SMS has been very successful in the GSM second generation system, as all mobiles have supported the application level and it is possible to send to any GSM handset without the need to check for individual support. This easy to use service for non realtime text transmission between GSM users shall be succeeded to in third generation mobile systems by a non real-time Multimedia Message Service, MMS. The MMS will allow users to send and receive messages exploiting the whole array of media types available today e.g. text, images, audio, video while also making it possible to support new content types as they become popular.
3GPP shall not standardise new services themselves, but instead uses the standardised set of service capabilities features on which the new services will be built.
Multimedia technology is rapidly developing new capabilities, such as multimedia messages, games, presentations and services that are now considered to be a part of everyday life. Multimedia consists of one or more media elements (such as text, voice, image and video), and it is the combination of these media elements in an ordered synchronised manner that creates a multimedia presentation.
A non-realtime multimedia message as observed by the user is a combination of one or more different media elements in a multimedia presentation, that can be transferred between users without the requirement for the need to be transferred in realtime. The non-real-time multimedia messaging service shall be capable of supporting current and future multimedia messaging services, and exploit the advances being made in the world multimedia community, with additional mobile requirements.
This Technical Specification defines the stage one description of the non real-time Multimedia Messaging Service, MMS. Stage one is the set of requirements which shall be supported for the provision of non real-time multimedia messaging service, seen primarily from the subscriber's and service providers' points of view.
This TS includes information applicable to network operators, service providers, terminal and network manufacturers.
This TS contains the core requirements for the Multimedia Messaging Service, which are sufficient to provide a complete service.
This TS defines the requirements for MMS to be understood as a framework to enable non real-time transmissions for different types of media including such functionality as:
multiple media elements per single message
individual handling of message elements
different delivery methods for each message element
negotiate different terminal and network MM capabilities
notification and acknowledgement of MM related events (e.g. delivery, deletion, ...)
handling of undeliverable MM
personalised MMS configuration
The above list is not exhaustive.
Thus the MMS enables a unified application which integrates the composition, storage, access, and delivery of different kinds of media, e.g. text, voice, image or video in combination with additional mobile requirements.
The following documents contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of the present document.
References are either specific (identified by date of publication, edition number, version number, etc.) or non-specific.
For a specific reference, subsequent revisions do not apply.
For a non-specific reference, the latest version applies. In the case of a reference to a 3GPP document (including a GSM document), a non-specific reference implicitly refers to the latest version of that document in the same Release as the present document.
the recipient is the entity to which a MM has been sent.
the sender is the entity that sent a MM.
the user is the MM sender or the MM recipient.
a message element is a part of a MM consisting of only one media type.
a multimedia message is a message composed of one or more message elements.
multimedia message service:
A multimedia message service allows transfer of multimedia messages between users without the requirement for the multimedia messages to be transferred in real-time.
a media type refers to one form of presenting information to a user, e.g. voice or fax.
within one media type different media formats are applicable for the media presentation, e.g. a picture can be GIF or JPEG format.
for the purposes of supporting multimedia messaging, the term network shall be considered to include the mobile operator's network and any functionality which may exist outside the mobile operator's network (i.e.fixed, internet and multimedia technologies etc.), and the support provided by that functionality for multimedia messaging.
Operator Specific Service:
network-based and operator administred function being able to perform additional, operator defined, MMS services based on MMS capabilities for address translation and charging.
Value Added Service Provider:
provides services other than basic telecommunications service for which additional charges may be incurred.
A string of alphanumeric characters which addresses a specific service of a Value Added Service Provider.
The following list gives the high level requirements of the MMS. These are requirements which are independent of the user's perception of the service:
Forward compatible multimedia messaging
Multimedia messaging mechanisms shall provide the capability to support current and evolving multimedia messaging by re-using existing standards as far as possible and proposing extensions (as necessary) to existing standards (i.e. the multimedia messaging service shall support the evolution of multimedia messaging technologies).
Regardless of the message type / format, MMS shall be capable of supporting integration of all types of messaging (e.g. fax, SMS, Multimedia , voicemail, e-mail etc.) in a consistent manner.
Universal messaging access
Within the capabilities of networks and terminals, the user shall be able to experience consistent access to the MMS regardless of the access point.
For example the user should be capable of accessing her multimedia messages through a number of different access points, which should include 3GPP systems, fixed networks, the Internet, etc.
The MMS shall support a minimum set of functionality and message formats to ensure interoperability (e.g. deletion of MM, identified standardised message notification, message media types and message content formats).
The MMS shall provide a minimum set of supported formats to ensure full interoperability between different terminals and networks from the very beginning of service provisioning (e.g. JPEG for pictures, MP3 for audio, MPEG for motion pictures, etc.).
The MMS shall support version management by indicating a version number in the MM for interoperability purpose.
Network operators have many differing requirements, and MMS shall be supported in the network in a manner which allows network operators to consider different configurations depending on their network and commercial requirements. Thus, an identified set of functionalities and formats shall be standardised to ensure interoperability across networks and terminals to support MMS.
However, some network operators may wish to design and configure networks in different ways, and the subsequent requirements are identified to allow flexibility in how the MMS functionality is supported. For example in some networks the network operators may wish to implement the MMS functionality within the core network, whereas other may wish to place the MMS functionality on the periphery of the core network (e.g. a centralised network model instead of a distributed architecture). Further, some network operators may wish to support a limited set of MMS functionality, while others may require extensive and elaborate MMS support according to their business models (e.g. basic MMS instead of advanced MMS). Interoperability shall always be maintained within this flexible architecture.
The following sub-clauses use the term "The MMS shall be able to support a request for …" and similar phrases to allow network operators to consider these different network models and business requirements, to permit flexible architectures and ensure MMS interoperability.
The following sub-clauses use the term "This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the terminal (and/or the network), and will not be further elaborated." and similar phrases to identify those service requirements that shall be supported by MMS but do not require standardisation.
The criterion for identifying these types of requirements is as follows:
If the requirement corresponds to an interaction and/or command between the terminal and the network applications from the same Service Provider (e.g. between the recipient's terminal resident messaging application and the recipient's network resident application. The same applies for the sender), then this requirement shall be supported by MMS but does not require standardisation.
The following general requirements shall be supported.
Terminal-sensitive MM management
The MMS shall be able to support the capability for the terminal and network to take account of the capability of the user's terminal (e.g. deliver a MM / notification in a manner compatible with the terminals capability).
Terminal status-sensitive MM Management
The MMS shall be able to support the capability of the network to take account of the availability, changes of the state of availability of the terminal (e.g. store messages if the recipient is not available).
MMS Control by the operator
The MMS shall be able to support a request from the operator to enable/disable MM delivery and submission.
MMS Control by the user
The MMS shall be able to support a request from the user to enable/disable MM delivery and submission.
This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the terminal, and will not be further elaborated.
Storage of MMS parameters
The USIM shall be able to store the following types of MMS related data:
a number of sets of issuer configuration information to allow access to MMS services.
At least one of these sets of configuration information should be stored on the USIM by the issuer of the USIM.
The first issuer configuration information set is denoted as the default configuration set.
This configuration information shall only be configurable by the issuer of the USIM.
a number of sets of user configuration information to allow access to MMS services.
If more than one set of configuration information is present, it shall be possible for the user to select which set is used. If the user has not selected any of the configuration information sets, then the default set in the active USIM is used.
MMS user preferences
A terminal using a USIM  or a SIM  with these MMS parameters, shall by default use them and the related preferred bearer, to access to the MMS services.
Personalise multimedia messaging
The MMS shall be able to support a request by the user to manage the Service Preferences of his User Service Profile related to this MMS  (e.g. customise his MM environment within the capabilities of the terminal, network and MM application. This could be unconditional or conditional e.g. depending on roaming conditions or operator restrictions).
The MMS shall be able to support the request to create a MM by the user or an application.
This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the terminal, and will not be further elaborated.
MM Time Stamping
The MMS shall be able to support the request to include a reliable time value in an MM, a notification and an acknowledgement as appropriate.
Multimedia messages may be composed of either a single medium (e.g. voice) or multi-media (e.g. Voice and video). The MMS shall be able to support a request for media synchronisation / sequencing.
Media Type Conversion
The MMS shall be able to support a request to convert between media types (e.g. Fax to image). The MMS shall be able to support an indication from a VASP that VASP originated content of an MM should not be converted or changed by the MMS service provider before it is delivered to the recipient.
This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the network, and will not be further elaborated.
Media Format Conversion
The MMS shall be able to support a request by the user or the application to convert between MM media formats (e.g. JPEG to GIF).
This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the terminal and/or in the network, and will not be further elaborated.
The MMS shall be able to support a request to forward multimedia messages or multimedia message elements without having to first download the MM to the terminal. The MMS shall provide a mechanism to prevent an MM forwarding loop (e.g. MMs are setup to be automatically forwarded from User A to B, then from B to C and from C back to A. Users A, B, and C are unaware that they have setup this undesirable situation).
Storage of Multi-Media Messages
The MMS shall be able to support a request for multimedia messages or message elements to be stored until delivered to the recipient's terminal, until they expire, or until they are deleted by the user (unless configured differently). The MMS shall be able to support a request to store and manage all MMs in a network based repository rather than on the mobile terminal.
When the USIM supports MMs storage, it shall be possible for the MMS client to store and retrieve MMs or elements of MMs in the USIM.
Prioritisation of Messages
The MMS shall be able to support a request for MM prioritisation . The prioritisation is passed to the recipient(s) of the message as an indication of the importance the sender places on the message. MM prioritisation is not acted upon by the network.
The MMS shall be able to support a request for MM qualification (e.g. subject) for the purpose of advanced user experience and awareness.
Screening of Messages
The MMS shall be able to support a request for MM screening subject to the capabilities of the network (e.g. automatically delete "junk mail", anonymous messages without delivery to the recipient's terminal).
This requirement shall be supported at the application layer in the terminal an/or in the network, and will not be further elaborated.
The MMS shall be able to support a request by the originator of a message to define validity periods (earliest and latest desired time) for message delivery (e.g. if a message can not be delivered within a certain time it will be automatically deleted). The MMS service provider shall be able to set the MAXIMUM allowable validity period for any message.
Multimedia Message Processing by a VASP
The MMS shall be able to support a request for messages to be processed by a VASP. An example of such processing may be where an MM is sent to a VASP before delivery to the recipient so that the VASP can add multimedia element(s) to the original message.
The MMS shall be able to support a request by a VASP to replace a previously sent MM from the VASP with a second newer MM.
Cancellation of MM
The MMS shall be able to support a request by a VASP to delete a MM that had previously been sent from the VASP but not yet delivered to the terminal.
Hyperlinks in MM
It shall be possible to embed a hyperlink in a MM.
The following guidelines on editing, presenting and following of hyperlinks should be followed:
There should be no restriction to the position in the MM where a hyperlink can be added.
It should be possible to clearly recognise the presence of a hyperlink.
Presence of a hyperlink in an MM should not impact the presentation of the MM (i.e. due to immediate following or storage of the link)
The recipient of an MM should be able to follow a hyperlink.
The hyperlink should not be followed automatically by default (explicit user interaction should be required)
Digital Rights Management
The MMS shall be able to support controlling the distribution of controlled content as defined in TS 22.242. MMS Content Providers shall be able to invoke DRM to prevent unauthorized copying and forwarding of controlled content through the MMS.
The MMS shall support multimedia messages or messages elements to be submitted from the sender's UE.
The MMS shall be able to support a request for multimedia messages or messages elements to be automatically delivered to the recipient's UE.
The MMS shall be able to support a request for multimedia messages or messages elements to be delivered to the recipient's UE on request by the recipient.
The MMS shall be able to support MM delivery to and from the user's terminal not be restricted during other active services (subject to the capabilities of the terminal and the network).
The MMS shall be able to support streaming for MM delivery from the MMS system to the terminal.
Support for streaming for MM upload from the terminal to the MMS system will be considered for future releases.
It shall be possible to define a list of precedence for bearers in the configuration information sets for delivery and submission of MM (e.g. GPRS, CSD). By default, the the terminal shall be able to support automatic bearer selection (i.e. without user intervention) based on the order of precedence defined in the configuration information sets on the USIM  or SIM . The user shall be able to enable or disable automatic bearer selection. When disabled, manual bearer selection shall be available from the list of bearers.
Conditional delivery mechanism
It shall be possible for the user to define in the User Profile a set of conditions that determine which delivery mechanism should be used for the delivery of a MM.
Such conditions should include:
Roaming status of the recipient (e.g. inside or outside the home network)
Identity of the MM originator
Time of day (of the recipient's home network)
Upper limit to the MM size
The notification message indicating an MMS awaiting delivery shall relay the information of the user's preferred delivery mechanism, if such information is made available by the user profile in the network, to the UE. If a mismatch is identified between the delivery mechanism configured in the UE and the delivery mechanism indicated in the notification message, it shall be possible for the user to select either the delivery mechanism configured in the UE or the delivery mechanism indicated in the notification message.
Furthermore, the terminal may also display a warning prior to the download of a message depending on some terminal parameters such as:
Available storage capacity
Remaining battery life
For example, the user may elect to have all MMs downloaded automatically when in the home network, be able to manually select whether to download a MM or not when roaming.
It shall be possible for the network operator to program a default set of rules for the delivery mechanism in the User profile. Such rules can be overridden by the user.
MM intended for applications other than the default MMS client on the UE
The MMS shall support MMs that are not intended for presentation but used to originate and deliver information to applications residing on the UE other than the default MMS client.
When an application sends a MM not intended for presentation, it shall be possible to uniquely identify that originating application and the target application on the recipient UE as well as the instance of the application if more than one instance can be active. The originating application may reside on a UE or within the network.
The message payload shall not be modified by the MMS.
If the MM is originated by the subscriber's home environment, it shall be possible to protect the MM from accidental deletion by the user.
The MMS shall be able to support a request to send generic notification and acknowledgement capability to inform the user in an appropriate manner of MMS events. Examples may include:
notify the recipient about received messages (including a description of the message, e.g. content, size, type).
notify the recipient about actions taken by the MMS, (e.g. due to profile settings like automatic MM forwarding, deletion, etc.).
acknowledge the sender about successful or failed MM or storage of a MM.
acknowledge the sender about successful or failed MM submission.
acknowledge the sender, including a VASP, about successful or failed MM delivery to the recipient terminal (subject to the recipient permitting such an acknowledgement).
acknowledge the sender, including a VASP, about the MM being read/handled at the recipient terminal (subject to the recipient permitting such an acknowledgement).
acknowledge the sender, including a VASP, about successful or failed MM deletion.
acknowledge the sender, including a VASP, upon request, about the status of a submitted MM (i.e. delivered / not delivered).
acknowledge a VASP, upon request, about the status of a mass distributed MM. A mass MM status report might be an aggregated report on the status of individual messages for all recipients on the distribution list of a specific mass distributed MM.
acknowledge a VASP, upon request, about the status of previously submitted MMs, after a VASP had sent the MMs being queried.
The MMS shall support different addressing formats to identify the sender and recipient. It shall be possible to submit one message to multiple recipients.
The MMS shall support the capability for both MSISDN  and e-mail addressing schemes  to be used, and the user may use either form of addressing to send a message.
The MMS shall be able to support the request to hide the sender's address from the recipient.
The MMS shall support a distribution list for mass distribution of MMs from a VASP. The MMS shall support the ability for a VASP to have the distribution list modified by the MMS service provider for this release.
The MMS may support short code addresses to address Value Added Services. If supported, and routing of messages to a MMS VASP service based on a short code address is enabled, the MMS shall be able to translate the short code address to a routable address to be used in the transport layer, e.g. a URI.
It shall be possible for an MMS client in the ME to interact with a UICC to manage (e.g. send, receive and present) MMS messages stored on the UICC, in accordance with the requirements in this specification. It shall be possible to indicate to the UE that an MM needs to receive special treatment. When a MM has been marked with this indication, means shall be provided to protect the MM from accidental deletion e.g. by asking for additional confirmation to the user. The use of this indication shall be under the control of the HPLMN.
The MMS shall be able to support the ability to create, update, store, transfer, interrogate, manage and retrieve a user's multimedia messaging profiles.
The multimedia messaging profiles shall allow a user to configure and personalise his multimedia messaging environment with the multimedia messaging profiles (e.g. which media types and notifications that shall be delivered to the recipient , such as voice only or text only).
The user profile shall allow the user to create and manipulate a list of users, identified by their addresses, from which the user does not want to receive messages. This list is called "user-level blacklist". It shall be possible for the user to add, remove and edit addresses in the user-level blacklist.
If the MMS supports a network based repository of MMs, it shall be possible for the users to configure where incoming MMs will be stored.
The multimedia messaging profiles shall form part of the user's virtual home environment.
MMS information in the user profile when stored in the UA or the network shall be accessed in a standardised manner. The MMS should accomplish this using mechanisms described in the 3GPP Generic User Profile TS 22.240 whenever possible.
The user shall be able to use and access MM in a secure manner. It shall be possible for the contents of MMs to be read only by the intended recipient(s). A recipient shall be informed of the reliability of the identity of the sender in case the sender has authorised his identity to be transmitted.
The integrity of MMs during transit shall be assured to extent of the network capabilities.
The MMS shall be intrinsically resistant to attempts of malicious or fraudulent use.
An MMS service provider shall be able to authenticate a VASP connected to it and shall be able to be authenticated by a VASP connected to it. The MMS service provider shall be able to authorise the VASP to use various MM services. The MMS shall support encryption of the transport layer between an MMS service provider and a VASP.
The "Security Threats and Requirements" specified in TS 21.133 shall not be compromised.
The standard shall permit interworking with other or existing messaging technologies, messaging services, intelligent network services and supplementary services, either located within or outside a mobile network.
In the case of a VASP, such interworking shall include capability negotiation between the VASP and the MMS service provider. Such capability negotiation shall include service version information as a minimum for this release.
The MMS may support operator specific services. Thereby network operators shall be able to provide additional MMS services dealing with enhanced addressing and charging.
If supported, the interaction between the MMS and Operator Specific Service shall happen immediately after multimedia message submission time or immediately before multimedia message delivery time, or both.
Multimedia Messages sent or delivered from/to users shall be subject to operator specific services handling if:
the user is provisioned with operator specific services in the MMS user profile. The user may be provisioned independently for operator specific services applicable for submission and delivery of multimedia messages.
Provisioning of Operator Specific Services for MMS is under control of the HPLMN operator.
the MMS determines based on a pre-analysis of the recipient's address(es) found in a submitted multimedia message that an Operator Specific Service needs to be invoked. The definition of the addresses invoking MMS Operator Specific Services is under control of the HPLMN operator(s) of the originating and terminating subscribers.
If the Operator Specific Services needs to be invoked, the MMS shall temporarily suspend the normal process of that multimedia message and shall provide the Operator Specific Services with at least the following information:
messaging event (submission, delivery)
multimedia message data:
As a response to the above request from the MMS, the Operator Specific Services may request the MMS to perform one of the following actions:
leave the multimedia message unmodified and proceed with its processing;
reject the message.
modify one or more of the following multimedia message data:
Operator Specific Services shall be allowed to influence charging of the message by providing additional information to the MMS. The MMS shall transparently forward this information to the billing systems together with the MMS charging relevant data.
Operator Specific Services take precedence over VASP services. If short code addressing to Value Added Services is supported by the MMS, the result from an Operator Specific Service shall be subject to short code address translation.
Multimedia Messages submitted from a VASP may be subject to operator specific services.