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TR 22.866SA1
enhanced Relays
for Energy Efficiency
and Extensive Coverage

use "3GPP‑Page" to get the Word version
for a better overview, the Table of Contents (ToC) is reproduced
V17.1.0 (Wzip)  2019/12  43 p.

WI Acronym:  FS_REFEC
Rapporteur:  Ing. Almodovar Chico, Jose LuisTNO

The present document examines several use cases with respective KPIs in different domains (e.g. inHome, SmartCities, SmartFarming, SmartFactories, Smart Energy, Public Safety, Logistics) and identifies new potential requirements for relays for energy efficiency and extensive coverage.

full Table of Contents for  TR 22.866  Word version:   17.1.0

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1  ScopeWord-p. 7
2  References
3  Definitions, symbols and abbreviations
4  OverviewWord-p. 8
5G contemplates many different scenarios and verticals (inHome, SmartFarming, SmartFactories, Public Safety and others). Many of them are new while others have been already covered in earlier generations of mobile networks. What all of them have in common is that we can find use cases where more extensive coverage with good energy efficiency is needed in comparison to what earlier generations (3G, 4G) could offer.
Nevertheless, all these use cases present an heterogeneous set of performance requirements. While IoT use cases will address small data transmissions this is not the case for inHome scenarios where high bandwidth is expected. SmartFactories use cases have latency requirements that other use cases will not need.
The use of multi-hop relays will help to improve the coverage of the 5G system with good energy efficiency.
5  Use casesWord-p. 9
5.1  Use case for enhancing coverage in industrial environments
5.1.1  Description
Precursor chemicals are converted into other chemicals to be used in highly specialized industries such as pharmaceutics, plastics, cosmetics etc. in large factories. Many of the chemicals are dangerous in that they are flammable, toxic to humans or both and are often corrosive.
To avoid hazard to workers as much as possible, the company uses remote controlled and semi-autonomous robots for much of the movement, storage and inspection of drums (containers of chemicals) between various warehouses and the production floor itself. These robots have articulated arms and a trained operator wearing special Augmented Reality goggles can use them to manipulate objects and tools remotely using e.g. 3-D vision. The (human) operators of the robots may sit in a control room or in sealed vehicles which may be used to bring them closer to the work site.
In addition to the above, all containers of chemicals as well as hazmat suites are equipped with communications devices which can transmit critical information such as temperature, humidity and the possible presence of certain chemicals in the air.
Much of the work is done inside metal enclosures which can seal off potential chemical leaks. The enclosure walls as well as the drums, also metallic, acts as EM shields which make signal propagation difficult and unpredictable.
Rather than deploying multiple gNBs the factory owner may choose to use UEs capable of multi-hop relay operation to relay messages between remote UEs and gNBs. While not all UEs may be used as relays, the large number of UEs of different types (mounted on vehicles, handheld, on drums) ensures sufficient coverage for all.
5.1.2  Pre-conditions
5.1.3  Service FlowsUp
5.1.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 10
5.1.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionality
5.1.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use case
5.2  Container Use caseWord-p. 11
5.2.1  Description
There is no anymore one company in the world that does everything in- house: everyone outsources, offshores, and is a contractor and a subcontractor at the same time. Everybody is integrated in one or many different supply chains, being a local cluster or complex worldwide process.
And it's the container that keeps the supply chain and the world trade moving on.
Improving container tracking and supply-chain management is a top priority. Technological innovation is seen as the crucial part of supply-chain management and container tracking by 93% of the executives of this business to increase efficiency, lower costs and improve effectiveness. It is therefore critical for the industry to have a total visibility on the cargo for the whole trip and identify what happen, when and where. This could also trigger contingency plan if necessary.
There are different sizes for containers but most of the containers have standardized sizes allowing them to be carried by boat, trucks or railway:
  • either 20 feet (6,058 m) or 40 feet (12,192 m) long
  • 8' (2,438 m) wide
  • 8'6" (2,591 m) tall
Most of the containers are closed and "dry freight" containers made from either aluminium or high-grade, non-corrosive and rust-resistant steel. These types of containers present doors on both ends and are mainly used for dry goods.
Beside there are also other types such as open top, refrigerated or reefer (with a power generator - used for shipment of perishable goods like fruits and vegetables), garmentainer (for clothes), tanks, half height (used especially for goods like coal, stones…), car carriers…
The whole duration of life of a container is generally between 10 and 15 years (12 years in average).
The container tracking is an essential part of the supply chain and logistics to make them more efficient. By monitoring and tracking seamlessly the container in near real-time, it allows to provide all the supply chain players and stakeholders a full traceability and to optimize the transport and the storage of containerized goods.
Any event related to a container is quickly notified and is allowing efficient analytics as well as taking related decision such as new sourcing plans if needed.
This use case describes a typical example of containers embarked in a ship and how future 5G System can help support the tracking of these containers in an efficient energy-saving approach.
5.2.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 12
5.2.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 13
5.2.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 14
5.2.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord-p. 15
5.2.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseUp
5.3  Wagon Use case
5.3.1  Description
Wagon tracking and real time wagon fleet monitoring are essential part in the supply chain management. It contributes to optimize the fleet and maximizing the wagons and rolling stock use by reducing immobilization time and empty backhauling as well as providing better response to delays and stock shortage. It allows as well to design preventive and curative maintenance by measuring for example the full and empty kilometres or detecting shocks.
A freight train is comprised of one or several locomotives and several freight or goods wagons. The freight wagons can be of different variety of wagon types depending of types of goods transported such as open wagons, covered wagons, refrigerated vans, spine cars to carry intermodal containers, tank wagons, special purposes wagons (to carry coal, mineral or sand for example), …
These wagons need to be in a specific order to compose the train for example to avoid to put empties or light loads at the head end and heavy loads on the rear end but also based on different railway operator rules.
Most of the freight trains are running an average speed of 50 to 80 km/h depending on the curves of the tracks, the hills, the cargo and the length of train and usually are not going over a speed of 100 km/h (dependency on the country regulations).
A typical freight train have a length of 700 m to 1 km and are composed with between 50 to 120 freight wagons of 40 feet and some of the wagons can be double stacked. Some freight trains have even reached the length of 7 km and were composed of 600 wagons and 8 locomotives.
Each wagon need to be monitored and tracked by its owners as well as by the freight railway operator managing the train.
The whole duration of life of a freight wagon varies from 20 years to 30/40 years and even 50 years depending on the type of wagon (and there is no power supply in the freight wagons contrary to passengers' wagons).
This use case describes a typical example of wagons attached together and how future 5G System can help support the tracking of these wagons in an efficient energy-saving approach.
5.3.2  Pre-conditions
5.3.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 16
5.3.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 17
5.3.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionality
5.3.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use case
5.4  Enhancing indoor coverage for the fire brigade
5.4.1  Description
The Public Safety organizations of the Upperlands have recently migrated from their private TETRA network to the use of 3GPP Mission Critical voice, data and video services based on the 5G network from the local operator RPU. The availability, capacity and coverage of the RPU network has been carefully designed to meet the requirements of the Public Safety organizations of the Upperlands.
The Police, the ambulance service and fire brigade use the on-network Mission Critical Services for most of their operations. Specific teams are also equipped with special equipment to be used in areas where on-network coverage may not be available. One of these teams is the smoke-diver team of the fire brigade of Threemountains.
The fire brigade of Threemountains has been alarmed by the automatic fire alarm system of the hospital of Threemountains. The alarm indicates that a fire has started in the kitchen, which is in the cellar of the west wing of the building. Based on the possible consequences of fire in the hospital, the local fire brigade sends four teams to the fire. On the way to the hospital the team members study the maps and fire attack plans of the hospital.
When the fire brigade arrives at the hospital, the fire chief is approached by a cook telling him that one of his colleagues, Marius, is still in the building and may be trapped in the storage room behind the kitchen.
The commander of the smoke dive team prepares the rescue of Marius the cook. The other three teams start extinguishing the fire.
5.4.2  Pre-conditionsWord-p. 18
5.4.3  Service Flows
5.4.4  Post-conditions
5.4.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityWord-p. 19
5.4.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use case
5.5  Use case for elderly healthcare
5.5.1  Description
Future healthcare will increasingly use on-body sensors, combined with real-time analytics and actions & treatments based on data. This use case focuses on the use of wireless, unobtrusive on-body sensors in the context of elderly healthcare. Such sensors can be worn e.g. on the wrist, head or chest and could come in various form factors (bracelet, patch, band…) Actuators may also be supported, e.g. medicine administering devices, pumps, or muscle stimulators. These sensors/actuators are typically limited in the amount of RF power they can radiate. This can be caused by e.g. small form factor batteries that have low peak current, or health/safety related limitations. Requirements like low-power operation, no-wires and reliability (through communication path redundancy) may favour a solution that uses multi-hop communication.
5.5.2  Pre-conditions
5.5.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 20
5.5.4  Post-conditions
5.5.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionalityUp
5.5.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord-p. 21
5.6  Use case for connected ambulance
5.6.1  Description
Future emergency healthcare will increasingly use wireless sensors, probes and actuators to monitor a patient's condition throughout the different phases of care: on the location of the incident, during transport in an ambulance or helicopter, during transport in the hospital, and at a treatment location in the hospital. Such technology enables central collection of patient data, which helps to provide optimal treatment by the different caregivers involved.
This use case focuses on wireless, easy-to-apply on-body sensors and the use of ultrasound in the context of emergency healthcare. Requirements such as low-power operation, real-time operation, no-wires-needed and reliability (through communication path redundancy) are important here.
5.6.2  Pre-conditions
5.6.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 22
5.6.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 23
5.6.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionality
5.6.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use case
5.7  Use case for rural areas connected healthcare
5.7.1  DescriptionUp
Despite the ubiquity of cellular communications, there will always be areas in the world where the cellular (5G) coverage is limited or absent. These are also the areas where typically the access to doctors, healthcare and hospitals is very limited. Still, it would be beneficial if people living in these areas can make use of modern connected healthcare solutions. Also in regions with sparse medical facilities or lack of qualified medical staff, the approach of "remote healthcare" could be beneficial.
This use case focuses on remote patient monitoring in rural areas with limited cellular coverage. In this use case, Ava is living in a remote rural village, but some of her body functions need to be monitored remotely by hospital staff due to her medical condition. The remainder of her treatment is done remotely and she can stay at home in her own village most of the time. She can't travel to the hospital often due to the long travel time. Ava is not in a critical condition, so real-time monitoring is not needed. Even if the data arrives at the hospital with a latency of several hours occasionally, this is not a problem. Hospital staff (aided by their automated systems) monitor the condition of Ava and how she progresses during her remote treatment.
5.7.2  Pre-conditions
5.7.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 24
5.7.4  Post-conditions
5.7.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionality
5.7.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use caseWord-p. 25
5.8  Micro-environment services
5.8.1  Description
Environmental data information services have become an integral part of people's life. Market analysis report points out that 85% parents of 0~3-year-old infants pay more attention to changes of environmental quality, where 60% parents choose to travel according to the external environment. However, existing Internet weather applications have great limitations in real-time, effectiveness, and proximity. Urban micro-environmental services refer to real-time monitoring and feedback on various environmental indicators in the living environment of residents. Urban micro-environment monitoring can provide residents with comfort in daily living and traveling, and it is also a basic work for environmental protection.
Smart terminals (UEs of IoE) in the community integrate a number of environment sensors such as ambient light, air quality, ultraviolet intensity, noise intensity, temperature and humidity. By using multi-hop links to monitor environment quality within 50 meters in real-time, it perfectly solves the limitations of traditional environment monitoring. It also improves capacity of the cell by UE to UE proximity traffics, with enhanced resource and energy efficiency.
5.8.2  Pre-conditions
5.8.3  Service FlowsWord-p. 26
5.8.4  Post-conditionsWord-p. 27
5.8.5  Existing features partly or fully covering the use case functionality
5.8.6  Potential New Requirements needed to support the use case
6  Traffic ScenariosWord-p. 28
6.1  Traffic Scenario: inHome
6.1.1  Description
Many houses suffer from problems of coverage due to the number of floors and other obstacles (i.e. walls, doors, columns, furniture). In addition, most houses have only one entry network point where the 5G-Residential Gateway (5G-RG) will be installed. According to TR 23.716, the 5G-RG is a RG capable of connecting to 5GC playing the role of a UE with regard to the 5G core.
Recabling a house in order to install more small cells to increase the coverage will not be an option for most houses. Furthermore, with the use of millimeter waves there is the danger that the signal is blocked even by people while moving and alternative connections are needed. Therefore, enhanced relays will play a key role in achieving extensive coverage in inHome scenarios while avoiding additional base stations and cables.
6.1.2  Assumptions
6.1.3  Potential Functional Requirements
6.1.4  Potential Key Performance RequirementsWord-p. 29
6.2  Traffic Scenario: SmartFactory
6.2.1  DescriptionUp
In indoor industrial scenarios are full of obstacles. Some of them are static (e.g. walls, panels…) other that are always moving (e.g. trolleys, machinery, workers…). All these obstacles have a strong negative effect in the coverage within the floor, even more in the case of mmWaves where the line of side can be blocked.
Enhanced relays will play a key role in achieving extensive coverage in smart factory scenarios while avoiding additional base stations and cables.
6.2.2  Assumptions
6.2.3  Potential Functional RequirementsWord-p. 31
6.2.4  Potential Key Performance RequirementsWord-p. 32
6.3  Traffic Scenario: Metering use case
6.3.1  Description
When deploying IoT metering solutions, utilities (gas, water, electricity…) are faced with the critical issue of Network "black spots". Some meters are very deep indoor and their coverage could not be assured by the network provider. These meters are likely not to be able to reach the eNB in a single hop. In some city, it could represent more than 5 % of the UEs deployed.
Furthermore, many meters that have coverage are at the edge of a cell and a subject to many repetitions. To be able to communicate, these meters need to increase drastically their battery consumption by emitting at full power. And therefore their battery life is strongly impacted and reduced - 2 or 3 years' battery life instead of 15 years required for the service.
Enhanced relays will play a key role in achieving extensive coverage as well as better energy efficiency in smart metering scenarios.
6.3.2  Assumptions
6.3.3  Potential New Functional RequirementsWord-p. 33
6.3.4  Potential Key Performance Requirements
6.4  Traffic Scenario: Container
6.5  Traffic Scenario: Wagon
6.6  Traffic Scenario: WearablesWord-p. 36
6.6.1  DescriptionUp
Description of the wearables use cases are provided in sections 5.5, 5.6, and 5.7. In those cases, the wearables are body sensors (e.g. heart rate sensors). However other types of wearables (e.g. smart watches, activity trackers) should also be possible [Wearables Special Interest Group, Wearables White Paper,
publications.tno.nl/publication/34626436/ppGkWB/TNO-2018-weables.pdf].
6.6.2  Assumptions
6.6.3  Potential New Functional Requirements
6.6.4  Potential Key Performance Requirements
6.7  Traffic Scenario: Public safety
6.7.1  Description
The description of the public safety traffic scenario is provided in 5.4 (enhancing indoor coverage for the fire brigade) and 5.6 (connected ambulance).
6.7.2  AssumptionsWord-p. 37
6.7.3  Potential New Functional Requirements
6.7.4  Potential Key Performance Requirements
7  Considerations
8  Consolidated requirements
9  Conclusions and recommendationsWord-p. 40
A  Use of Multi-hop Relay in Smart City and Community ServicesWord-p. 41
B  Change historyWord-p. 43

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