Network Working Group D. Eastlake 3rd Request for Comments: 5395 Stellar Switches BCP: 42 November 2008 Obsoletes: 2929 Updates: 1183, 3597 Category: Best Current Practice Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet Best Current Practices for the Internet Community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2008 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document.
AbstractInternet Assigned Number Authority (IANA) parameter assignment considerations are specified for the allocation of Domain Name System (DNS) resource record types, CLASSes, operation codes, error codes, DNS protocol message header bits, and AFSDB resource record subtypes.
1. Introduction ....................................................2 1.1. Terminology ................................................2 2. DNS Query/Response Headers ......................................3 2.1. One Spare Bit? .............................................4 2.2. OpCode Assignment ..........................................4 2.3. RCODE Assignment ...........................................4 3. DNS Resource Records ............................................6 3.1. RRTYPE IANA Considerations .................................7 3.1.1. DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy ........................8 3.1.2. DNS RRTYPE Expert Guidelines ........................9 3.1.3. Special Note on the OPT RR ..........................9 3.1.4. The AFSDB RR Subtype Field .........................10 3.2. RR CLASS IANA Considerations ..............................10 3.3. Label Considerations ......................................12 3.3.1. Label Types ........................................12 3.3.2. Label Contents and Use .............................12 4. Security Considerations ........................................13 5. IANA Considerations ............................................13 Appendix A. RRTYPE Allocation Template ............................14 Normative References ..............................................15 Informative References ............................................16 RFC1034], [RFC1035], [RFC2136], [RFC2181], and [RFC4033], familiarity with which is assumed. This document provides, either directly or by reference, the general IANA parameter assignment considerations that apply across DNS query and response headers and all RRs. There may be additional IANA considerations that apply to only a particular RRTYPE or query/response OpCode. See the specific RFC defining that RRTYPE or query/response OpCode for such considerations if they have been defined, except for AFSDB RR considerations [RFC1183], which are included herein. This RFC obsoletes [RFC2929]. IANA currently maintains a web page of DNS parameters available from http://www.iana.org. RFC5226].
RFC2136] and [RFC2929]: 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | ID | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ |QR| OpCode |AA|TC|RD|RA| Z|AD|CD| RCODE | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | QDCOUNT/ZOCOUNT | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | ANCOUNT/PRCOUNT | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | NSCOUNT/UPCOUNT | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | ARCOUNT | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ The ID field identifies the query and is echoed in the response so they can be matched. The QR bit indicates whether the header is for a query or a response. The AA, TC, RD, RA, AD, and CD bits are each theoretically meaningful only in queries or only in responses, depending on the bit. However, some DNS implementations copy the query header as the initial value of the response header without clearing bits. Thus, any attempt to use a "query" bit with a different meaning in a response or to define a query meaning for a "response" bit is dangerous, given existing implementation. Such meanings may only be assigned by an IETF Standards Action. The unsigned integer fields query count (QDCOUNT), answer count (ANCOUNT), authority count (NSCOUNT), and additional information count (ARCOUNT) express the number of records in each section for all OpCodes except Update [RFC2136]. These fields have the same structure and data type for Update but are instead the counts for the zone (ZOCOUNT), prerequisite (PRCOUNT), update (UPCOUNT), and additional information (ARCOUNT) sections.
RFC1035] 1 IQuery (Inverse Query, Obsolete) [RFC3425] 2 Status [RFC1035] 3 available for assignment 4 Notify [RFC1996] 5 Update [RFC2136] 6-15 available for assignment New OpCode assignments require an IETF Standards Action as modified by [RFC4020]. RFC2671], TSIG RRs [RFC2845], and TKEY RRs [RFC2930]. The OPT RR provides an 8-bit extension resulting in a 12-bit RCODE field, and the TSIG and TKEY RRs have a 16-bit RCODE field.
Error codes appearing in the DNS header and in these three RR types all refer to the same error code space with the single exception of error code 16, which has a different meaning in the OPT RR from its meaning in other contexts. See table below. RCODE Name Description Reference Decimal Hexadecimal 0 NoError No Error [RFC1035] 1 FormErr Format Error [RFC1035] 2 ServFail Server Failure [RFC1035] 3 NXDomain Non-Existent Domain [RFC1035] 4 NotImp Not Implemented [RFC1035] 5 Refused Query Refused [RFC1035] 6 YXDomain Name Exists when it should not [RFC2136] 7 YXRRSet RR Set Exists when it should not [RFC2136] 8 NXRRSet RR Set that should exist does not [RFC2136] 9 NotAuth Server Not Authoritative for zone [RFC2136] 10 NotZone Name not contained in zone [RFC2136] 11 - 15 Available for assignment 16 BADVERS Bad OPT Version [RFC2671] 16 BADSIG TSIG Signature Failure [RFC2845] 17 BADKEY Key not recognized [RFC2845] 18 BADTIME Signature out of time window [RFC2845] 19 BADMODE Bad TKEY Mode [RFC2930] 20 BADNAME Duplicate key name [RFC2930] 21 BADALG Algorithm not supported [RFC2930] 22 BADTRUC Bad Truncation [RFC4635] 23 - 3,840 0x0017 - 0x0F00 Available for assignment 3,841 - 4,095 0x0F01 - 0x0FFF Private Use 4,096 - 65,534 0x1000 - 0xFFFE Available for assignment 65,535 0xFFFF Reserved, can only be allocated by an IETF Standards Action. Since it is important that RCODEs be understood for interoperability, assignment of new RCODE listed above as "available for assignment" requires an IETF Review.
figure below taken from [RFC1035]. 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | | / / / NAME / / / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | TYPE | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | CLASS | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | TTL | | | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ | RDLENGTH | +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--| / RDATA / / / +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+ NAME is an owner name, i.e., the name of the node to which this resource record pertains. NAMEs are specific to a CLASS as described in section 3.2. NAMEs consist of an ordered sequence of one or more labels, each of which has a label type [RFC1035] [RFC2671]. TYPE is a 2-octet unsigned integer containing one of the RRTYPE codes. See section 3.1. CLASS is a 2-octet unsigned integer containing one of the RR CLASS codes. See section 3.2. TTL is a 4-octet (32-bit) unsigned integer that specifies, for data TYPEs, the number of seconds that the resource record may be cached before the source of the information should again be consulted. Zero is interpreted to mean that the RR can only be used for the transaction in progress. RDLENGTH is an unsigned 16-bit integer that specifies the length in octets of the RDATA field.
RDATA is a variable length string of octets that constitutes the resource. The format of this information varies according to the TYPE and, in some cases, the CLASS of the resource record. RFC2671], TSIG [RFC2845], and TKEY [RFC2930]. There are currently five QTYPEs assigned: * (ALL), MAILA, MAILB, AXFR, and IXFR. RRTYPEs have mnemonics that must be completely disjoint from the mnemonics used for CLASSes and that must match the following regular expression: [A-Z][A-Z0-9-]* Considerations for the allocation of new RRTYPEs are as follows: Decimal Hexadecimal 0 0x0000 - RRTYPE zero is used as a special indicator for the SIG (0) RR [RFC2931] and in other circumstances, and it must never be allocated for ordinary use. 1 - 127 0x0001 - 0x007F - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for data TYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as specified in Section 3.1.1. 128 - 255 0x0080 - 0x00FF - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for Q and Meta TYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as specified in Section 3.1.1.
256 - 61,439 0x0100 - 0xEFFF - Remaining RRTYPEs in this range are assigned for data RRTYPEs by the DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy as specified in Section 3.1.1. (32,768 and 32,769 (0x8000 and 0x8001) have been assigned.) 61,440 - 65,279 0xF000 - 0xFEFF - Reserved for future use. IETF Review required to define use. 65,280 - 65,534 0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use. 65,535 0xFFFF - Reserved; can only be assigned by an IETF Standards Action. Section 3.1 above, as assigned based on DNS RRTYPE Allocation Policy, are allocated by Expert Review if they meet the two requirements listed below. There will be a pool of a small number of Experts appointed by the IESG. Each application will be ruled on by an Expert selected by IANA. In any case where the selected Expert is unavailable or states they have a conflict of interest, IANA may select another Expert from the pool. Some guidelines for the Experts are given in Section 3.1.2. RRTYPEs that do not meet the requirements below may nonetheless be allocated by IETF Standards Action as modified by [RFC4020]. 1. A complete template as specified in Appendix A has been posted for three weeks to the email@example.com mailing list before the Expert Review decision. Note that partially completed or draft templates may be posted directly by the applicant for comment and discussion, but the formal posting to start the three week period is made by the Expert. 2. The RR for which an RRTYPE code is being requested is either (a) a data TYPE that can be handled as an Unknown RR as described in [RFC3597] or (b) a Meta-Type whose processing is optional, i.e., it is safe to simply discard RRs with that Meta-Type in queries or responses. Note that such RRs may include additional section processing, provided such processing is optional.
No less than three weeks and no more than six weeks after a completed template has been formally posted to firstname.lastname@example.org, the selected Expert shall post a message, explicitly accepting or rejecting the application, to IANA, email@example.com, and the email address provided by the applicant. If the Expert does not post such a message, the application shall be considered rejected but may be re-submitted to IANA. IANA shall maintain a public archive of approved templates. Section 3.1.1 above. 3. The documentation of the proposed RRTYPE or RRTYPEs is incomplete. (Additional documentation can be provided during the public comment period or by the Expert.) 4. Application use as documented makes incorrect assumptions about DNS protocol behavior, such as wild cards, CNAME, DNAME, etc. 5. An excessive number of RRTYPE values is being requested when the purpose could be met with a smaller number or with Private Use values. RFC2671]. Its primary purpose is to extend the effective field size of various DNS fields including RCODE, label type, OpCode, flag bits, and RDATA size. In particular, for resolvers and servers that recognize it, it extends the RCODE field from 4 to 12 bits.
RFC1183] is a CLASS-insensitive RR that has the same RDATA field structure as the MX RR, but the 16-bit unsigned integer field at the beginning of the RDATA is interpreted as a subtype as follows: Decimal Hexadecimal 0 0x0000 - Reserved; allocation requires IETF Standards Action. 1 0x0001 - Andrews File Service v3.0 Location Service [RFC1183]. 2 0x0002 - DCE/NCA root cell directory node [RFC1183]. 3 - 65,279 0x0003 - 0xFEFF - Allocation by IETF Review. 65,280 - 65,534 0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use. 65,535 0xFFFF - Reserved; allocation requires IETF Standards Action.
CLASSes have mnemonics that must be completely disjoint from the mnemonics used for RRTYPEs and that must match the following regular expression: [A-Z][A-Z0-9-]* The current CLASS assignments and considerations for future assignments are as follows: Decimal Hexadecimal 0 0x0000 - Reserved; assignment requires an IETF Standards Action. 1 0x0001 - Internet (IN). 2 0x0002 - Available for assignment by IETF Review as a data CLASS. 3 0x0003 - Chaos (CH) [Moon1981]. 4 0x0004 - Hesiod (HS) [Dyer1987]. 5 - 127 0x0005 - 0x007F - Available for assignment by IETF Review for data CLASSes only. 128 - 253 0x0080 - 0x00FD - Available for assignment by IETF Review for QCLASSes and meta-CLASSes only. 254 0x00FE - QCLASS NONE [RFC2136]. 255 0x00FF - QCLASS * (ANY) [RFC1035]. 256 - 32,767 0x0100 - 0x7FFF - Assigned by IETF Review. 32,768 - 57,343 0x8000 - 0xDFFF - Assigned for data CLASSes only, based on Specification Required as defined in [RFC5226].
57,344 - 65,279 0xE000 - 0xFEFF - Assigned for QCLASSes and meta-CLASSes only, based on Specification Required as defined in [RFC5226]. 65,280 - 65,534 0xFF00 - 0xFFFE - Private Use. 65,535 0xFFFF - Reserved; can only be assigned by an IETF Standards Action. RFC1035]. US-ASCII]. For retrieval, Text labels are defined to treat ASCII upper and lower case letter codes as matching [RFC4343]. Binary labels are bit sequences [RFC2673]. The Binary label type is Experimental [RFC3363]. IANA considerations for label types are given in [RFC2671]. Dyer1987] and Chaos [Moon1981] CLASSes are for essentially local use. The IN, or Internet, CLASS is thus the only DNS CLASS in global use on the Internet at this time. A somewhat out-of-date description of name allocation in the IN Class is given in [RFC1591]. Some information on reserved top-level domain names is in BCP 32 [RFC2606].
RFC4033], [RFC4034], and [RFC4035] for secure DNS considerations. RFC2929]. It affects the DNS Parameters registry and its subregistries, which are available from http://www.iana.org. 1. In the Domain Name System "Resource record (RR) TYPES and QTYPEs" registry, it changes most "IETF Consensus" and all "Specification Required" allocation policies for RRTYPEs to be "DNS TYPE Allocation Policy" and changes the policy for RRTYPE 0xFFFF to be "IETF Standards Action". Remaining instances of "IETF Consensus" are changed to "IETF Review", per [RFC5226]. It also specifies the "DNS TYPE Allocation Policy", which is based on Expert Review with additional provisions and restrictions, including the submittal of a completed copy of the template in Appendix A to firstname.lastname@example.org, in most cases, and requires "IETF Standards Action" as modified by [RFC4020] in other cases. IANA shall establish a process for accepting such templates, selecting an Expert from those appointed to review such template form applications, archiving, and making available all approved RRTYPE allocation templates. It is the duty of the selected Expert to post the formal application template to the email@example.com mailing list. See Section 3.1 and Appendix A for more details. 2. For OpCodes (see Section 2.2), it changes "IETF Standards Action" allocation requirements to add "as modified by [RFC4020]". 3. It changes the allocation status of RCODE 0xFFFF to be "IETF Standards Action required". See Section 2.3. 4. It adds an IANA allocation policy for the AFSDB RR Subtype field, which requires the creation of a new registry. See Section 3.1.4. 5. It splits Specification Required CLASSes into data CLASSes and query or meta CLASSes. See Section 3.2.
I. Does the proposal require/expect any changes in DNS servers/resolvers that prevent the new type from being processed as an unknown RRTYPE (see [RFC3597])? J. Comments: [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987. [RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987. [RFC1996] Vixie, P., "A Mechanism for Prompt Notification of Zone Changes (DNS NOTIFY)", RFC 1996, August 1996. [RFC2136] Vixie, P., Ed., Thomson, S., Rekhter, Y., and J. Bound, "Dynamic Updates in the Domain Name System (DNS UPDATE)", RFC 2136, April 1997. [RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997. [RFC2671] Vixie, P., "Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)", RFC 2671, August 1999. [RFC2845] Vixie, P., Gudmundsson, O., Eastlake 3rd, D., and B. Wellington, "Secret Key Transaction Authentication for DNS (TSIG)", RFC 2845, May 2000. [RFC2930] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Secret Key Establishment for DNS (TKEY RR)", RFC 2930, September 2000. [RFC3425] Lawrence, D., "Obsoleting IQUERY", RFC 3425, November 2002. [RFC3597] Gustafsson, A., "Handling of Unknown DNS Resource Record (RR) Types", RFC 3597, September 2003. [RFC4020] Kompella, K. and A. Zinin, "Early IANA Allocation of Standards Track Code Points", BCP 100, RFC 4020, February 2005. [RFC4033] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "DNS Security Introduction and Requirements", RFC 4033, March 2005.
[RFC4034] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Resource Records for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4034, March 2005. [RFC4035] Arends, R., Austein, R., Larson, M., Massey, D., and S. Rose, "Protocol Modifications for the DNS Security Extensions", RFC 4035, March 2005. [RFC4635] Eastlake 3rd, D., "HMAC SHA (Hashed Message Authentication Code, Secure Hash Algorithm) TSIG Algorithm Identifiers", RFC 4635, August 2006. [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008. [US-ASCII] ANSI, "USA Standard Code for Information Interchange", X3.4, American National Standards Institute: New York, 1968. [Dyer1987] Dyer, S., and F. Hsu, "Hesiod", Project Athena Technical Plan - Name Service, April 1987. [Moon1981] Moon, D., "Chaosnet", A.I. Memo 628, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, June 1981. [RFC1183] Everhart, C., Mamakos, L., Ullmann, R., and P. Mockapetris, "New DNS RR Definitions", RFC 1183, October 1990. [RFC1591] Postel, J., "Domain Name System Structure and Delegation", RFC 1591, March 1994. [RFC2606] Eastlake 3rd, D. and A. Panitz, "Reserved Top Level DNS Names", BCP 32, RFC 2606, June 1999. [RFC2673] Crawford, M., "Binary Labels in the Domain Name System", RFC 2673, August 1999. [RFC2929] Eastlake 3rd, D., Brunner-Williams, E., and B. Manning, "Domain Name System (DNS) IANA Considerations", BCP 42, RFC 2929, September 2000. [RFC2931] Eastlake 3rd, D., "DNS Request and Transaction Signatures ( SIG(0)s )", RFC 2931, September 2000.
[RFC3363] Bush, R., Durand, A., Fink, B., Gudmundsson, O., and T. Hain, "Representing Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Addresses in the Domain Name System (DNS)", RFC 3363, August 2002. [RFC4343] Eastlake 3rd, D., "Domain Name System (DNS) Case Insensitivity Clarification", RFC 4343, January 2006.