7. Security Considerations 7.1 Mail Security and Spoofing SMTP mail is inherently insecure in that it is feasible for even fairly casual users to negotiate directly with receiving and relaying SMTP servers and create messages that will trick a naive recipient into believing that they came from somewhere else. Constructing such a message so that the "spoofed" behavior cannot be detected by an expert is somewhat more difficult, but not sufficiently so as to be a deterrent to someone who is determined and knowledgeable. Consequently, as knowledge of Internet mail increases, so does the knowledge that SMTP mail inherently cannot be authenticated, or integrity checks provided, at the transport level. Real mail security lies only in end-to-end methods involving the message bodies, such as those which use digital signatures (see  and, e.g., PGP  or S/MIME ). Various protocol extensions and configuration options that provide authentication at the transport level (e.g., from an SMTP client to an SMTP server) improve somewhat on the traditional situation described above. However, unless they are accompanied by careful handoffs of responsibility in a carefully-designed trust environment, they remain inherently weaker than end-to-end mechanisms which use digitally signed messages rather than depending on the integrity of the transport system.
Efforts to make it more difficult for users to set envelope return path and header "From" fields to point to valid addresses other than their own are largely misguided: they frustrate legitimate applications in which mail is sent by one user on behalf of another or in which error (or normal) replies should be directed to a special address. (Systems that provide convenient ways for users to alter these fields on a per-message basis should attempt to establish a primary and permanent mailbox address for the user so that Sender fields within the message data can be generated sensibly.) This specification does not further address the authentication issues associated with SMTP other than to advocate that useful functionality not be disabled in the hope of providing some small margin of protection against an ignorant user who is trying to fake mail. 7.2 "Blind" Copies Addresses that do not appear in the message headers may appear in the RCPT commands to an SMTP server for a number of reasons. The two most common involve the use of a mailing address as a "list exploder" (a single address that resolves into multiple addresses) and the appearance of "blind copies". Especially when more than one RCPT command is present, and in order to avoid defeating some of the purpose of these mechanisms, SMTP clients and servers SHOULD NOT copy the full set of RCPT command arguments into the headers, either as part of trace headers or as informational or private-extension headers. Since this rule is often violated in practice, and cannot be enforced, sending SMTP systems that are aware of "bcc" use MAY find it helpful to send each blind copy as a separate message transaction containing only a single RCPT command. There is no inherent relationship between either "reverse" (from MAIL, SAML, etc., commands) or "forward" (RCPT) addresses in the SMTP transaction ("envelope") and the addresses in the headers. Receiving systems SHOULD NOT attempt to deduce such relationships and use them to alter the headers of the message for delivery. The popular "Apparently-to" header is a violation of this principle as well as a common source of unintended information disclosure and SHOULD NOT be used. 7.3 VRFY, EXPN, and Security As discussed in section 3.5, individual sites may want to disable either or both of VRFY or EXPN for security reasons. As a corollary to the above, implementations that permit this MUST NOT appear to have verified addresses that are not, in fact, verified. If a site
disables these commands for security reasons, the SMTP server MUST return a 252 response, rather than a code that could be confused with successful or unsuccessful verification. Returning a 250 reply code with the address listed in the VRFY command after having checked it only for syntax violates this rule. Of course, an implementation that "supports" VRFY by always returning 550 whether or not the address is valid is equally not in conformance. Within the last few years, the contents of mailing lists have become popular as an address information source for so-called "spammers." The use of EXPN to "harvest" addresses has increased as list administrators have installed protections against inappropriate uses of the lists themselves. Implementations SHOULD still provide support for EXPN, but sites SHOULD carefully evaluate the tradeoffs. As authentication mechanisms are introduced into SMTP, some sites may choose to make EXPN available only to authenticated requestors. 7.4 Information Disclosure in Announcements There has been an ongoing debate about the tradeoffs between the debugging advantages of announcing server type and version (and, sometimes, even server domain name) in the greeting response or in response to the HELP command and the disadvantages of exposing information that might be useful in a potential hostile attack. The utility of the debugging information is beyond doubt. Those who argue for making it available point out that it is far better to actually secure an SMTP server rather than hope that trying to conceal known vulnerabilities by hiding the server's precise identity will provide more protection. Sites are encouraged to evaluate the tradeoff with that issue in mind; implementations are strongly encouraged to minimally provide for making type and version information available in some way to other network hosts. 7.5 Information Disclosure in Trace Fields In some circumstances, such as when mail originates from within a LAN whose hosts are not directly on the public Internet, trace ("Received") fields produced in conformance with this specification may disclose host names and similar information that would not normally be available. This ordinarily does not pose a problem, but sites with special concerns about name disclosure should be aware of it. Also, the optional FOR clause should be supplied with caution or not at all when multiple recipients are involved lest it inadvertently disclose the identities of "blind copy" recipients to others.
7.6 Information Disclosure in Message Forwarding As discussed in section 3.4, use of the 251 or 551 reply codes to identify the replacement address associated with a mailbox may inadvertently disclose sensitive information. Sites that are concerned about those issues should ensure that they select and configure servers appropriately. 7.7 Scope of Operation of SMTP Servers It is a well-established principle that an SMTP server may refuse to accept mail for any operational or technical reason that makes sense to the site providing the server. However, cooperation among sites and installations makes the Internet possible. If sites take excessive advantage of the right to reject traffic, the ubiquity of email availability (one of the strengths of the Internet) will be threatened; considerable care should be taken and balance maintained if a site decides to be selective about the traffic it will accept and process. In recent years, use of the relay function through arbitrary sites has been used as part of hostile efforts to hide the actual origins of mail. Some sites have decided to limit the use of the relay function to known or identifiable sources, and implementations SHOULD provide the capability to perform this type of filtering. When mail is rejected for these or other policy reasons, a 550 code SHOULD be used in response to EHLO, MAIL, or RCPT as appropriate. 8. IANA Considerations IANA will maintain three registries in support of this specification. The first consists of SMTP service extensions with the associated keywords, and, as needed, parameters and verbs. As specified in section 2.2.2, no entry may be made in this registry that starts in an "X". Entries may be made only for service extensions (and associated keywords, parameters, or verbs) that are defined in standards-track or experimental RFCs specifically approved by the IESG for this purpose. The second registry consists of "tags" that identify forms of domain literals other than those for IPv4 addresses (specified in RFC 821 and in this document) and IPv6 addresses (specified in this document). Additional literal types require standardization before being used; none are anticipated at this time. The third, established by RFC 821 and renewed by this specification, is a registry of link and protocol identifiers to be used with the "via" and "with" subclauses of the time stamp ("Received: header")
described in section 4.4. Link and protocol identifiers in addition to those specified in this document may be registered only by standardization or by way of an RFC-documented, IESG-approved, Experimental protocol extension. 9. References  American National Standards Institute (formerly United States of America Standards Institute), X3.4, 1968, "USA Code for Information Interchange". ANSI X3.4-1968 has been replaced by newer versions with slight modifications, but the 1968 version remains definitive for the Internet.  Braden, R., "Requirements for Internet hosts - application and support", STD 3, RFC 1123, October 1989.  Butler, M., Chase, D., Goldberger, J., Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Post Office Protocol - version 2", RFC 937, February 1985.  Callas, J., Donnerhacke, L., Finney, H. and R. Thayer, "OpenPGP Message Format", RFC 2440, November 1998.  Crispin, M., "Interactive Mail Access Protocol - Version 2", RFC 1176, August 1990.  Crispin, M., "Internet Message Access Protocol - Version 4", RFC 2060, December 1996.  Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages", RFC 822, August 1982.  Crocker, D. and P. Overell, Eds., "Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.  De Winter, J., "SMTP Service Extension for Remote Message Queue Starting", RFC 1985, August 1996.  Fajman, R., "An Extensible Message Format for Message Disposition Notifications", RFC 2298, March 1998.  Freed, N, "Behavior of and Requirements for Internet Firewalls", RFC 2979, October 2000.  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC 2045, December 1996.
 Freed, N., "SMTP Service Extension for Command Pipelining", RFC 2920, September 2000.  Galvin, J., Murphy, S., Crocker, S. and N. Freed, "Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and Multipart/Encrypted", RFC 1847, October 1995.  Gellens, R. and J. Klensin, "Message Submission", RFC 2476, December 1998.  Kille, S., "Mapping between X.400 and RFC822/MIME", RFC 2156, January 1998.  Hinden, R and S. Deering, Eds. "IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture", RFC 2373, July 1998.  Klensin, J., Freed, N. and K. Moore, "SMTP Service Extension for Message Size Declaration", STD 10, RFC 1870, November 1995.  Klensin, J., Freed, N., Rose, M., Stefferud, E. and D. Crocker, "SMTP Service Extensions", STD 10, RFC 1869, November 1995.  Klensin, J., Freed, N., Rose, M., Stefferud, E. and D. Crocker, "SMTP Service Extension for 8bit-MIMEtransport", RFC 1652, July 1994.  Lambert, M., "PCMAIL: A distributed mail system for personal computers", RFC 1056, July 1988.  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.  Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, December 1996.  Moore, K., "SMTP Service Extension for Delivery Status Notifications", RFC 1891, January 1996.  Moore, K., and G. Vaudreuil, "An Extensible Message Format for Delivery Status Notifications", RFC 1894, January 1996.  Myers, J. and M. Rose, "Post Office Protocol - Version 3", STD 53, RFC 1939, May 1996.
 Partridge, C., "Mail routing and the domain system", RFC 974, January 1986.  Partridge, C., "Duplicate messages and SMTP", RFC 1047, February 1988.  Postel, J., ed., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification", STD 7, RFC 793, September 1981.  Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 821, August 1982.  Ramsdell, B., Ed., "S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification", RFC 2633, June 1999.  Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 2822, April 2001.  Vaudreuil, G., "SMTP Service Extensions for Transmission of Large and Binary MIME Messages", RFC 1830, August 1995.  Vaudreuil, G., "Enhanced Mail System Status Codes", RFC 1893, January 1996. 10. Editor's Address John C. Klensin AT&T Laboratories 99 Bedford St Boston, MA 02111 USA Phone: 617-574-3076 EMail: email@example.com 11. Acknowledgments Many people worked long and hard on the many iterations of this document. There was wide-ranging debate in the IETF DRUMS Working Group, both on its mailing list and in face to face discussions, about many technical issues and the role of a revised standard for Internet mail transport, and many contributors helped form the wording in this specification. The hundreds of participants in the many discussions since RFC 821 was produced are too numerous to mention, but they all helped this document become what it is.
APPENDICES A. TCP Transport Service The TCP connection supports the transmission of 8-bit bytes. The SMTP data is 7-bit ASCII characters. Each character is transmitted as an 8-bit byte with the high-order bit cleared to zero. Service extensions may modify this rule to permit transmission of full 8-bit data bytes as part of the message body, but not in SMTP commands or responses. B. Generating SMTP Commands from RFC 822 Headers Some systems use RFC 822 headers (only) in a mail submission protocol, or otherwise generate SMTP commands from RFC 822 headers when such a message is handed to an MTA from a UA. While the MTA-UA protocol is a private matter, not covered by any Internet Standard, there are problems with this approach. For example, there have been repeated problems with proper handling of "bcc" copies and redistribution lists when information that conceptually belongs to a mail envelopes is not separated early in processing from header information (and kept separate). It is recommended that the UA provide its initial ("submission client") MTA with an envelope separate from the message itself. However, if the envelope is not supplied, SMTP commands SHOULD be generated as follows: 1. Each recipient address from a TO, CC, or BCC header field SHOULD be copied to a RCPT command (generating multiple message copies if that is required for queuing or delivery). This includes any addresses listed in a RFC 822 "group". Any BCC fields SHOULD then be removed from the headers. Once this process is completed, the remaining headers SHOULD be checked to verify that at least one To:, Cc:, or Bcc: header remains. If none do, then a bcc: header with no additional information SHOULD be inserted as specified in . 2. The return address in the MAIL command SHOULD, if possible, be derived from the system's identity for the submitting (local) user, and the "From:" header field otherwise. If there is a system identity available, it SHOULD also be copied to the Sender header field if it is different from the address in the From header field. (Any Sender field that was already there SHOULD be removed.) Systems may provide a way for submitters to override the envelope return address, but may want to restrict its use to privileged users. This will not prevent mail forgery, but may lessen its incidence; see section 7.1.
When an MTA is being used in this way, it bears responsibility for ensuring that the message being transmitted is valid. The mechanisms for checking that validity, and for handling (or returning) messages that are not valid at the time of arrival, are part of the MUA-MTA interface and not covered by this specification. A submission protocol based on Standard RFC 822 information alone MUST NOT be used to gateway a message from a foreign (non-SMTP) mail system into an SMTP environment. Additional information to construct an envelope must come from some source in the other environment, whether supplemental headers or the foreign system's envelope. Attempts to gateway messages using only their header "to" and "cc" fields have repeatedly caused mail loops and other behavior adverse to the proper functioning of the Internet mail environment. These problems have been especially common when the message originates from an Internet mailing list and is distributed into the foreign environment using envelope information. When these messages are then processed by a header-only remailer, loops back to the Internet environment (and the mailing list) are almost inevitable. C. Source Routes Historically, the <reverse-path> was a reverse source routing list of hosts and a source mailbox. The first host in the <reverse-path> SHOULD be the host sending the MAIL command. Similarly, the <forward-path> may be a source routing lists of hosts and a destination mailbox. However, in general, the <forward-path> SHOULD contain only a mailbox and domain name, relying on the domain name system to supply routing information if required. The use of source routes is deprecated; while servers MUST be prepared to receive and handle them as discussed in section 3.3 and F.2, clients SHOULD NOT transmit them and this section was included only to provide context. For relay purposes, the forward-path may be a source route of the form "@ONE,@TWO:JOE@THREE", where ONE, TWO, and THREE MUST BE fully- qualified domain names. This form is used to emphasize the distinction between an address and a route. The mailbox is an absolute address, and the route is information about how to get there. The two concepts should not be confused. If source routes are used, RFC 821 and the text below should be consulted for the mechanisms for constructing and updating the forward- and reverse-paths.
The SMTP server transforms the command arguments by moving its own identifier (its domain name or that of any domain for which it is acting as a mail exchanger), if it appears, from the forward-path to the beginning of the reverse-path. Notice that the forward-path and reverse-path appear in the SMTP commands and replies, but not necessarily in the message. That is, there is no need for these paths and especially this syntax to appear in the "To:" , "From:", "CC:", etc. fields of the message header. Conversely, SMTP servers MUST NOT derive final message delivery information from message header fields. When the list of hosts is present, it is a "reverse" source route and indicates that the mail was relayed through each host on the list (the first host in the list was the most recent relay). This list is used as a source route to return non-delivery notices to the sender. As each relay host adds itself to the beginning of the list, it MUST use its name as known in the transport environment to which it is relaying the mail rather than that of the transport environment from which the mail came (if they are different). D. Scenarios This section presents complete scenarios of several types of SMTP sessions. In the examples, "C:" indicates what is said by the SMTP client, and "S:" indicates what is said by the SMTP server. D.1 A Typical SMTP Transaction Scenario This SMTP example shows mail sent by Smith at host bar.com, to Jones, Green, and Brown at host foo.com. Here we assume that host bar.com contacts host foo.com directly. The mail is accepted for Jones and Brown. Green does not have a mailbox at host foo.com. S: 220 foo.com Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready C: EHLO bar.com S: 250-foo.com greets bar.com S: 250-8BITMIME S: 250-SIZE S: 250-DSN S: 250 HELP C: MAIL FROM:<Smith@bar.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Jones@foo.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Green@foo.com> S: 550 No such user here C: RCPT TO:<Brown@foo.com>
S: 250 OK C: DATA S: 354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> C: Blah blah blah... C: ...etc. etc. etc. C: . S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 foo.com Service closing transmission channel D.2 Aborted SMTP Transaction Scenario S: 220 foo.com Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready C: EHLO bar.com S: 250-foo.com greets bar.com S: 250-8BITMIME S: 250-SIZE S: 250-DSN S: 250 HELP C: MAIL FROM:<Smith@bar.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Jones@foo.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Green@foo.com> S: 550 No such user here C: RSET S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 foo.com Service closing transmission channel D.3 Relayed Mail Scenario Step 1 -- Source Host to Relay Host S: 220 foo.com Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready C: EHLO bar.com S: 250-foo.com greets bar.com S: 250-8BITMIME S: 250-SIZE S: 250-DSN S: 250 HELP C: MAIL FROM:<JQP@bar.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<@foo.com:Jones@XYZ.COM> S: 250 OK C: DATA S: 354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> C: Date: Thu, 21 May 1998 05:33:29 -0700
C: From: John Q. Public <JQP@bar.com> C: Subject: The Next Meeting of the Board C: To: Jones@xyz.com C: C: Bill: C: The next meeting of the board of directors will be C: on Tuesday. C: John. C: . S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 foo.com Service closing transmission channel Step 2 -- Relay Host to Destination Host S: 220 xyz.com Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready C: EHLO foo.com S: 250 xyz.com is on the air C: MAIL FROM:<@foo.com:JQP@bar.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Jones@XYZ.COM> S: 250 OK C: DATA S: 354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> C: Received: from bar.com by foo.com ; Thu, 21 May 1998 C: 05:33:29 -0700 C: Date: Thu, 21 May 1998 05:33:22 -0700 C: From: John Q. Public <JQP@bar.com> C: Subject: The Next Meeting of the Board C: To: Jones@xyz.com C: C: Bill: C: The next meeting of the board of directors will be C: on Tuesday. C: John. C: . S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 foo.com Service closing transmission channel D.4 Verifying and Sending Scenario S: 220 foo.com Simple Mail Transfer Service Ready C: EHLO bar.com S: 250-foo.com greets bar.com S: 250-8BITMIME S: 250-SIZE S: 250-DSN
S: 250-VRFY S: 250 HELP C: VRFY Crispin S: 250 Mark Crispin <Admin.MRC@foo.com> C: SEND FROM:<EAK@bar.com> S: 250 OK C: RCPT TO:<Admin.MRC@foo.com> S: 250 OK C: DATA S: 354 Start mail input; end with <CRLF>.<CRLF> C: Blah blah blah... C: ...etc. etc. etc. C: . S: 250 OK C: QUIT S: 221 foo.com Service closing transmission channel E. Other Gateway Issues In general, gateways between the Internet and other mail systems SHOULD attempt to preserve any layering semantics across the boundaries between the two mail systems involved. Gateway- translation approaches that attempt to take shortcuts by mapping, (such as envelope information from one system to the message headers or body of another) have generally proven to be inadequate in important ways. Systems translating between environments that do not support both envelopes and headers and Internet mail must be written with the understanding that some information loss is almost inevitable. F. Deprecated Features of RFC 821 A few features of RFC 821 have proven to be problematic and SHOULD NOT be used in Internet mail. F.1 TURN This command, described in RFC 821, raises important security issues since, in the absence of strong authentication of the host requesting that the client and server switch roles, it can easily be used to divert mail from its correct destination. Its use is deprecated; SMTP systems SHOULD NOT use it unless the server can authenticate the client.
F.2 Source Routing RFC 821 utilized the concept of explicit source routing to get mail from one host to another via a series of relays. The requirement to utilize source routes in regular mail traffic was eliminated by the introduction of the domain name system "MX" record and the last significant justification for them was eliminated by the introduction, in RFC 1123, of a clear requirement that addresses following an "@" must all be fully-qualified domain names. Consequently, the only remaining justifications for the use of source routes are support for very old SMTP clients or MUAs and in mail system debugging. They can, however, still be useful in the latter circumstance and for routing mail around serious, but temporary, problems such as problems with the relevant DNS records. SMTP servers MUST continue to accept source route syntax as specified in the main body of this document and in RFC 1123. They MAY, if necessary, ignore the routes and utilize only the target domain in the address. If they do utilize the source route, the message MUST be sent to the first domain shown in the address. In particular, a server MUST NOT guess at shortcuts within the source route. Clients SHOULD NOT utilize explicit source routing except under unusual circumstances, such as debugging or potentially relaying around firewall or mail system configuration errors. F.3 HELO As discussed in sections 3.1 and 4.1.1, EHLO is strongly preferred to HELO when the server will accept the former. Servers must continue to accept and process HELO in order to support older clients. F.4 #-literals RFC 821 provided for specifying an Internet address as a decimal integer host number prefixed by a pound sign, "#". In practice, that form has been obsolete since the introduction of TCP/IP. It is deprecated and MUST NOT be used. F.5 Dates and Years When dates are inserted into messages by SMTP clients or servers (e.g., in trace fields), four-digit years MUST BE used. Two-digit years are deprecated; three-digit years were never permitted in the Internet mail system.
F.6 Sending versus Mailing In addition to specifying a mechanism for delivering messages to user's mailboxes, RFC 821 provided additional, optional, commands to deliver messages directly to the user's terminal screen. These commands (SEND, SAML, SOML) were rarely implemented, and changes in workstation technology and the introduction of other protocols may have rendered them obsolete even where they are implemented. Clients SHOULD NOT provide SEND, SAML, or SOML as services. Servers MAY implement them. If they are implemented by servers, the implementation model specified in RFC 821 MUST be used and the command names MUST be published in the response to the EHLO command.
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