Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) S. Wenger Request for Comments: 6190 Independent Category: Standards Track Y.-K. Wang ISSN: 2070-1721 Huawei Technologies T. Schierl Fraunhofer HHI A. Eleftheriadis Vidyo May 2011 RTP Payload Format for Scalable Video Coding Abstract This memo describes an RTP payload format for Scalable Video Coding (SVC) as defined in Annex G of ITU-T Recommendation H.264, which is technically identical to Amendment 3 of ISO/IEC International Standard 14496-10. The RTP payload format allows for packetization of one or more Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) units in each RTP packet payload, as well as fragmentation of a NAL unit in multiple RTP packets. Furthermore, it supports transmission of an SVC stream over a single as well as multiple RTP sessions. The payload format defines a new media subtype name "H264-SVC", but is still backward compatible to RFC 6184 since the base layer, when encapsulated in its own RTP stream, must use the H.264 media subtype name ("H264") and the packetization method specified in RFC 6184. The payload format has wide applicability in videoconferencing, Internet video streaming, and high-bitrate entertainment-quality video, among others. Status of This Memo This is an Internet Standards Track document. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Further information on Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6190.
Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2011 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English.
Table of Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................5 1.1. The SVC Codec ..............................................6 1.1.1. Overview ............................................6 1.1.2. Parameter Sets ......................................8 1.1.3. NAL Unit Header .....................................9 1.2. Overview of the Payload Format ............................12 1.2.1. Design Principles ..................................12 1.2.2. Transmission Modes and Packetization Modes .........13 1.2.3. New Payload Structures .............................15 2. Conventions ....................................................16 3. Definitions and Abbreviations ..................................16 3.1. Definitions ...............................................16 3.1.1. Definitions from the SVC Specification .............16 3.1.2. Definitions Specific to This Memo ..................18 3.2. Abbreviations .............................................22 4. RTP Payload Format .............................................23 4.1. RTP Header Usage ..........................................23 4.2. NAL Unit Extension and Header Usage .......................23 4.2.1. NAL Unit Extension .................................23 4.2.2. NAL Unit Header Usage ..............................24 4.3. Payload Structures ........................................25 4.4. Transmission Modes ........................................28 4.5. Packetization Modes .......................................28 4.5.1. Packetization Modes for Single-Session Transmission .......................................28 4.5.2. Packetization Modes for Multi-Session Transmission .......................................29 4.6. Single NAL Unit Packets ...................................32 4.7. Aggregation Packets .......................................33 4.7.1. Non-Interleaved Multi-Time Aggregation Packets (NI-MTAPs) .................................33 4.8. Fragmentation Units (FUs) .................................35 4.9. Payload Content Scalability Information (PACSI) NAL Unit ..35 4.10. Empty NAL unit ...........................................43 4.11. Decoding Order Number (DON) ..............................43 4.11.1. Cross-Session DON (CS-DON) for Multi-Session Transmission ........................43 5. Packetization Rules ............................................45 5.1. Packetization Rules for Single-Session Transmission .......45 5.2. Packetization Rules for Multi-Session Transmission ........46 5.2.1. NI-T/NI-TC Packetization Rules .....................47 5.2.2. NI-C/NI-TC Packetization Rules .....................49 5.2.3. I-C Packetization Rules ............................50 5.2.4. Packetization Rules for Non-VCL NAL Units ..........50 5.2.5. Packetization Rules for Prefix NAL Units ...........51
6. De-Packetization Process .......................................51 6.1. De-Packetization Process for Single-Session Transmission ..51 6.2. De-Packetization Process for Multi-Session Transmission ...51 6.2.1. Decoding Order Recovery for the NI-T and NI-TC Modes ........................................52 18.104.22.168. Informative Algorithm for NI-T Decoding Order Recovery within an Access Unit ............................55 6.2.2. Decoding Order Recovery for the NI-C, NI-TC, and I-C Modes ...............................57 7. Payload Format Parameters ......................................59 7.1. Media Type Registration ...................................60 7.2. SDP Parameters ............................................75 7.2.1. Mapping of Payload Type Parameters to SDP ..........75 7.2.2. Usage with the SDP Offer/Answer Model ..............76 7.2.3. Dependency Signaling in Multi-Session Transmission .......................................84 7.2.4. Usage in Declarative Session Descriptions ..........85 7.3. Examples ..................................................86 7.3.1. Example for Offering a Single SVC Session ..........86 7.3.2. Example for Offering a Single SVC Session Using scalable-layer-id ..................................87 7.3.3. Example for Offering Multiple Sessions in MST ......87 7.3.4. Example for Offering Multiple Sessions in MST Including Operation with Answerer Using scalable-layer-id ..................................89 7.3.5. Example for Negotiating an SVC Stream with a Constrained Base Layer in SST ....................90 7.4. Parameter Set Considerations ..............................91 8. Security Considerations ........................................91 9. Congestion Control .............................................92 10. IANA Considerations ...........................................93 11. Informative Appendix: Application Examples ....................93 11.1. Introduction .............................................93 11.2. Layered Multicast ........................................93 11.3. Streaming ................................................94 11.4. Videoconferencing (Unicast to MANE, Unicast to Endpoints) ...............................................95 11.5. Mobile TV (Multicast to MANE, Unicast to Endpoint) .......96 12. Acknowledgements ..............................................97 13. References ....................................................97 13.1. Normative References .....................................97 13.2. Informative References ...................................98
1. Introduction This memo specifies an RTP [RFC3550] payload format for the Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension of the H.264/AVC video coding standard. SVC is specified in Amendment 3 to ISO/IEC 14496 Part 10 [ISO/IEC14496-10] and equivalently in Annex G of ITU-T Rec. H.264 [H.264]. In this memo, unless explicitly stated otherwise, "H.264/AVC" refers to the specification of [H.264] excluding Annex G. SVC covers the entire application range of H.264/AVC, from low- bitrate mobile applications, to High-Definition Television (HDTV) broadcasting, and even Digital Cinema that requires nearly lossless coding and hundreds of megabits per second. The scalability features that SVC adds to H.264/AVC enable several system-level functionalities related to the ability of a system to adapt the signal to different system conditions with no or minimal processing. The adaptation relates both to the capabilities of potentially heterogeneous receivers (differing in screen resolution, processing speed, etc.), and to differing or time-varying network conditions. The adaptation can be performed at the source, the destination, or in intermediate media-aware network elements (MANEs). The payload format specified in this memo exposes these system-level functionalities so that system designers can take direct advantage of these features. Informative note: Since SVC streams contain, by design, a sub- stream that is compliant with H.264/AVC, it is trivial for a MANE to filter the stream so that all SVC-specific information is removed. This memo, in fact, defines a media type parameter (sprop-avc-ready, Section 7.2) that indicates whether or not the stream can be converted to one compliant with [RFC6184] by eliminating RTP packets, and rewriting RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) to match the changes to the RTP packet stream as specified in Section 7 of [RFC3550]. This memo defines two basic modes for transmission of SVC data, single-session transmission (SST) and multi-session transmission (MST). In SST, a single RTP session is used for the transmission of all scalability layers comprising an SVC bitstream; in MST, the scalability layers are transported on different RTP sessions. In SST, packetization is a straightforward extension of [RFC6184]. For MST, four different modes are defined in this memo. They differ on whether or not they allow interleaving, i.e., transmitting Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) units in an order different than the decoding order, and by the technique used to effect inter-session NAL unit decoding order recovery. Decoding order recovery is performed using either inter-session timestamp alignment [RFC3550] or cross-session decoding order numbers (CS-DONs). One of the MST modes supports both
decoding order recovery techniques, so that receivers can select their preferred technique. More details can be found in Section 1.2.2. This memo further defines three new NAL unit types. The first type is the payload content scalability information (PACSI) NAL unit, which is used to provide an informative summary of the scalability information of the data contained in an RTP packet, as well as ancillary data (e.g., CS-DON values). The second and third new NAL unit types are the empty NAL unit and the non-interleaved multi-time aggregation packet (NI-MTAP) NAL unit. The empty NAL unit is used to ensure inter-session timestamp alignment required for decoding order recovery in MST. The NI-MTAP is used as a new payload structure allowing the grouping of NAL units of different time instances in decoding order. More details about the new packet structures can be found in Section 1.2.3. This memo also defines the signaling support for SVC transport over RTP, including a new media subtype name (H264-SVC). A non-normative overview of the SVC codec and the payload is given in the remainder of this section. 1.1. The SVC Codec 1.1.1. Overview SVC defines a coded video representation in which a given bitstream offers representations of the source material at different levels of fidelity (hence the term "scalable"). Scalable video coding bitstreams, or scalable bitstreams, are constructed in a pyramidal fashion: the coding process creates bitstream components that improve the fidelity of hierarchically lower components. The fidelity dimensions offered by SVC are spatial (picture size), quality (or Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)), and temporal (pictures per second). Bitstream components associated with a given level of spatial, quality, and temporal fidelity are identified using corresponding parameters in the bitstream: dependency_id, quality_id, and temporal_id (see also Section 1.1.3). The fidelity identifiers have integer values, where higher values designate components that are higher in the hierarchy. It is noted that SVC offers significant flexibility in terms of how an encoder may choose to structure the dependencies between the various components. Decoding of a particular component requires the availability of all the components it depends upon, either directly, or indirectly. An operation point
of an SVC bitstream consists of the bitstream components required to be able to decode a particular dependency_id, quality_id, and temporal_id combination. The term "layer" is used in various contexts in this memo. For example, in the terms "Video Coding Layer" and "Network Abstraction Layer" it refers to conceptual organization levels. When referring to bitstream syntax elements such as block layer or macroblock layer, it refers to hierarchical bitstream structure levels. When used in the context of bitstream scalability, e.g., "AVC base layer", it refers to a level of representation fidelity of the source signal with a specific set of NAL units included. The correct interpretation is supported by providing the appropriate context. SVC maintains the bitstream organization introduced in H.264/AVC. Specifically, all bitstream components are encapsulated in Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) units, which are organized as Access Units (AUs). An AU is associated with a single sampling instance in time. A subset of the NAL unit types correspond to the Video Coding Layer (VCL), and contain the coded picture data associated with the source content. Non-VCL NAL units carry ancillary data that may be necessary for decoding (e.g., parameter sets as explained below) or that facilitate certain system operations but are not needed by the decoding process itself. Coded picture data at the various fidelity dimensions are organized in slices. Within one AU, a coded picture of an operation point consists of all the coded slices required for decoding up to the particular combination of dependency_id and quality_id values at the time instance corresponding to the AU. It is noted that the concept of temporal scalability is already present in H.264/AVC, as profiles defined in Annex A of [H.264] already support it. Specifically, in H.264/AVC, the concept of sub- sequences has been introduced to allow optional use of temporal layers through Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI) messages. SVC extends this approach by exposing the temporal scalability information using the temporal_id parameter, alongside (and unified with) the dependency_id and quality_id values that are used for spatial and quality scalability, respectively. For coded picture data defined in Annex G of [H.264], this is accomplished by using a new type of NAL unit, namely, coded slice in scalable extension NAL unit (type 20), where the fidelity parameters are part of its header. For coded picture data that follow H.264/AVC, and to ensure compatibility with existing H.264/AVC decoders, another new type of NAL unit, namely, prefix NAL unit (type 14), has been defined to carry this header information. SVC additionally specifies a third new type of NAL unit, namely, subset sequence parameter set NAL unit (type 15), to contain sequence parameter set information for quality and spatial enhancement layers. All these three newly specified NAL
unit types (14, 15, and 20) are among those reserved in H.264/AVC and are to be ignored by decoders conforming to one or more of the profiles specified in Annex A of [H.264]. Within an AU, the VCL NAL units associated with a given dependency_id and quality_id are referred to as a "layer representation". The layer representation corresponding to the lowest values of dependency_id and quality_id (i.e., zero for both) is compliant by design to H.264/AVC. The set of VCL and associated non-VCL NAL units across all AUs in a bitstream associated with a particular combination of values of dependency_id and quality_id, and regardless of the value of temporal_id, is conceptually a scalable layer. For backward compatibility with H.264/AVC, it is important to differentiate, however, whether or not SVC-specific NAL units are present in a given bitstream. This is particularly important for the lowest fidelity values in terms of dependency_id and quality_id (zero for both), as the corresponding VCL data are compliant with H.264/AVC, and may or may not be accompanied by associated prefix NAL units. This memo therefore uses the term "AVC base layer" to designate the layer that does not contain SVC-specific NAL units, and "SVC base layer" to designate the same layer but with the addition of the associated SVC prefix NAL units. Note that the SVC specification uses the term "base layer" for what in this memo will be referred to as "AVC base layer". Similarly, it is also important to be able to differentiate, within a layer, the temporal fidelity components it contains. This memo uses the term "T0" to indicate, within a particular layer, the subset that contains the NAL units associated with temporal_id equal to 0. SNR scalability in SVC is offered in two different ways. In what is called coarse-grain scalability (CGS), scalability is provided by including or excluding a complete layer when decoding a particular bitstream. In contrast, in medium-grain scalability (MGS), scalability is provided by selectively omitting the decoding of specific NAL units belonging to MGS layers. The selection of the NAL units to omit can be based on fixed-length fields present in the NAL unit header (see also Sections 1.1.3 and 4.2). 1.1.2. Parameter Sets SVC maintains the parameter sets concept in H.264/AVC and introduces a new type of sequence parameter set, referred to as the subset sequence parameter set [H.264]. Subset sequence parameter sets have NAL unit type equal to 15, which is different from the NAL unit type value (7) of sequence parameter sets. VCL NAL units of NAL unit type 1 to 5 must only (indirectly) refer to sequence parameter sets, while VCL NAL units of NAL unit type 20 must only (indirectly) refer to subset sequence parameter sets. The references are indirect because
VCL NAL units refer to picture parameter sets (in their slice header), which in turn refer to regular or subset sequence parameter sets. Subset sequence parameter sets use a separate identifier value space than sequence parameter sets. In SVC, coded picture data from different layers may use the same or different sequence and picture parameter sets. Let the variable DQId be equal to dependency_id * 16 + quality_id. At any time instant during the decoding process there is one active sequence parameter set for the layer representation with the highest value of DQId and one or more active layer SVC sequence parameter set(s) for layer representations with lower values of DQId. The active sequence parameter set or an active layer SVC sequence parameter set remains unchanged throughout a coded video sequence in the scalable layer in which the active sequence parameter set or active layer SVC sequence parameter set is referred to. This means that the referred sequence parameter set or subset sequence parameter set can only change at instantaneous decoding refresh (IDR) access units for any layer. At any time instant during the decoding process there may be one active picture parameter set (for the layer representation with the highest value of DQId) and one or more active layer picture parameter set(s) (for layer representations with lower values of DQId). The active picture parameter set or an active layer picture parameter set remains unchanged throughout a layer representation in which the active picture parameter set or active layer picture parameter set is referred to, but may change from one AU to the next. 1.1.3. NAL Unit Header SVC extends the one-byte H.264/AVC NAL unit header by three additional octets for NAL units of types 14 and 20. The header indicates the type of the NAL unit, the (potential) presence of bit errors or syntax violations in the NAL unit payload, information regarding the relative importance of the NAL unit for the decoding process, the layer identification information, and other fields as discussed below. The syntax and semantics of the NAL unit header are specified in [H.264], but the essential properties of the NAL unit header are summarized below for convenience. The first byte of the NAL unit header has the following format (the bit fields are the same as defined for the one-byte H.264/AVC NAL unit header, while the semantics of some fields have changed slightly, in a backward-compatible way):
+---------------+ |0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |F|NRI| Type | +---------------+ The semantics of the components of the NAL unit type octet, as specified in [H.264], are described briefly below. In addition to the name and size of each field, the corresponding syntax element name in [H.264] is also provided. F: 1 bit forbidden_zero_bit. H.264/AVC declares a value of 1 as a syntax violation. NRI: 2 bits nal_ref_idc. A value of "00" (in binary form) indicates that the content of the NAL unit is not used to reconstruct reference pictures for future prediction. Such NAL units can be discarded without risking the integrity of the reference pictures in the same layer. A value greater than "00" indicates that the decoding of the NAL unit is required to maintain the integrity of reference pictures in the same layer or that the NAL unit contains parameter sets. Type: 5 bits nal_unit_type. This component specifies the NAL unit type as defined in Table 7-1 of [H.264], and later within this memo. For a reference of all currently defined NAL unit types and their semantics, please refer to Section 7.4.1 in [H.264]. In H.264/AVC, NAL unit types 14, 15, and 20 are reserved for future extensions. SVC uses these three NAL unit types as follows: NAL unit type 14 is used for prefix NAL unit, NAL unit type 15 is used for subset sequence parameter set, and NAL unit type 20 is used for coded slice in scalable extension (see Section 7.4.1 in [H.264]). NAL unit types 14 and 20 indicate the presence of three additional octets in the NAL unit header, as shown below. +---------------+---------------+---------------+ |0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7| +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ |R|I| PRID |N| DID | QID | TID |U|D|O| RR| +---------------+---------------+---------------+
R: 1 bit reserved_one_bit. Reserved bit for future extension. R must be equal to 1. The value of R must be ignored by decoders. I: 1 bit idr_flag. This component specifies whether the layer representation is an instantaneous decoding refresh (IDR) layer representation (when equal to 1) or not (when equal to 0). PRID: 6 bits priority_id. This flag specifies a priority identifier for the NAL unit. A lower value of PRID indicates a higher priority. N: 1 bit no_inter_layer_pred_flag. This flag specifies, when present in a coded slice NAL unit, whether inter-layer prediction may be used for decoding the coded slice (when equal to 1) or not (when equal to 0). DID: 3 bits dependency_id. This component indicates the inter-layer coding dependency level of a layer representation. At any access unit, a layer representation with a given dependency_id may be used for inter-layer prediction for coding of a layer representation with a higher dependency_id, while a layer representation with a given dependency_id shall not be used for inter-layer prediction for coding of a layer representation with a lower dependency_id. QID: 4 bits quality_id. This component indicates the quality level of an MGS layer representation. At any access unit and for identical dependency_id values, a layer representation with quality_id equal to ql uses a layer representation with quality_id equal to ql-1 for inter-layer prediction. TID: 3 bits temporal_id. This component indicates the temporal level of a layer representation. The temporal_id is associated with the frame rate, with lower values of _temporal_id corresponding to lower frame rates. A layer representation at a given temporal_id typically depends on layer representations with lower temporal_id values, but it never depends on layer representations with higher temporal_id values.
U: 1 bit use_ref_base_pic_flag. A value of 1 indicates that only reference base pictures are used during the inter prediction process. A value of 0 indicates that the reference base pictures are not used during the inter prediction process. D: 1 bit discardable_flag. A value of 1 indicates that the current NAL unit is not used for decoding NAL units with values of dependency_id higher than the one of the current NAL unit, in the current and all subsequent access units. Such NAL units can be discarded without risking the integrity of layers with higher dependency_id values. discardable_flag equal to 0 indicates that the decoding of the NAL unit is required to maintain the integrity of layers with higher dependency_id. O: 1 bit output_flag: Affects the decoded picture output process as defined in Annex C of [H.264]. RR: 2 bits reserved_three_2bits. Reserved bits for future extension. RR MUST be equal to "11" (in binary form). The value of RR must be ignored by decoders. This memo extends the semantics of F, NRI, I, PRID, DID, QID, TID, U, and D per Annex G of [H.264] as described in Section 4.2. 1.2. Overview of the Payload Format Similar to [RFC6184], this payload format can only be used to carry the raw NAL unit stream over RTP and not the bytestream format specified in Annex B of [H.264]. The design principles, transmission modes, and packetization modes as well as new payload structures are summarized in this section. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the terminology and concepts defined in [RFC6184]. 1.2.1. Design Principles The following design principles have been observed for this payload format: o Backward compatibility with [RFC6184] wherever possible.
o The SVC base layer or any H.264/AVC compatible subset of the SVC base layer, when transmitted in its own RTP stream, must be encapsulated using [RFC6184]. This ensures that such an RTP stream can be understood by [RFC6184] receivers. o Media-aware network elements (MANEs) as defined in [RFC6184] are signaling-aware, rely on signaling information, and have state. o MANEs can aggregate multiple RTP streams, possibly from multiple RTP sessions. o MANEs can perform media-aware stream thinning (selective elimination of packets or portions thereof). By using the payload header information identifying layers within an RTP session, MANEs are able to remove packets or portions thereof from the incoming RTP packet stream. This implies rewriting the RTP headers of the outgoing packet stream, and rewriting of RTCP packets as specified in Section 7 of [RFC3550]. 1.2.2. Transmission Modes and Packetization Modes This memo allows the packetization of SVC data for both single- session transmission (SST) and multi-session transmission (MST). In the case of SST all SVC data are carried in a single RTP session. In the case of MST two or more RTP sessions are used to carry the SVC data, in accordance with the MST-specific packetization modes defined in this memo, which are based on the packetization modes defined in [RFC6184]. In MST, each RTP session is associated with one RTP stream, which may carry one or more layers. The base layer is, by design, compatible to H.264/AVC. During transmission, the associated prefix NAL units, which are introduced by SVC and, when present, are ignored by H.264/AVC decoders, may be encapsulated within the same RTP packet stream as the H.264/AVC VCL NAL units or in a different RTP packet stream (when MST is used). For convenience, the term "AVC base layer" is used to refer to the base layer without prefix NAL units, while the term "SVC base layer" is used to refer to the base layer with prefix NAL units. Furthermore, the base layer may have multiple temporal components (i.e., supporting different frame rates). As a result, the lowest temporal component ("T0") of the AVC or SVC base layer is used as the starting point of the SVC bitstream hierarchy. This memo allows encapsulating in a given RTP stream any of the following three alternatives of layer combinations:
1. the T0 AVC base layer or the T0 SVC base layer only; 2. one or more enhancement layers only; or 3. the T0 SVC base layer, and one or more enhancement layers. SST should be used in point-to-point unicast applications and, in general, whenever the potential benefit of using multiple RTP sessions does not justify the added complexity. When SST is used, the layer combination cases 1 and 3 above can be used. When an H.264/AVC compatible subset of the SVC base layer is transmitted using SST, the packetization of [RFC6184] must be used, thus ensuring compatibility with [RFC6184] receivers. When, however, one or more SVC quality or spatial enhancement layers are transmitted using SST, the packetization defined in this memo must be used. In SST, any of the three [RFC6184] packetization modes, namely, single NAL unit mode, non-interleaved mode, and interleaved mode, can be used. MST should be used in a multicast session when different receivers may request different layers of the scalable bitstream. An operation point for an SVC bitstream, as defined in this memo, corresponds to a set of layers that together conform to one of the profiles defined in Annex A or G of [H.264] and, when decoded, offer a representation of the original video at a certain fidelity. The number of streams used in MST should be at least equal to the number of operation points that may be requested by the receivers. Depending on the application, this may result in each layer being carried in its own RTP session, or in having multiple layers encapsulated within one RTP session. Informative note: Layered multicast is a term commonly used to describe the application where multicast is used to transmit layered or scalable data that has been encapsulated into more than one RTP session. This application allows different receivers in the multicast session to receive different operation points of the scalable bitstream. Layered multicast, among other application examples, is discussed in more detail in Section 11.2. When MST is used, any of the three layer combinations above can be used for each of the sessions. When an H.264/AVC compatible subset of the SVC base layer is transmitted in its own session in MST, the packetization of [RFC6184] must be used, such that [RFC6184] receivers can be part of the MST and receive only this session. For MST, this memo defines four different MST-specific packetization modes, namely, non-interleaved timestamp (NI-T) based mode, non- interleaved CS-DON (NI-C) based mode, non-interleaved combined timestamp and CS-DON mode (NI-TC), and interleaved CS-DON (I-C) based mode (detailed in Section 4.5.2). The modes differ depending on whether the SVC data are allowed to be interleaved, i.e., to be transmitted in an order different than the intended decoding order,
and they also differ in the mechanisms provided in order to recover the correct decoding order of the NAL units across the multiple RTP sessions. These four MST modes reuse the packetization modes introduced in [RFC6184] for the packetization of NAL units in each of their individual RTP sessions. As the names of the MST packetization modes imply, the NI-T, NI-C, and NI-TC modes do not allow interleaved transmission, while the I-C mode allows interleaved transmission. With any of the three non- interleaved MST packetization modes, legacy [RFC6184] receivers with implementation of the non-interleaved mode specified in [RFC6184] can join a multi-session transmission of SVC, to receive the base RTP session encapsulated according to [RFC6184]. 1.2.3. New Payload Structures [RFC6184] specifies three basic payload structures, namely, single NAL unit packet, aggregation packet, and fragmentation unit. Depending on the basic payload structure, an RTP packet may contain a NAL unit not aggregating other NAL units, one or more NAL units aggregated in another NAL unit, or a fragment of a NAL unit not aggregating other NAL units. Each NAL unit of a type specified in [H.264] (i.e., 1 to 23, inclusive) may be carried in its entirety in a single NAL unit packet, may be aggregated in an aggregation packet, or may be fragmented and carried in a number of fragmentation unit packets. To enable aggregation or fragmentation of NAL units while still ensuring that the RTP packet payload is only composed of NAL units, [RFC6184] introduced six new NAL unit types (24-29) to be used as payload structures, selected from the NAL unit types left unspecified in [H.264]. This memo reuses all the payload structures used in [RFC6184]. Furthermore, three new types of NAL units are defined: payload content scalability information (PACSI) NAL unit, empty NAL unit, and non-interleaved multi-time aggregation packet (NI-MTAP) (specified in Sections 4.9, 4.10, and 4.7.1, respectively). PACSI NAL units may be used for the following purposes: o To enable MANEs to decide whether to forward, process, or discard aggregation packets, by checking in PACSI NAL units the scalability information and other characteristics of the aggregated NAL units, rather than looking into the aggregated NAL units themselves, which are defined by the video coding specification.
o To enable correct decoding order recovery in MST using the NI-C or NI-TC mode, with the help of the CS-DON information included in PACSI NAL units. o To improve resilience to packet losses, e.g., by utilizing the following data or information included in PACSI NAL units: repeated Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI) messages, information regarding the start and end of layer representations, and the indices to layer representations of the lowest temporal subset. Empty NAL units may be used to enable correct decoding order recovery in MST using the NI-T or NI-TC mode. NI-MTAP NAL units may be used to aggregate NAL units from multiple access units but without interleaving. 2. Conventions The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. This specification uses the notion of setting and clearing a bit when bit fields are handled. Setting a bit is the same as assigning that bit the value of 1 (On). Clearing a bit is the same as assigning that bit the value of 0 (Off). 3. Definitions and Abbreviations 3.1. Definitions This document uses the terms and definitions of [H.264]. Section 3.1.1 lists relevant definitions copied from [H.264] for convenience. When there is discrepancy, the definitions in [H.264] take precedence. Section 3.1.2 gives definitions specific to this memo. Some of the definitions in Section 3.1.2 are also present in [RFC6184] and copied here with slight adaptations as needed. 3.1.1. Definitions from the SVC Specification access unit: A set of NAL units always containing exactly one primary coded picture. In addition to the primary coded picture, an access unit may also contain one or more redundant coded pictures, one auxiliary coded picture, or other NAL units not containing slices or slice data partitions of a coded picture. The decoding of an access unit always results in a decoded picture.
base layer: A bitstream subset that contains all the NAL units with the nal_unit_type syntax element equal to 1 or 5 of the bitstream and does not contain any NAL unit with the nal_unit_type syntax element equal to 14, 15, or 20 and conforms to one or more of the profiles specified in Annex A of [H.264]. base quality layer representation: The layer representation of the target dependency representation of an access unit that is associated with the quality_id syntax element equal to 0. coded video sequence: A sequence of access units that consists, in decoding order, of an IDR access unit followed by zero or more non- IDR access units including all subsequent access units up to but not including any subsequent IDR access unit. dependency representation: A subset of Video Coding Layer (VCL) NAL units within an access unit that are associated with the same value of the dependency_id syntax element, which is provided as part of the NAL unit header or by an associated prefix NAL unit. A dependency representation consists of one or more layer representations. IDR access unit: An access unit in which the primary coded picture is an IDR picture. IDR picture: Instantaneous decoding refresh picture. A coded picture in which all slices of the target dependency representation within the access unit are I or EI slices that causes the decoding process to mark all reference pictures as "unused for reference" immediately after decoding the IDR picture. After the decoding of an IDR picture all following coded pictures in decoding order can be decoded without inter prediction from any picture decoded prior to the IDR picture. The first picture of each coded video sequence is an IDR picture. layer representation: A subset of VCL NAL units within an access unit that are associated with the same values of the dependency_id and quality_id syntax elements, which are provided as part of the VCL NAL unit header or by an associated prefix NAL unit. One or more layer representations represent a dependency representation. prefix NAL unit: A NAL unit with nal_unit_type equal to 14 that immediately precedes in decoding order a NAL unit with nal_unit_type equal to 1, 5, or 12. The NAL unit that immediately succeeds in decoding order the prefix NAL unit is referred to as the associated NAL unit. The prefix NAL unit contains data associated with the associated NAL unit, which are considered to be part of the associated NAL unit.
reference base picture: A reference picture that is obtained by decoding a base quality layer representation with the nal_ref_idc syntax element not equal to 0 and the store_ref_base_pic_flag syntax element equal to 1 of an access unit and all layer representations of the access unit that are referred to by inter-layer prediction of the base quality layer representation. A reference base picture is not an output of the decoding process, but the samples of a reference base picture may be used for inter prediction in the decoding process of subsequent pictures in decoding order. Reference base picture is a collective term for a reference base field or a reference base frame. scalable bitstream: A bitstream with the property that one or more bitstream subsets that are not identical to the scalable bitstream form another bitstream that conforms to the SVC specification [H.264]. target dependency representation: The dependency representation of an access unit that is associated with the largest value of the dependency_id syntax element for all dependency representations of the access unit. target layer representation: The layer representation of the target dependency representation of an access unit that is associated with the largest value of the quality_id syntax element for all layer representations of the target dependency representation of the access unit. 3.1.2. Definitions Specific to This Memo anchor layer representation: An anchor layer representation is such a layer representation that, if decoding of the operation point corresponding to the layer starts from the access unit containing this layer representation, all the following layer representations of the layer, in output order, can be correctly decoded. The output order is defined in [H.264] as the order in which decoded pictures are output from the decoded picture buffer of the decoder. As H.264 does not specify the picture display process, this more general term is used instead of display order. An anchor layer representation is a random access point to the layer the anchor layer representation belongs. However, some layer representations, succeeding an anchor layer representation in decoding order but preceding the anchor layer representation in output order, may refer to earlier layer representations for inter prediction, and hence the decoding may be incorrect if random access is performed at the anchor layer representation.
AVC base layer: The subset of the SVC base layer in which all prefix NAL units (type 14) are removed. Note that this is equivalent to the term "base layer" as defined in Annex G of [H.264]. base RTP session: When multi-session transmission is used, the RTP session that carries the RTP stream containing the T0 AVC base layer or the T0 SVC base layer, and zero or more enhancement layers. This RTP session does not depend on any other RTP session as indicated by mechanisms defined in Section 7.2.3. The base RTP session may carry NAL units of NAL unit type equal to 14 and 15. decoding order number (DON): A field in the payload structure or a derived variable indicating NAL unit decoding order. Values of DON are in the range of 0 to 65535, inclusive. After reaching the maximum value, the value of DON wraps around to 0. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in exactly the same form. Empty NAL unit: A NAL unit with NAL unit type equal to 31 and sub- type equal to 1. An empty NAL unit consists of only the two-byte NAL unit header with an empty payload. enhancement RTP session: When multi-session transmission is used, an RTP session that is not the base RTP session. An enhancement RTP session typically contains an RTP stream that depends on at least one other RTP session as indicated by mechanisms defined in Section 7.2.3. A lower RTP session to an enhancement RTP session is an RTP session on which the enhancement RTP session depends. The lowest RTP session for a receiver is the RTP session that does not depend on any other RTP session received by the receiver. The highest RTP session for a receiver is the RTP session on which no other RTP session received by the receiver depends. cross-session decoding order number (CS-DON): A derived variable indicating NAL unit decoding order number over all NAL units within all the session-multiplexed RTP sessions that carry the same SVC bitstream. default level: The level indicated by the profile-level-id parameter. In Session Description Protocol (SDP) Offer/Answer, the level is downgradable, i.e., the answer may either use the default level or a lower level. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in a slightly different form. default sub-profile: The subset of coding tools, which may be all coding tools of one profile or the common subset of coding tools of more than one profile, indicated by the profile-level-id parameter. In SDP Offer/Answer, the default sub-profile must be used in a
symmetric manner, i.e., the answer must either use the same sub- profile as the offer or reject the offer. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in a slightly different form. enhancement layer: A layer in which at least one of the values of dependency_id or quality_id is higher than 0, or a layer in which none of the NAL units is associated with the value of temporal_id equal to 0. An operation point constructed using the maximum temporal_id, dependency_id, and quality_id values associated with an enhancement layer may or may not conform to one or more of the profiles specified in Annex A of [H.264]. H.264/AVC compatible: The property of a bitstream subset of conforming to one or more of the profiles specified in Annex A of [H.264]. intra layer representation: A layer representation that contains only slices that use intra prediction, and hence do not refer to any earlier layer representation in decoding order in the same layer. Note that in SVC intra prediction includes intra-layer intra prediction as well as inter-layer intra prediction. layer: A bitstream subset in which all NAL units of type 1, 5, 12, 14, or 20 have the same values of dependency_id and quality_id, either directly through their NAL unit header (for NAL units of type 14 or 20) or through association to a prefix (type 14) NAL unit (for NAL unit type 1, 5, or 12). A layer may contain NAL units associated with more than one values of temporal_id. media-aware network element (MANE): A network element, such as a middlebox or application layer gateway that is capable of parsing certain aspects of the RTP payload headers or the RTP payload and reacting to their contents. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in exactly the same form. Informative note: The concept of a MANE goes beyond normal routers or gateways in that a MANE has to be aware of the signaling (e.g., to learn about the payload type mappings of the media streams), and in that it has to be trusted when working with Secure Real- time Transport Protocol (SRTP). The advantage of using MANEs is that they allow packets to be dropped according to the needs of the media coding. For example, if a MANE has to drop packets due to congestion on a certain link, it can identify and remove those packets whose elimination produces the least adverse effect on the user experience. After dropping packets, MANEs must rewrite RTCP packets to match the changes to the RTP packet stream as specified in Section 7 of [RFC3550].
multi-session transmission: The transmission mode in which the SVC stream is transmitted over multiple RTP sessions. Dependency between RTP sessions MUST be signaled according to Section 7.2.3 of this memo. NAL unit decoding order: A NAL unit order that conforms to the constraints on NAL unit order given in Section G.22.214.171.124 in [H.264]. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in a slightly different form. NALU-time: The value that the RTP timestamp would have if the NAL unit would be transported in its own RTP packet. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in exactly the same form. operation point: An operation point is identified by a set of values of temporal_id, dependency_id, and quality_id. A bitstream corresponding to an operation point can be constructed by removing all NAL units associated with a higher value of dependency_id, and all NAL units associated with the same value of dependency_id but higher values of quality_id or temporal_id. An operation point bitstream conforms to at least one of the profiles defined in Annex A or G of [H.264], and offers a representation of the original video signal at a certain fidelity. Informative note: Additional NAL units may be removed (with lower dependency_id or same dependency_id but lower quality_id) if they are not required for decoding the bitstream at the particular operation point. The resulting bitstream, however, may no longer conform to any of the profiles defined in Annex A or G of [H.264]. operation point representation: The set of all NAL units of an operation point within the same access unit. RTP packet stream: A sequence of RTP packets with increasing sequence numbers (except for wrap-around), identical payload type and identical SSRC (Synchronization Source), carried in one RTP session. Within the scope of this memo, one RTP packet stream is utilized to transport one or more layers. single-session transmission: The transmission mode in which the SVC bitstream is transmitted over a single RTP session. SVC base layer: The layer that includes all NAL units associated with dependency_id and quality_id values both equal to 0, including prefix NAL units (NAL unit type 14).
SVC enhancement layer: A layer in which at least one of the values of dependency_id or quality_id is higher than 0. An operation point constructed using the maximum dependency_id and quality_id values and any temporal_id value associated with an SVC enhancement layer does not conform to any of the profiles specified in Annex A of [H.264]. SVC NAL unit: A NAL unit of NAL unit type 14, 15, or 20 as specified in Annex G of [H.264]. SVC NAL unit header: A four-byte header resulting from the addition of a three-byte SVC-specific header extension added in NAL unit types 14 and 20. SVC RTP session: Either the base RTP session or an enhancement RTP session. T0 AVC base layer: A subset of the AVC base layer constructed by removing all VCL NAL units associated with temporal_id values higher than 0 and non-VCL NAL units and SEI messages associated only with the VCL NAL units being removed. T0 SVC base layer: A subset of the SVC base layer constructed by removing all VCL NAL units associated with temporal_id values higher than 0 as well as prefix NAL units, non-VCL NAL units, and SEI messages associated only with the VCL NAL units being removed. transmission order: The order of packets in ascending RTP sequence number order (in modulo arithmetic). Within an aggregation packet, the NAL unit transmission order is the same as the order of appearance of NAL units in the packet. Note that this definition also exists in [RFC6184] in exactly the same form. 3.2. Abbreviations In addition to the abbreviations defined in [RFC6184], the following abbreviations are used in this memo. CGS: Coarse-Grain Scalability CS-DON: Cross-Session Decoding Order Number MGS: Medium-Grain Scalability MST: Multi-Session Transmission PACSI: Payload Content Scalability Information SST: Single-Session Transmission SNR: Signal-to-Noise Ratio SVC: Scalable Video Coding