Content for  TS 22.115  Word version:  18.1.0

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6  Transfer of Charging Informationp. 25

The efficient transfer of charging information between serving networks and from serving networks to home environments requires a standardised interface between these entities. It shall be possible to define different time intervals for the transfer of charging information between serving network and home environment (e.g. when a chargeable event occurs, when a chargeable event is initiated by the user, when a chargeable event terminates, at regular intervals during a chargeable event).
The format of the charging information exchanged (see clause 5.1) shall be standardised. It shall be possible for the relevant parties to agree minimum and maximum age of charging information transferred between themselves.

6.1  Integrity, Secrecy and Validation of Content and Receipt of Charging Informationp. 25

The transmission mechanism for charging information collected in clause 5.1 above shall ensure its integrity and secrecy.
A mechanism to validate the source and integrity of the information shall be provided so that:
  • the home environment shall be able to validate the source and integrity of the charging information supplied by the serving network;
  • the serving network shall be able to validate the source and integrity of the charging information supplied by the user;
  • the serving network shall have proof that services were provided to a specified user.

7  Accounting and Settlementp. 26

The serving network shall collect and process the charging data generated in its network elements. The record of each individual transaction shall be reported to the home environment at short time intervals in order to allow further processing by the billing system in the Home Environment, provide itemised bills, and to deal with any disputes regarding charges both for users and for other visited networks and home environment.
The standard shall support the transfer of charging data at different intervals as required by the Home Environment (e.g. short time intervals, real time, other regular intervals).

7.1  Delegation of charging authorityp. 26

The registration process allows the home environment to authenticate users before they incur any charges. Once authenticated, the home environment then delegates authority to the serving network operator with which he has a direct commercial relationship to incur charges for services supplied to that user. The direct commercial relationship may be with either the serving network operator if known directly by the home environment or a network operator known to the home environment. This procedure uses each network as trusted third parties in a chain of delegation between entities, thus allowing commercial transactions between entities who have no direct commercial dealings. There shall be an authentication procedure between all entities in the 3GPP system which have a commercial relationship.
In the case of a multimedia telephony, when the HPLMN requests that optimal media routeing is not applied, the VPLMN shall disable optimal media routeing for all the subscribers of the requesting network.

7.2  Fraud Controlp. 26

A mechanism to control fraud shall be provided by the serving networks and the home environment.

7.2.1  Fraud Control by the Home Environmentp. 26

Charging information shall be collected by the home environment in real time from all serving networks which its users are allowed to use. The billing system in the home environment shall process the information in real time and provide the means to set charge thresholds per time interval upon which some actions may be started, such as informing the customer care centre or even barring the user in the HLR.
It shall be possible for the Home Environment to define different time intervals for the collection and the processing of charging information (e.g. real time, short time, other regular intervals).

7.2.2  Fraud Control by the Serving Networkp. 26

Charging information shall be collected from the network elements and processed in real time. This will allow the serving network to always be aware of the exposure to visitors. A limit for the accumulated charges for all visitors from one home environment or a limit per visitor may be agreed between the home environment and the serving network.
It shall be possible for the Serving Network to define different time intervals for the collection and the processing of charging information (e.g. real time, short time, other regular intervals).

7.3  Cost Controlp. 26

A mechanism shall be standardised providing an indication to the user (if involved in the chargeable event) of the charges to be levied for a chargeable event. This mechanism shall be able to handle all possible charging scenarios, and all service and tariff variants that the home environment and the serving network may offer to the user.
The user shall be able to set in his home environment a limit for the accumulated charges per time interval. Upon exceeding this limit or prior to incurring a charge which would exceed the limit, certain actions may be desired by the user:
  • notification to the user, requesting to extend the limit; or
  • Home Environment barring allowing no further originating calls; or
  • Home Environment barring cancelling the roaming permission.

7.3.1  Cross Phase Compatibilityp. 27

For Release 99 the cost control mechanism may be based on Advice of Charge. However the Release 99 standards should not prevent the future implementation of the full Cost Control requirements.
The Release 99 standards should allow these new features to be introduced in a backward compatible manner; specifically terminals conforming to Release 99 standards should continue to support the Release 99 service requirements when operating with future implementations of Advice of Charge in the Home Environment.

7.4  Inter-network Settlementp. 27

Mechanisms shall also be provided to allow inter-network settlement of charges on a bulk basis. The same mechanisms shall be used between home environments and serving networks. This will allow each of these parties to meter the total input and output of charges and thus determine the payments required on a periodic basis between each of the parties with which they directly interact. The mechanisms used shall allow each of the parties to meter charge flows independently, with the aim of matching the values recorded at both sides of the same interface. The imbalance in charge flow shall be accumulated in short time, such that each entity can be informed when a threshold has been exceeded and determine whether to continue.

8  Automatic Roaming Agreementsp. 27

Support for the requirements in this section is not required in Release 99. However the Release 99 standards should not prevent the future implementation of this requirement in a backward compatible manner (e.g. a roaming broker enabled Home Environment should inter-operate with a R99 Serving Network).
It is a requirement that users shall be able to obtain service and use chargeable services with networks with whom neither they nor their home environment have any direct commercial agreement. This shall be enabled by interworking via trusted third parties. Each Home Environment shall interwork with one or more serving network operators, with whom they would negotiate a commercial roaming agreement and test the interworking. Any user wishing to use the services of a particular serving network would register with that serving network, that would either directly or indirectly interwork with the home environment. Fraud and cost control mechanisms shall be used to ensure that charges incurred for 3GPP services do not exceed the credit limits set. This can be applied for the user and the other roles involved in commercial dealings. In practice, any serving network shall be capable of operating as a roaming broker.
Reproduction of 3GPP TS 22.115, Fig. 1: Registration and Roaming Process

8.1  Routing the Registration Requestp. 28

The same mechanisms used for routing calls and resolving addresses shall be used to route the subscription identity back to its Home Environment. The standard shall support a routing identification mechanism to allow a serving network, which does not maintain its own list of all known HE, to determine the appropriate route to reach a given HE. A number of alternative routes may be possible, and ideally the system should be capable of determining the lowest cost to the end user.
Typically, smaller networks will only have a limited number of external connections to other networks or clearing houses, but may not know which one to use for an unknown (new) HE. In this case, the serving network may make a number of inquiries for each route to determine the lowest cost route to handle the call.

8.2  Settlement of chargesp. 28

Settlement of charges incurred by a user shall be on a wholesale basis between the different parties involved in the registration link. By authorising a user to register, or a roaming broker to pass that on, each party is in turn authorising charges up to a maximum credit limit with the adjacent party. Any charges levied can then be paid to the adjacent party on a wholesale basis at the end of a mutually agreed accounting period. Funds are thus passed between each party for the services supplied by the network operator in a serial fashion.

$  Change Historyp. 29

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