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RFC 8499

DNS Terminology

Pages: 50
Best Current Practice: 219
Obsoletes:  7719
Updates:  2308
Part 4 of 4 – Pages 36 to 50
First   Prev   None

Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 36   prevText

14. References

14.1. Normative References

[IANA_RootFiles] IANA, "Root Files", <>. [RFC0882] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names: Concepts and facilities", RFC 882, DOI 10.17487/RFC0882, November 1983, <>. [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987, <>. [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, DOI 10.17487/RFC1035, November 1987, <>. [RFC1123] Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts - Application and Support", STD 3, RFC 1123, DOI 10.17487/RFC1123, October 1989, <>. [RFC1912] Barr, D., "Common DNS Operational and Configuration Errors", RFC 1912, DOI 10.17487/RFC1912, February 1996, <>.
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 37
   [RFC1996]  Vixie, P., "A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone
              Changes (DNS NOTIFY)", RFC 1996, DOI 10.17487/RFC1996,
              August 1996, <>.

   [RFC2136]  Vixie, P., Ed., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound,
              "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)",
              RFC 2136, DOI 10.17487/RFC2136, April 1997,

   [RFC2181]  Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS
              Specification", RFC 2181, DOI 10.17487/RFC2181, July 1997,

   [RFC2182]  Elz, R., Bush, R., Bradner, S., and M. Patton, "Selection
              and Operation of Secondary DNS Servers", BCP 16, RFC 2182,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2182, July 1997,

   [RFC2308]  Andrews, M., "Negative Caching of DNS Queries (DNS
              NCACHE)", RFC 2308, DOI 10.17487/RFC2308, March 1998,

   [RFC4033]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and
              S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements",
              RFC 4033, DOI 10.17487/RFC4033, March 2005,

   [RFC4034]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and
              S. Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4034, DOI 10.17487/RFC4034, March 2005,

   [RFC4035]  Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and
              S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security
              Extensions", RFC 4035, DOI 10.17487/RFC4035, March 2005,

   [RFC4592]  Lewis, E., "The Role of Wildcards in the Domain Name
              System", RFC 4592, DOI 10.17487/RFC4592, July 2006,

   [RFC5155]  Laurie, B., Sisson, G., Arends, R., and D. Blacka, "DNS
              Security (DNSSEC) Hashed Authenticated Denial of
              Existence", RFC 5155, DOI 10.17487/RFC5155, March 2008,
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 38
   [RFC5358]  Damas, J. and F. Neves, "Preventing Use of Recursive
              Nameservers in Reflector Attacks", BCP 140, RFC 5358,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5358, October 2008,

   [RFC5730]  Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)",
              STD 69, RFC 5730, DOI 10.17487/RFC5730, August 2009,

   [RFC5731]  Hollenbeck, S., "Extensible Provisioning Protocol (EPP)
              Domain Name Mapping", STD 69, RFC 5731,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5731, August 2009,

   [RFC5855]  Abley, J. and T. Manderson, "Nameservers for IPv4 and IPv6
              Reverse Zones", BCP 155, RFC 5855, DOI 10.17487/RFC5855,
              May 2010, <>.

   [RFC5936]  Lewis, E. and A. Hoenes, Ed., "DNS Zone Transfer Protocol
              (AXFR)", RFC 5936, DOI 10.17487/RFC5936, June 2010,

   [RFC6561]  Livingood, J., Mody, N., and M. O'Reirdan,
              "Recommendations for the Remediation of Bots in ISP
              Networks", RFC 6561, DOI 10.17487/RFC6561, March 2012,

   [RFC6781]  Kolkman, O., Mekking, W., and R. Gieben, "DNSSEC
              Operational Practices, Version 2", RFC 6781,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6781, December 2012,

   [RFC6840]  Weiler, S., Ed. and D. Blacka, Ed., "Clarifications and
              Implementation Notes for DNS Security (DNSSEC)", RFC 6840,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6840, February 2013,

   [RFC6841]  Ljunggren, F., Eklund Lowinder, AM., and T. Okubo, "A
              Framework for DNSSEC Policies and DNSSEC Practice
              Statements", RFC 6841, DOI 10.17487/RFC6841, January 2013,

   [RFC6891]  Damas, J., Graff, M., and P. Vixie, "Extension Mechanisms
              for DNS (EDNS(0))", STD 75, RFC 6891,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6891, April 2013,
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 39
   [RFC7344]  Kumari, W., Gudmundsson, O., and G. Barwood, "Automating
              DNSSEC Delegation Trust Maintenance", RFC 7344,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7344, September 2014,

   [RFC7719]  Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A., and K. Fujiwara, "DNS
              Terminology", RFC 7719, DOI 10.17487/RFC7719, December
              2015, <>.

   [RFC8310]  Dickinson, S., Gillmor, D., and T. Reddy, "Usage Profiles
              for DNS over TLS and DNS over DTLS", RFC 8310,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8310, March 2018,

14.2. Informative References

[IANA_Resource_Registry] IANA, "Resource Record (RR) TYPEs", <>. [RFC819] Su, Z. and J. Postel, "The Domain Naming Convention for Internet User Applications", RFC 819, DOI 10.17487/RFC0819, August 1982, <>. [RFC952] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M., and E. Feinler, "DoD Internet host table specification", RFC 952, DOI 10.17487/RFC0952, October 1985, <>. [RFC1713] Romao, A., "Tools for DNS debugging", FYI 27, RFC 1713, DOI 10.17487/RFC1713, November 1994, <>. [RFC1995] Ohta, M., "Incremental Zone Transfer in DNS", RFC 1995, DOI 10.17487/RFC1995, August 1996, <>. [RFC2775] Carpenter, B., "Internet Transparency", RFC 2775, DOI 10.17487/RFC2775, February 2000, <>. [RFC3172] Huston, G., Ed., "Management Guidelines & Operational Requirements for the Address and Routing Parameter Area Domain ("arpa")", BCP 52, RFC 3172, DOI 10.17487/RFC3172, September 2001, <>.
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 40
   [RFC3425]  Lawrence, D., "Obsoleting IQUERY", RFC 3425,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3425, November 2002,

   [RFC3493]  Gilligan, R., Thomson, S., Bound, J., McCann, J., and
              W. Stevens, "Basic Socket Interface Extensions for IPv6",
              RFC 3493, DOI 10.17487/RFC3493, February 2003,

   [RFC3757]  Kolkman, O., Schlyter, J., and E. Lewis, "Domain Name
              System KEY (DNSKEY) Resource Record (RR) Secure Entry
              Point (SEP) Flag", RFC 3757, DOI 10.17487/RFC3757, April
              2004, <>.

   [RFC3912]  Daigle, L., "WHOIS Protocol Specification", RFC 3912,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3912, September 2004,

   [RFC4641]  Kolkman, O. and R. Gieben, "DNSSEC Operational Practices",
              RFC 4641, DOI 10.17487/RFC4641, September 2006,

   [RFC4697]  Larson, M. and P. Barber, "Observed DNS Resolution
              Misbehavior", BCP 123, RFC 4697, DOI 10.17487/RFC4697,
              October 2006, <>.

   [RFC4786]  Abley, J. and K. Lindqvist, "Operation of Anycast
              Services", BCP 126, RFC 4786, DOI 10.17487/RFC4786,
              December 2006, <>.

   [RFC4956]  Arends, R., Kosters, M., and D. Blacka, "DNS Security
              (DNSSEC) Opt-In", RFC 4956, DOI 10.17487/RFC4956, July
              2007, <>.

   [RFC5625]  Bellis, R., "DNS Proxy Implementation Guidelines",
              BCP 152, RFC 5625, DOI 10.17487/RFC5625, August 2009,

   [RFC5890]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework",
              RFC 5890, DOI 10.17487/RFC5890, August 2010,

   [RFC5891]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names in
              Applications (IDNA): Protocol", RFC 5891,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5891, August 2010,
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 41
   [RFC5892]  Faltstrom, P., Ed., "The Unicode Code Points and
              Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)",
              RFC 5892, DOI 10.17487/RFC5892, August 2010,

   [RFC5893]  Alvestrand, H., Ed. and C. Karp, "Right-to-Left Scripts
              for Internationalized Domain Names for Applications
              (IDNA)", RFC 5893, DOI 10.17487/RFC5893, August 2010,

   [RFC5894]  Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for
              Applications (IDNA): Background, Explanation, and
              Rationale", RFC 5894, DOI 10.17487/RFC5894, August 2010,

   [RFC6055]  Thaler, D., Klensin, J., and S. Cheshire, "IAB Thoughts on
              Encodings for Internationalized Domain Names", RFC 6055,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6055, February 2011,

   [RFC6265]  Barth, A., "HTTP State Management Mechanism", RFC 6265,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6265, April 2011,

   [RFC6303]  Andrews, M., "Locally Served DNS Zones", BCP 163,
              RFC 6303, DOI 10.17487/RFC6303, July 2011,

   [RFC6335]  Cotton, M., Eggert, L., Touch, J., Westerlund, M., and S.
              Cheshire, "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
              Procedures for the Management of the Service Name and
              Transport Protocol Port Number Registry", BCP 165,
              RFC 6335, DOI 10.17487/RFC6335, August 2011,

   [RFC6365]  Hoffman, P. and J. Klensin, "Terminology Used in
              Internationalization in the IETF", BCP 166, RFC 6365,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6365, September 2011,

   [RFC6672]  Rose, S. and W. Wijngaards, "DNAME Redirection in the
              DNS", RFC 6672, DOI 10.17487/RFC6672, June 2012,

   [RFC6762]  Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6762, February 2013,
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   [RFC7129]  Gieben, R. and W. Mekking, "Authenticated Denial of
              Existence in the DNS", RFC 7129, DOI 10.17487/RFC7129,
              February 2014, <>.

   [RFC7480]  Newton, A., Ellacott, B., and N. Kong, "HTTP Usage in the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7480,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7480, March 2015,

   [RFC7481]  Hollenbeck, S. and N. Kong, "Security Services for the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7481,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7481, March 2015,

   [RFC7482]  Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "Registration Data Access
              Protocol (RDAP) Query Format", RFC 7482,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7482, March 2015,

   [RFC7483]  Newton, A. and S. Hollenbeck, "JSON Responses for the
              Registration Data Access Protocol (RDAP)", RFC 7483,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7483, March 2015,

   [RFC7484]  Blanchet, M., "Finding the Authoritative Registration Data
              (RDAP) Service", RFC 7484, DOI 10.17487/RFC7484, March
              2015, <>.

   [RFC7485]  Zhou, L., Kong, N., Shen, S., Sheng, S., and A. Servin,
              "Inventory and Analysis of WHOIS Registration Objects",
              RFC 7485, DOI 10.17487/RFC7485, March 2015,

   [RFC7793]  Andrews, M., "Adding Prefixes to the IPv4
              Locally-Served DNS Zones Registry", BCP 163, RFC 7793,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7793, May 2016,

   [RFC7858]  Hu, Z., Zhu, L., Heidemann, J., Mankin, A., Wessels, D.,
              and P. Hoffman, "Specification for DNS over Transport
              Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7858, DOI 10.17487/RFC7858, May
              2016, <>.

   [RFC8094]  Reddy, T., Wing, D., and P. Patil, "DNS over Datagram
              Transport Layer Security (DTLS)", RFC 8094,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8094, February 2017,
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 43
   [RFC8109]  Koch, P., Larson, M., and P. Hoffman, "Initializing a DNS
              Resolver with Priming Queries", BCP 209, RFC 8109,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8109, March 2017,

   [RFC8484]  Hoffman, P. and P. McManus, "DNS Queries over HTTPS
              (DoH)", RFC 8484, DOI 10.17487/RFC8484, October 2018,

   [RSSAC026] Root Server System Advisory Committee (RSSAC), "RSSAC
              Lexicon", 2017,
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 44

Appendix A. Definitions Updated by This Document

The following definitions from RFCs are updated by this document: o Forwarder in [RFC2308] o QNAME in [RFC2308] o Secure Entry Point (SEP) in [RFC3757]; note, however, that this RFC is already obsolete (see [RFC4033], [RFC4034], [RFC4035]).

Appendix B. Definitions First Defined in This Document

The following definitions are first defined in this document: o "Alias" in Section 2 o "Apex" in Section 7 o "arpa" in Section 7 o "Bailiwick" in Section 7 o "Class independent" in Section 5 o "Delegation-centric zone" in Section 7 o "Delegation" in Section 7 o "DNS operator" in Section 9 o "DNSSEC-aware" in Section 10 o "DNSSEC-unaware" in Section 10 o "Forwarding" in Section 6 o "Full resolver" in Section 6 o "Fully-qualified domain name" in Section 2 o "Global DNS" in Section 2 o "Hardware Security Module (HSM)" in Section 10 o "Host name" in Section 2 o "IDN" in Section 2
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 45
   o  "In-bailiwick" in Section 7

   o  "Iterative resolution" in Section 6

   o  "Label" in Section 2

   o  "Locally served DNS zone" in Section 2

   o  "Naming system" in Section 2

   o  "Negative response" in Section 3

   o  "Non-recursive query" in Section 6

   o  "Open resolver" in Section 6

   o  "Out-of-bailiwick" in Section 7

   o  "Passive DNS" in Section 6

   o  "Policy-implementing resolver" in Section 6

   o  "Presentation format" in Section 5

   o  "Priming" in Section 6

   o  "Private DNS" in Section 2

   o  "Recursive resolver" in Section 6

   o  "Referrals" in Section 4

   o  "Registrant" in Section 9

   o  "Registrar" in Section 9

   o  "Registry" in Section 9

   o  "Root zone" in Section 7

   o  "Secure Entry Point (SEP)" in Section 10

   o  "Signing software" in Section 10

   o  "Split DNS" in Section 6

   o  "Stub resolver" in Section 6
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 46
   o  "Subordinate" in Section 8

   o  "Superordinate" in Section 8

   o  "TLD" in Section 2

   o  "Validating resolver" in Section 10

   o  "Validation" in Section 10

   o  "View" in Section 6

   o  "Zone transfer" in Section 6


A Address records 16 Alias 9 Anycast 22 Apex 23 Asterisk label 27 Authoritative data 24 Authoritative server 19 Authoritative-only server 19 arpa: Address and Routing Parameter Area Domain 26 C CNAME 10 Canonical name 9 Child 22 Class 11 Class independent 16 Closest encloser 27 Closest provable encloser 27 Combined signing key (CSK) 33 D DNS operator 29 DNSSEC Policy (DP) 34 DNSSEC Practice Statement (DPS) 34 DNSSEC-aware and DNSSEC-unaware 30 Delegation 24 Delegation-centric zone 26 Domain name 5
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 47
      EDNS  14
      EPP  28
      Empty non-terminals (ENT)  26

      FORMERR  10
      Fast flux DNS  26
      Forward lookup  26
      Forwarder  21
      Forwarding  20
      Full resolver  18
      Full-service resolver  18
      Fully-qualified domain name (FQDN)  8

      Global DNS  5
      Glue records  24

      Hardware security module (HSM)  34
      Hidden master  20
      Host name  8

      IDN  9
      In-bailiwick  25
      Insecure delegation  31
      Instance  22
      Internationalized Domain Name  9
      Iterative mode  17
      Iterative resolution  18

      Key signing key (KSK)  33

      Label  5
      Lame delegation  24
      Locally served DNS zone  8

      Master file  14
      Master server  19
      Multicast DNS  7
      mDNS  7
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 48
      NODATA  10
      NOERROR  10
      NOTIMP  10
      NS  19
      NSEC  31
      NSEC3  31
      NXDOMAIN  10
      Naming system  4
      Negative caching  19
      Negative response  11
      Next closer name  28
      Non-recursive query  18

      OPT  14
      Occluded name  26
      Open resolver  21
      Opt-out  31
      Origin  23
      Out-of-bailiwick  25
      Owner  15

      Parent  23
      Passive DNS  22
      Policy-implementing resolver  21
      Presentation format  14
      Primary master  20
      Primary server  20
      Priming  18
      Privacy-enabling DNS server  22
      Private DNS  7
      Public suffix  29

      QNAME  11

      RDAP  29
      REFUSED  10
      RR  14
      RRset  14
      Recursive mode  17
      Recursive query  18
      Recursive resolver  17
      Referrals  13
      Registrant  28
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 49
      Registrar  28
      Registry  28
      Resolver  16
      Reverse DNS, reverse lookup  26
      Root hints  18
      Root zone  26

      SERVFAIL  10
      SOA  14
      SOA field names  14
      Secondary server  19
      Secure Entry Point (SEP)  33
      Service name  27
      Signed zone  30
      Signing software  34
      Slave server  19
      Source of Synthesis  28
      Split DNS  21
      Split-horizon DNS  21
      Stealth server  20
      Stub resolver  17
      Subdomain  9
      Subordinate  29
      Superordinate  29

      TLD  9
      TTL  15
      Trust anchor  34

      Unsigned zone  30

      Validating resolver  33
      Validation  32
      View  21

      WHOIS  28
      Wildcard  27
      Wildcard domain name  27
Top   ToC   RFC8499 - Page 50
      Zone  22
      Zone cut  23
      Zone enumeration  31
      Zone signing key (ZSK)  33
      Zone transfer  19


The following is the Acknowledgements section of RFC 7719. The authors gratefully acknowledge all of the authors of DNS- related RFCs that proceed this one. Comments from Tony Finch, Stephane Bortzmeyer, Niall O'Reilly, Colm MacCarthaigh, Ray Bellis, John Kristoff, Robert Edmonds, Paul Wouters, Shumon Huque, Paul Ebersman, David Lawrence, Matthijs Mekking, Casey Deccio, Bob Harold, Ed Lewis, John Klensin, David Black, and many others in the DNSOP Working Group helped shape RFC 7719. Most of the major changes between RFC 7719 and this document came from active discussion on the DNSOP WG. Specific people who contributed material to this document include: Bob Harold, Dick Franks, Evan Hunt, John Dickinson, Mark Andrews, Martin Hoffmann, Paul Vixie, Peter Koch, Duane Wessels, Allison Mankin, Giovane Moura, Roni Even, Dan Romascanu, and Vladmir Cunat.

Authors' Addresses

Paul Hoffman ICANN Email: Andrew Sullivan Email: Kazunori Fujiwara Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd. Chiyoda First Bldg. East 13F, 3-8-1 Nishi-Kanda Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0065 Japan Phone: +81 3 5215 8451 Email: