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TR 22.822SA1
Study on using Satellite Access in 5G

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V16.0.0 (Wzip)  2018/06  35 p.

WI Acronym:  FS_5GSAT
Rapporteur:  Mr. MICHEL, CyrilTHALES

TS 22.261 requires that the 5G system shall be able to provide services using satellite access. It further specifies that the 5G system shall support service continuity between land based 5G access and satellite based access networks owned by the same operator or by an agreement between operators.
The present document presents the results of a study on using satellite access in 5G. Use cases for the provision of services when considering the integration of 5G satellite-based access components in the 5G system are identified. This leads to the associated identification of existing / planned, as well for new, services and the corresponding modified or new requirements. The requirements on set-up / configuration / maintenance of the features of UE's when using satellite components combined with other components from the 5G system are addressed as well as regulatory requirements when moving to (or from) satellite from (or to) terrestrial networks

full Table of Contents for  TR 22.822  Word version:   16.0.0

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1  ScopeWord-p. 7
2  References
3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviations
4  Categorisation of use cases for satellite access in 5G
4.1  Introduction
4.2  "Service Continuity" CategoryWord-p. 9
The deployment of terrestrial networks can be driven by the coverage of population centres rather than by the coverage of geographical areas. This can lead to the creation of geographical areas where access to the 5G services through the radio coverage of a terrestrial network will not be possible
In such cases, UE's whether associated with pedestrian users, or embarked on moving land mobile terrestrial platforms (e.g. a car, a coach, a truck, a train), airborne platforms (e.g. a commercial or a private jet) or maritime platforms (e.g. a maritime vessel) can experience conditions where 5G services cannot be offered continuously by a single or a combination of terrestrial networks during the journey of the UE.
Use cases described under this category will address the opportunity for users to be provided a continuous access to services granted by the 5G system, whilst moving between terrestrial and satellite networks. Use cases including fleets of such UE's (whether dispersed or locally grouped) would also be included in this category.
4.3  "Service Ubiquity" Category
Terrestrial networks may not be available due either to economic rationales (expectation for revenues not meeting the minimum threshold for profitability), or disasters (e.g. Earthquakes, floods) leading to a temporary outage or total destruction of the terrestrial network infrastructures that need to be restored.
A number of potential users may wish to access 5G services in these "un-served" or "underserved" areas by terrestrial networks, but will be prevented to do so, unless 5G satellite access networks provide such a service.
4.4  "Service Scalability" Category
In comparison with terrestrial networks, satellite networks have a large coverage, typically corresponding to tens of thousands of cells of a terrestrial network. Satellites are therefore efficient in multicasting or broadcasting a similar content over a large area, and potentially directly to user equipment. Similarly, a satellite network can also contribute to off-loading traffic from terrestrial networks during the busy hours by multicasting or broadcasting non time sensitive data in non-busy hours.
5  Use CasesUp
5.1  Roaming between terrestrial and satellite networks
5.1.1  Description
Shipping company Worldwide wants to track and trace containers. In order to do so, it has installed a UE on the containers that can report location and other parameters (e.g. temperature in the container) to a central server.
Shipping company Worldwide has equipped the UEs with subscriptions of terrestrial operator TerrA. TerrA has roaming contracts with most terrestrial operators worldwide in order to enable shipping company Worldwide to track and trace containers wherever there is terrestrial coverage.
As containers also travel in areas where there is no terrestrial coverage, shipping company Worldwide has ensured that the UEs on the containers are also equipped with satellite access capabilities. This implies that containers can e.g. be tracked when they are on-board of a ship on the ocean or are travelling by train/truck through remote areas without terrestrial network coverage.
Operator TerrA recognises the importance of worldwide roaming and therefore also has established roaming agreements with satellite network operators such a SatA.
The satellite access for the UEs on the containers requires direct line of sight. That is not always available (e.g. when a container is at the bottom of a stack on a container ship). Therefore, the UE on the container can connect to the network as a Remote UE, using the UE on another container with direct line of sight as Relay. Alternatively, the container ship provides one or more Relay UEs.
5.1.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 10
5.1.3  Service Flows
5.1.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 11
5.1.5  Potential Requirements
5.2  Broadcast and multicast with a satellite overlay
5.2.1  Description
In Release 14, 3GPP has specified features to enable mobile network deliver television services in new and improved way. Television and content providers may directly provide their services over standardized interfaces. Among many enhancements to the system, highlights include e.g. greater radio broadcast range, free-to-air services and transparent mode delivery of digital video signals. Advances in Release 14 allow improved support for television services to both mobile devices and stationary TV sets over eMBMS (enhanced multimedia broadcast and multicast system over LTE) and unicast. Advances made include a standardized interface between mobile network operators and service providers used for media delivery and control, radio enhancements for improved broadcast support and system enhancements to allow delivery of free-to-air receive-only services. This approach can be extended to a satellite overlay, addressing not only video content but also any form of digital content that would need to be distributed towards several UEs taking into account the benefits of the large geographical coverage of satellite networks, with a stand-alone receive only mode, or as a complement to a two-way mode of operation.
5.2.2  Pre-conditions
5.2.3  Service FlowsUp
5.2.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 12
5.2.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.2.6  Potential Requirements
5.3  Internet of Things with a satellite network
5.3.1  Description
A 5G satellite network can be based a constellation of one or multiple satellites. The satellites are placed in LEO to allow connectivity of UEs with limited RF and energy capabilities. The constellation of satellites may offer a continuous service, with a satellite covering any UE with a continuous global coverage.
An IoT (Internet of Things) service provider delivers connectivity for its customers throughout a given area thanks to the access to the 5G system and several associated mobile networks and wishes to guarantee geographic coverage extension.The satellite component may provide:
  • A 5G satellite access network to allow a radio coverage extension to the terrestrial networks.
  • As a 5G satellite network, providing extension to other 5G terrestrial networks through a roaming agreement.
5.3.2  Pre-conditions
5.3.3  Service Flows
5.3.4  Post-conditions
5.3.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/FeaturesWord-p. 13
5.3.6  Potential RequirementsUp
5.4  Temporary use of a satellite component
5.4.1  Description
A network operator has deployed 5G terrestrial RATs as part of the 5G system over a given geographical area. The geographical area may encompass several countries, and the infrastructure where the 5G terrestrial network is deployed includes RANs as well as CNs.
A crisis occurs: a significant earthquake, a flood, or a war. Elements of the RATs are partially or completely destroyed. Accesses to the services that are normally delivered by the terrestrial network are not available anymore.
At the same time, the crisis leads to a situation of urgency for the population, as well for the public institution in order to provide first aid support, and to restore security and to organise logistics support.
Alice is a 5G field engineer. She is located in the area of the crisis, where she is deploying and maintaining 5G terrestrial infrastructures. Alice wants to be provided with support from remote HQ to help restore the 5G infrastructure.
Bob is a Crisis Management Officer. He is in charge of a Search & Rescue team. He needs to interact with deployed and spread teams to coordinate actions: the search area goes beyond Device to Device (D2D) capabilities, or deployable on field capabilities for 5G terrestrial coverage.
5.4.2  Pre-conditions
5.4.3  Service Flows
5.4.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 14
5.4.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.4.6  Potential Requirements
5.5  Optimal routing or steering over a satellite
5.5.1  Description
Alice owns a factory to produce mechanical parts under Additive Layer Manufacturing processes. Thanks to an attractive financing scheme, Alice has installed a first factory FF in a rather remote area, the factory is at the edge of the radio coverage of a 5G terrestrial RAT, the performance of eMBB services can be somewhat limited at a certain time of the day. Alice has also installed a second factory SF, in a further remote area, with an even more interesting financing scheme, however there is no 5G terrestrial access network in this area.
The factories are almost fully automated, with a minimum number of staff allocated to operations, maintenance and surveillance of the production. Each machine is being uploaded with ALM electronic files for the production of pieces to be manufactured. With the success of ALM processes, the complexity of ALM pieces and the volume of ALM electronic files have increased over time. For FF & SF, delays to transfer ALM files are increasing, saturating resources that could be used otherwise.
Alice would like also to buy new machines to further automate its processes and command and monitor the machines from the remote HQ, with a requirement that video control and reactivity are mandatory.
5.5.2  Pre-conditionsUp
5.5.3  Service Flows
5.5.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 15
5.5.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.5.6  Potential Requirements
5.6  Satellite transborder service continuity
5.6.1  Description
The radio coverage of a 5G terrestrial network associated to operator TA in country A. is made of a number of areas matching its deployment schedule. The same approach is followed by network operator TB in country B.
A satellite SA, which radio coverage partially overlaps the coverage of TA & TB, is deployed.
A satellite SB, which radio coverage partially overlaps the coverage of TA & TB, is deployed.
UEs having access to TA & TB can also have access to SA and SB.
The satellite component may be a satellite access network with one of the following configurations:
  • A 5G satellite RAT, providing a radio coverage extension of an available 5G access network of TA or TB.
  • A satellite access network providing connection to 5G CN of TA or TB.
  • A stand-alone 5G network, with independent access network and core capabilities, with roaming agreements with TA and TB.
5.6.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 16
5.6.3  Service Flows
5.6.4  Post-conditions
5.6.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/FeaturesWord-p. 17
5.6.6  Potential Requirements
5.7  Global satellite overlay
5.7.1  Description
As indicated in TR 22.891, the propagation delay is limited by physics, i.e. the speed of light (299 792 458 meters per second) in air and 2/3 of the speed of light in fibre connection. With these limits, 1ms one way transmission latency can be mapped to 300 km air propagation or 200 km for fibre based transmission.
When the distance between 2 sites increases (several thousands of kilometres), the difference in latency between air and optical fibre transmission media may become critical for such applications and hence it is worth considering alternative network options compared to optical fibre based network.
A constellation of Low-Earth orbiting satellites, where each spacecraft is equipped with a gNB and interconnected with other neighbouring spacecraft's via Inter Satellite Links, provides access to UEs. Such a type of constellation system would provide an overlay mesh network for users that have a need for long distance connectivity with improved latency performance or specific end to end security.
The constellation of satellites can be considered as contributing to a single overlay 5G system, or as contributing a many 5G systems as many countries covered by the Constellations for instance.
Global organisations with distributed sites around the world may require long distance connectivity between the sites with critical requirements including low latency, reliability and/or end-to-end security to support critical application domains such as High Frequency Trading (HFT), Banking or Corporate communications.
An organisation is structured on a set of distributed sites throughout the globe that needs to be interconnected. This organisation has strong requirements with respect to security as well as with respect to Quality of Service (QoS), both for bandwidth and latency, since operations are related to these metrics: for mining or oil & gas exploitation, for trading, etc. The case of High Frequency Trading is addressed here.
5.7.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 18
5.7.3  Service Flows
5.7.4  Post-conditions
5.7.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.7.6  Potential Requirements
5.8  Indirect connection through a 5G satellite access network
5.8.1  DescriptionUp
When considering the class of "service continuity" use cases, a number of potential remote users could be located in areas with no connectivity to 5G services through any 5G terrestrial access networks, either temporarily due to the motion of the platform (aeronautical, maritime or land - car, train -) or due to economic circumstances. These platforms could also be moving platforms, such as command cards, when considering mission critical communications.
To cope with this situation, a 5G satellite network could offer an answer to the connectivity requirement: Remote UE's, either on motion, or on station or fixed, possibly with no satellite access capability or out of reach of a satellite access (due to blocking of the direct access), would be interconnected with a satellite enabled UE that would be also a Relay UE.
The Relay UE would provide indirect connectivity between associated Remote UEs and the 5G Core Network through the 5G satellite access.
Some Relay UEs may be located in different countries, some other Relay UEs, due to the motion of the associated platform (long haul aircraft or ships) could be moving from one country to the other during the connectivity session of the associated remote UEs.
The number of remote UEs attached to a single Relay UEs is related to the local conditions: from a few is a remote area, to several hundred (commercial jet) or thousands (maritime cruise vessel) for instance.
5.8.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 19
5.8.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 20
5.8.4  Post-conditions
5.8.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.8.6  Potential Requirements
5.9  5G Fixed Backhaul between NR and the 5G CoreWord-p. 21
5.9.1  Description
Alice and Barbara live in Aville and Bville, two small villages in the country about 5km apart connected by a main road. The surrounding area has a low population density, just farms and a disused quarry.
The two villages do not currently enjoy modern communication services. DSL connectivity is poor because of the distance to the next small town, Cville, where the mobile operators also have good coverage, but it hardly reaches the two villages. The mobile operators have decided to place a shared cell tower between the villages. They are home to 300 families, with more in the summer due to holiday accommodation. The road can occasionally be busy with holiday traffic but is usually quiet.
Alice and Barbara enjoy using their mobile phones when they leave school in Cville, but the signal becomes unusable before they arrive home.
5.9.2  Pre-conditions
5.9.3  Service Flows
5.9.4  Post ConditionsUp
5.9.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.9.6  Potential RequirementsWord-p. 22
5.10  5G Moving Platform Backhaul
5.10.1  Description
A train operator TO is opening a new 1000 km high speed line across the country. TO wishes to provide specific entertainment services (with no or low uplink traffic and high downlink) for all passengers and general internet services for those passengers who pay a supplement. It is also necessary to provide non-critical operational data for TO's internal use.
5.10.2  Pre-conditions
5.10.3  Service Flows
5.10.4  Post-conditions
5.10.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.10.6  Potential Requirements
5.11  5G to PremisesWord-p. 23
5.11.1  Description
Neudorf is a village built in the foothills of the alps in the 1970s. There are about 80 dwellings. At the time it was built as a holiday village, the location chosen because of the nearby ski lift. With global warming the lift went bankrupt, but the area is now popular (as a primary residence) because of the alternative lifestyle away from the city. When it was built telecommunications meant having a phone and nothing else. Today the old exchange is too far away to give good DSL and cellular coverage varies greatly because of the hills and is not really very good in general. The inhabitants are divided, some want modern communications and others show little interest.
There are no cable companies operating at this rather remote location and many of the premises have been using Satellite for Broadcast TV reception for a long time.
5.11.2  Pre-conditions
5.11.3  Service Flows
5.11.4  Post-conditions
5.11.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.11.6  Potential Requirements
5.12  Satellite connection of remote service centre to off-shore wind farmWord-p. 24
5.12.1  Description
The wind power plant communication network at an off-shore wind farm connects to the on-shore and inland remote service centre via 5G satellite connection.
There are two settings of how the remote service centre can connect to the satellite:
  • The remote service centre uses a 5G satellite UE directly (on-shore satellite connection A).
  • The remote service centre connects to a PLMN that includes a 5G satellite connection (on-shore satellite connection B).
5.12.2  Pre-conditions
5.12.3  Service FlowsUp
5.12.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 25
5.12.5  Potential Impacts or Interactions with Existing Services/Features
5.12.6  Potential Requirements
6  5QI for a 5G system with satellite access
7  Considerations
8  Potential Requirements
9  Conclusion and Recommendations
A  Main characteristics of 5G satellite componentsWord-p. 30
A.1  Main characteristics of 5G satellite access networks
A.2  5G Satellite network-based architectures
In this technical report, a satellite network refers to the combination of a radio access network provided through a satellite-based infrastructure and a core network.
The following figures depict possible architectures that can be implemented with bent-pipe satellites (transparent, with no on-board processing capabilities) and regenerative satellites (with on-board processing capabilities).
The following figure describes a 5G satellite access network which is an access network that comprises a non-3GPP satellite access network connected to the 5G Core Network. In this case the satellite is a bent pipe satellite: the same radio protocols are used between the UE and the satellite, and between the satellite and the satellite hub.
5G Satellite access network with a Non-3GPP access network and 5G Core Network
The following figure describes a 5G satellite access network which is an access network (that comprises a 5G satellite access network connected to the 5G Core Network. In this case the satellite is a bent pipe satellite or a regenerative satellite: the NR radio protocols are used between the UE and the satellite, the F1 interface is used between the satellite and the gNB.
5G Satellite access networks with a 5G RAN and 5G Core Network
B  Change historyWord-p. 35

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