The scope of this section is to outline the basic principles for the network domain security architecture. A central concept introduced in this specification is the notion of a security domain. The security domains are networks that are managed by a single administrative authority. Within a security domain the same level of security and usage of security services will be typical. Typically, a network operated by a single network operator or a single transit operator will constitute one security domain although an operator may at will subsection its network into separate sub-networks.
For native IP-based protocols, security shall be provided at the network layer. The security protocols to be used at the network layer are the IETF defined IPsec security protocols as specified in RFC 4301
The network domain control plane of an NDS/IP-network is sectioned into security domains and typically these coincide with operator borders. The border between the security domains is protected by Security Gateways (SEGs). The SEGs are responsible for enforcing the security policy of a security domain towards other SEGs in the destination security domain. The network operator may have more than one SEG in its network in order to avoid a single point of failure or for performance reasons. A SEG may be defined for interaction towards all reachable security domain destinations or it may be defined for only a subset of the reachable destinations.
The network domain security of an NDS/IP-network does not extend to the user plane and consequently the security domains and the associated security gateways towards other domains do not encompass the user plane Gi-interface towards other, possibly external, IP networks.
A chained-tunnel/hub-and-spoke approach is used which facilitates hop-by-hop based security protection between security domains.
Within a security domain the use of Transport Mode is allowed.All NDS/IP traffic shall pass through a SEG before entering or leaving the security domain.
Security Gateways (SEGs) are entities on the borders of the IP security domains and will be used for securing native IP based protocols. The SEGs are defined to handle communication over the Za-interface, which is located between SEGs from different IP security domains.
All NDS/IP traffic shall pass through a SEG before entering or leaving the security domain. Each security domain can have one or more SEGs. Each SEG will be defined to handle NDS/IP traffic in or out of the security domain towards a well-defined set of reachable IP security domains.
The number of SEGs in a security domain will depend on the need to differentiate between the externally reachable destinations, the need to balance the traffic load and to avoid single points of failure. The security gateways shall be responsible for enforcing security policies for the interworking between networks. The security may include filtering policies and firewall functionality not required in this specification.
SEGs are responsible for security sensitive operations and shall be physically secured. They shall offer capabilities for secure storage of long-term keys used for IKE authentication.