherwise stated. The initial service events, which can initiate contact with the CSE, are defined in the CAMEL Subscription Information. The CSE identity which corresponds to each initial service event is also defined in the CAMEL Subscription Information.
The serving network shall accept the instruction from the CSE and continue call processing with the received information.
The CAMEL feature is applicable in a PLMN when the CAMEL subscription information is handled properly and when the communication to the CSE is compliant with the CAMEL protocol [8].
The CAMEL network capabilities are used at a PLMN when the CAMEL feature is applicable and:
  • The CSI is received from the HPLMN; or
  • The CSE requests congestion control in the VPLMN or IPLMN.
In addition dialled network-based services may be applicable in a PLMN if so administered.
In addition trunk originated based services may be applicable in a PLMN if so administered (See clause 24):
  • Activate subsequent service events to be reported to the CSE. These events shall remain active only for the lifetime of the telecommunication service;
  • Alter information relating to the suspended process;
  • Alter information relating to the parties involved in the process;
  • Indicate which of the possible parts of the process should occur next (e.g. terminate the call);
  • Perform charging activities;
  • Order in band user interaction.
If a control relationship exists between the CSE and the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber, then at any time during the call the CSE can instruct the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber to perform one or more of the following Call Party Handling operations:
  • Create additional parties in the call (additional parties shall be created in a held state);
  • Release an individual call party;
  • Release all parties in the call.
If a control relationship exists between the CSE and the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber, then at any time during the alerting and active phases of a call leg, the CSE can instruct the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber to perform the following Call Party Handling operation:
  • Connect an individual call party to the group of call parties, within the same call (the call party shall be in a held state immediately before this operation).
If a control relationship exists between the CSE and the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber, then at any time during the active phase of a call leg, the CSE can instruct the IPLMN/VPLMN of the served subscriber to perform the following Call Party Handling operation:
  • Place an individual call party on hold (the call party shall not be in a held state immediately before this operation).
It shall be possible for the CSE to initiate a new call to the HPLMN/VPLMN of a subscriber at any time.
For subscribed dialled services it shall be possible for the CSE to instruct the serving PLMN to perform either or both of the following actions:
  • Perform charging activities;
  • Order in band user interaction.
After the CSE has issued either or both of the preceding instructions, it shall issue exactly one of the following instructions to the serving PLMN:
  • Continue the processing of the call, or
  • Continue the processing of the call with modified information, or
  • Connect the calling party to a specified called party, or
  • Release the call.
After one of the above instructions, the relation between the serving network and the CSE shall be released. Any other behaviour may cause misoperation of CAMEL based services.
Serving network-based service numbers may be treated after the behaviour described above. These services are outside the scope of the CAMEL specification.
Serving network based service numbers may be provided at the discretion of the network operator but these are outside the scope of this specification.
For Enhanced Dialled Services, the CSE capabilities are the same as for subscriber-based services.
CAMEL features shall form an integral part of the following processes:
  • Mobile Originated call (MO call);
  • Mobile Terminated call (MT call) in GMSC;
  • Mobile Terminated call (MT call) in VMSC;
  • Mobile Forwarded call (MF call) - early call forwarding; early forwarded calls are treated as MO calls;
  • Mobile Forwarded call (MF call) - late call forwarding; late forwarded calls are treated as MO calls;
  • Trunk Originated call (TO call) - call received on an incoming trunk at the MSC;
  • Mobile Originated IP Multimedia Session in Serving CSCF;
  • Mobile Terminated IP Multimedia Session in Serving CSCF;
  • Supplementary service invocation;
  • USSD user interaction. The service codes for CAMEL services can be allocated per subscriber or globally for all subscribers of the HPLMN;
  • Mobile Originated Short Message (MO SM) service; via both the MSC and the SGSN;
  • Mobile Terminating Short Message (MT SM) service; via both the MSC and the SGSN;
  • General Packet Radio Service (GPRS);
  • Mobility Management events;
  • Interrogation and control of Subscription Data.
The CSE shall be able to interrogate the HPLMN for information about the location and status of a particular subscriber at any time.
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4.3  Applicability of CAMEL ProceduresWord‑p. 16

CAMEL procedures are applicable to all circuit switched Basic Services without distinction (except Emergency calls).
CAMEL procedures are applicable to GPRS sessions and PDP contexts.
CAMEL procedures are applicable to the Mobile Originating/ Terminating Short Message Service through both circuit switched and packet switched serving network entities.
CAMEL procedures are applicable to IP multimedia sessions (except Emergency Calls) to support legacy services.
CAMEL shall support IPMM sessions which are based on the same charging paradigms as CS/PS calls. This applies most probably to VoIP and Video over IP. New charging paradigms - and this includes especially the flexible content-based charging - are to be supported by the new charging functions defined for the IM domain.
CAMEL procedures are applicable to IP multimedia sessions addressed by either E.164 numbers or SIP URLs.
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