Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) R. Johnson Request for Comments: 5859 Cisco Systems, Inc. Category: Informational June 2010 ISSN: 2070-1721 TFTP Server Address Option for DHCPv4
AbstractThis memo documents existing usage for the "TFTP Server Address" option. The option number currently in use is 150. This memo documents the current usage of the option in agreement with RFC 3942, which declares that any pre-existing usages of option numbers in the range 128-223 should be documented, and the Dynamic Host Configuration working group will try to officially assign those numbers to those options. The option is defined for DHCPv4 and works only with IPv4 addresses. Status of This Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is published for informational purposes. This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It represents the consensus of the IETF community. It has received public review and has been approved for publication by the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG). Not all documents approved by the IESG are a candidate for any level of Internet Standard; see Section 2 of RFC 5741. Information about the current status of this document, any errata, and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5859.
Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. TFTP Server Address Option Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
RFC2131] and the "TFTP Server Name" option (66) [RFC2132]. Both of these sources of information, however, contain the TFTP server's hostname. That hostname must then be translated to an IP address. The usual method to accomplish this would be DNS [RFC1034]. This means the firmware in a VoIP device (with possibly limited flash, memory, and/or processing resources) would need to implement the DNS protocol in order to perform this translation. This would also introduce an additional unnecessary point of failure whereby the device is dependent on the DNS server infrastructure in order to boot up and communicate with its call agent. In order to eliminate DNS as a point of failure and to keep the firmware in such a VoIP device to a minimum, the "VoIP Configuration Server Address" option (150) was introduced. This option allows the DHCP server to pass one or more IP addresses of the VoIP configuration server(s) instead of the hostname, thus making the information directly usable by the VoIP device. Other reasons for this option are (1) the "siaddr" field is not configurable on some DHCP servers; (2) the "siaddr" field only allows for one IPv4 address, and it is desirable to have the ability to configure multiple IP addresses for redundancy; (3) some DHCP servers have been found to fill in their own IPv4 address as siaddr; (4) some customers were already using the "siaddr" field for other purposes; and finally (5) the configuration server may use a protocol other than TFTP to serve configuration files, making the use of the "TFTP Server Name" option (66) inappropriate. In cases where other download server address information also appears in the response packet, such as "sname" and "TFTP Server Name", it is left to the device to decide which piece of information to use. RFC2119].
RFC2132]. The option contains one or more IPv4 addresses that the client MAY use. The current use of this option is for downloading configuration from a VoIP server via TFTP; however, the option may be used for purposes other than contacting a VoIP configuration server. The format of the option is: Code Len IPv4 Configuration Server Address(es) +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ | 150 | n | IPv4 address | ... +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+ Figure 1 The option minimum length (n) is 4. The "Len" field must specify a length that is an integral multiple of 4 octets (4, 8, 12, etc.). If an option is received where this is not the case, the option information MUST be ignored, but further option processing may continue. Dividing this "Len" value by 4 will give the number of IPv4 VoIP configuration server addresses that are specified in the option. The option MUST NOT be specified by the DHCP client, as it is intended only to be returned from the DHCP server. If the DHCP client wants to receive this information from the server, it needs to include the number 150 in the "DHCP Parameter List" option (55). Server addresses SHOULD be listed in order of preference, and the client SHOULD use the addresses sequentially but may be configured to use addresses randomly. The client may use as many or as few of the addresses provided as it likes. For example, if the client is only capable of accepting two configuration server addresses, it may ignore any other addresses provided after the second address. Each TFTP server address that is being used by the client should be tried a total of four times with a 4-second wait time before proceeding to the next address. When this option appears along with the TFTP Server Name option (66) [RFC2132], this option SHOULD have priority over option 66. There is currently no defined IPv6 DHCP equivalent for this option.
RFC3118]. Potential exposures to attack are discussed in Section 7 of the DHCP protocol specification [RFC2131]. RFC3942]. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2131] Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol", RFC 2131, March 1997. [RFC2132] Alexander, S. and R. Droms, "DHCP Options and BOOTP Vendor Extensions", RFC 2132, March 1997.
[RFC3942] Volz, B., "Reclassifying Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol version 4 (DHCPv4) Options", RFC 3942, November 2004. [RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987. [RFC3118] Droms, R. and W. Arbaugh, "Authentication for DHCP Messages", RFC 3118, June 2001.