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RFC 5810

Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES) Protocol Specification

Pages: 124
Proposed Standard
Errata
Updated by:  71217391
Part 5 of 5 – Pages 87 to 124
First   Prev   None

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9. Security Considerations

The ForCES framework document [RFC3746], Section 8, goes into extensive detail on a variety of security threats, the possible effects of those threats on the protocol, and responses to those threats. This document does not repeat that discussion; the reader is referred to the ForCES framework document [RFC3746] for those details and how the ForCES architecture addresses them. ForCES PL uses security services provided by the ForCES TML. The TML provides security services such as endpoint authentication service, message authentication service, and confidentiality service. Endpoint authentication service is invoked at the time of the pre- association connection establishment phase and message authentication is performed whenever the FE or CE receives a packet from its peer. The following are the general security mechanisms that need to be in place for ForCES PL. o Security mechanisms are session controlled -- that is, once the security is turned on depending upon the chosen security level (No Security, Authentication, Confidentiality), it will be in effect for the entire duration of the session. o An operator should configure the same security policies for both primary and backup FEs and CEs (if available). This will ensure uniform operations and avoid unnecessary complexity in policy configuration.

9.1. No Security

When "No Security" is chosen for ForCES protocol communication, both endpoint authentication and message authentication service needs to be performed by ForCES PL. Both these mechanism are weak and do not involve cryptographic operation. An operator can choose "No Security" level when the ForCES protocol endpoints are within a single box, for example. In order to have interoperable and uniform implementation across various security levels, each CE and FE endpoint MUST implement this level. What is described below (in Section 9.1.1 and Section 9.1.2) are error checks and not security procedures. The reader is referred to Section 9.2 for security procedures.
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9.1.1. Endpoint Authentication

Each CE and FE PL maintains a list of associations as part of its configuration. This is done via the CEM and FEM interfaces. An FE MUST connect to only those CEs that are configured via the FEM; similarly, a CE should accept the connection and establish associations for the FEs which are configured via the CEM. The CE should validate the FE identifier before accepting the connections during the pre-association phase.

9.1.2. Message Authentication

When a CE or FE initiates a message, the receiving endpoint MUST validate the initiator of the message by checking the common header CE or FE identifiers. This will ensure proper protocol functioning. This extra processing step is recommended even when the underlying TML layer security services exist.

9.2. ForCES PL and TML Security Service

This section is applicable if an operator wishes to use the TML security services. A ForCES TML MUST support one or more security services such as endpoint authentication service, message authentication service, and confidentiality service, as part of TML security layer functions. It is the responsibility of the operator to select an appropriate security service and configure security policies accordingly. The details of such configuration are outside the scope of the ForCES PL and are dependent on the type of transport protocol and the nature of the connection. All these configurations should be done prior to starting the CE and FE. When certificates-based authentication is being used at the TML, the certificate can use a ForCES-specific naming structure as certificate names and, accordingly, the security policies can be configured at the CE and FE. The reader is asked to refer to specific TML documents for details on the security requirements specific to that TML.

9.2.1. Endpoint Authentication Service

When TML security services are enabled, the ForCES TML performs endpoint authentication. Security association is established between CE and FE and is transparent to the ForCES PL.
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9.2.2. Message Authentication Service

This is a TML-specific operation and is transparent to the ForCES PL. For details, refer to Section 5.

9.2.3. Confidentiality Service

This is a TML-specific operation and is transparent to the ForCES PL. For details, refer to Section 5.

10. Acknowledgments

The authors of this document would like to acknowledge and thank the ForCES Working Group and especially the following: Furquan Ansari, Alex Audu, Steven Blake, Shuchi Chawla, Alan DeKok, Ellen M. Deleganes, Xiaoyi Guo, Yunfei Guo, Evangelos Haleplidis, Zsolt Haraszti, Fenggen Jia, John C. Lin, Alistair Munro, Jeff Pickering, T. Sridhlar, Guangming Wang, Chaoping Wu, and Lily L. Yang, for their contributions. We would also like to thank David Putzolu and Patrick Droz for their comments and suggestions on the protocol and for their infinite patience. We would also like to thank Sue Hares and Alia Atlas for extensive reviews of the document. Alia Atlas did a wonderful job of shaping the document to make it more readable by providing the IESG feedback. Ross Callon was instrumental in getting us over major humps to getting this document published. The editors have used the xml2rfc [RFC2629] tools in creating this document and are very grateful for the existence and quality of these tools. The editor is also grateful to Elwyn Davies for his help in correcting the XML source of this document.

11. References

11.1. Normative References

[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2914] Floyd, S., "Congestion Control Principles", BCP 41, RFC 2914, September 2000. [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226, May 2008.
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   [RFC5390]  Rosenberg, J., "Requirements for Management of Overload in
              the Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 5390, December 2008.

   [RFC5811]  Hadi Salim, J. and K. Ogawa, "SCTP-Based Transport Mapping
              Layer (TML) for the Forwarding and Control Element
              Separation (ForCES) Protocol", RFC 5811, March 2010.

   [RFC5812]  Halpern, J. and J. Hadi Salim, "Forwarding and Control
              Element Separation (ForCES) Forwarding Element Model",
              RFC 5812, March 2010.

11.2. Informative References

[2PCREF] Gray, J., "Notes on database operating systems", in "Operating Systems: An Advanced Course" Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 60, pp. 394-481, Springer-Verlag, 1978. [ACID] Haerder, T. and A. Reuter, "Principles of Transaction- Orientated Database Recovery", 1983. [RFC2629] Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629, June 1999. [RFC3654] Khosravi, H. and T. Anderson, "Requirements for Separation of IP Control and Forwarding", RFC 3654, November 2003. [RFC3746] Yang, L., Dantu, R., Anderson, T., and R. Gopal, "Forwarding and Control Element Separation (ForCES) Framework", RFC 3746, April 2004.
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Appendix A. IANA Considerations

Following the policies outlined in "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs" (RFC 5226 [RFC5226]), the following namespaces are defined in ForCES. o Message Type Namespace, Section 7 o Operation Type Namespace, Section 7.1.6 o Header Flags, Section 6.1 o TLV Type, Section 7 o TLV Result Values, Section 7.1.7 o LFB Class ID, Section 7.1.5 (resolved by model document, [RFC5812]. o Result: Association Setup Response, Section 7.5.2 o Reason: Association Teardown Message, Section 7.5.3

A.1. Message Type Namespace

The Message Type is an 8-bit value. The following is the guideline for defining the Message Type namespace: Message Types 0x00 - 0x1F Message Types in this range are part of the base ForCES protocol. Message Types in this range are allocated through an IETF consensus action [RFC5226]. Values assigned by this specification: 0x00 Reserved 0x01 AssociationSetup 0x02 AssociationTeardown 0x03 Config 0x04 Query 0x05 EventNotification 0x06 PacketRedirect 0x07 - 0x0E Reserved 0x0F Hearbeat 0x11 AssociationSetupResponse 0x12 Reserved 0x13 ConfigResponse 0x14 QueryResponse
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   Message Types 0x20 - 0x7F
      Message Types in this range are Specification Required [RFC5226].
      Message Types using this range MUST be documented in an RFC or
      other permanent and readily available reference.

   Message Types 0x80 - 0xFF
      Message Types in this range are reserved for vendor private
      extensions and are the responsibility of individual vendors.  IANA
      management of this range of the Message Type namespace is
      unnecessary.

A.2. Operation Selection

The Operation Selection (OPER-TLV) namespace is 16 bits long. The following is the guideline for managing the OPER-TLV namespace. OPER-TLV Type 0x0000-0x0FF OPER-TLV Types in this range are allocated through an IETF consensus process [RFC5226]. Values assigned by this specification: 0x0000 Reserved 0x0001 SET 0x0002 SET-PROP 0x0003 SET-RESPONSE 0x0004 SET-PROP-RESPONSE 0x0005 DEL 0x0006 DEL-RESPONSE 0x0007 GET 0x0008 GET-PROP 0x0009 GET-RESPONSE 0x000A GET-PROP-RESPONSE 0x000B REPORT 0x000C COMMIT 0x000D COMMIT-RESPONSE 0x000E TRCOMP OPER-TLV Type 0x0100-0x7FFF OPER-TLV Types using this range MUST be documented in an RFC or other permanent and readily available reference [RFC5226]. OPER-TLV Type 0x8000-0xFFFF OPER-TLV Types in this range are reserved for vendor private extensions and are the responsibility of individual vendors. IANA management of this range of the OPER-TLV Type namespace is unnecessary.
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A.3. Header Flags

The Header flag field is 32 bits long. Header flags are part of the ForCES base protocol. Header flags are allocated through an IETF consensus action [RFC5226].

A.4. TLV Type Namespace

The TLV Type namespace is 16 bits long. The following is the guideline for managing the TLV Type namespace. TLV Type 0x0000-0x01FF TLV Types in this range are allocated through an IETF consensus process [RFC5226]. Values assigned by this specification: 0x0000 Reserved 0x0001 REDIRECT-TLV 0x0010 ASResult-TLV 0x0011 ASTreason-TLV 0x1000 LFBselect-TLV 0x0110 PATH-DATA-TLV 0x0111 KEYINFO-TLV 0x0112 FULLDATA-TLV 0x0113 SPARSEDATA-TLV 0x0114 RESULT-TLV 0x0115 METADATA-TLV 0x0116 REDIRECTDATA-TLV TLV Type 0x0200-0x7FFF TLV Types using this range MUST be documented in an RFC or other permanent and readily available reference [RFC5226]. TLV Type 0x8000-0xFFFF TLV Types in this range are reserved for vendor private extensions and are the responsibility of individual vendors. IANA management of this range of the TLV Type namespace is unnecessary.
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A.5. RESULT-TLV Result Values

The RESULT-TLV RTesult Value is an 8-bit value. 0x00 E_SUCCESS 0x01 E_INVALID_HEADER 0x02 E_LENGTH_MISMATCH 0x03 E_VERSION_MISMATCH 0x04 E_INVALID_DESTINATION_PID 0x05 E_LFB_UNKNOWN 0x06 E_LFB_NOT_FOUND 0x07 E_LFB_INSTANCE_ID_NOT_FOUND 0x08 E_INVALID_PATH 0x09 E_COMPONENT_DOES_NOT_EXIST 0x0A E_EXISTS 0x0B E_NOT_FOUND 0x0C E_READ_ONLY 0x0D E_INVALID_ARRAY_CREATION 0x0E E_VALUE_OUT_OF_RANGE 0x0F E_CONTENTS_TOO_LONG 0x10 E_INVALID_PARAMETERS 0x11 E_INVALID_MESSAGE_TYPE 0x12 E_E_INVALID_FLAGS 0x13 E_INVALID_TLV 0x14 E_EVENT_ERROR 0x15 E_NOT_SUPPORTED 0x16 E_MEMORY_ERROR 0x17 E_INTERNAL_ERROR 0x18-0xFE Reserved 0xFF E_UNSPECIFIED_ERROR All values not assigned in this specification are designated as Assignment by Expert Review.

A.6. Association Setup Response

The Association Setup Response namespace is 32 bits long. The following is the guideline for managing the Association Setup Response namespace. Association Setup Response 0x0000-0x00FF Association Setup Responses in this range are allocated through an IETF consensus process [RFC5226].
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      Values assigned by this specification:

          0x0000   Success
          0x0001   FE ID Invalid
          0x0002   Permission Denied

   Association Setup Response 0x0100-0x0FFF
      Association Setup Responses in this range are Specification
      Required [RFC5226].  Values using this range MUST be documented in
      an RFC or other permanent and readily available reference
      [RFC5226].

   Association Setup Response 0x1000-0xFFFF
      Association Setup Responses in this range are reserved for vendor
      private extensions and are the responsibility of individual
      vendors.  IANA management of this range of the Association Setup
      Response namespace is unnecessary.

A.7. Association Teardown Message

The Association Teardown Message namespace is 32 bits long. The following is the guideline for managing the Association Teardown Message namespace. Association Teardown Message 0x00000000-0x0000FFFF Association Teardown Messages in this range are allocated through an IETF consensus process [RFC5226]. Values assigned by this specification: 0x00000000 Normal - teardown by administrator 0x00000001 Error - loss of heartbeats 0x00000002 Error - loss of bandwidth 0x00000003 Error - out of Memory 0x00000004 Error - application crash 0x000000FF Error - unspecified Association Teardown Message 0x00010000-0x7FFFFFFF Association Teardown Messages in this range are Specification Required [RFC5226]. Association Teardown Messages using this range MUST be documented in an RFC or other permanent and readily available references. [RFC5226]. Association Teardown Message 0x80000000-0xFFFFFFFFF Association Teardown Messages in this range are reserved for vendor private extensions and are the responsibility of individual
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      vendors.  IANA management of this range of the Association
      Teardown Message namespace is unnecessary.

Appendix B. ForCES Protocol LFB Schema

The schema described below conforms to the LFB schema described in the ForCES model [RFC5812]. Section 7.3.1 describes the details of the different components defined in this definition. <LFBLibrary xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:forces:lfbmodel:1.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" provides="FEPO"> <!-- XXX --> <dataTypeDefs> <dataTypeDef> <name>CEHBPolicyValues</name> <synopsis> The possible values of CE heartbeat policy </synopsis> <atomic> <baseType>uchar</baseType> <specialValues> <specialValue value="0"> <name>CEHBPolicy0</name> <synopsis> The CE heartbeat policy 0 </synopsis> </specialValue> <specialValue value="1"> <name>CEHBPolicy1</name> <synopsis> The CE heartbeat policy 1 </synopsis> </specialValue> </specialValues> </atomic> </dataTypeDef> <dataTypeDef> <name>FEHBPolicyValues</name> <synopsis> The possible values of FE heartbeat policy </synopsis> <atomic> <baseType>uchar</baseType> <specialValues>
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                <specialValue value="0">
                  <name>FEHBPolicy0</name>
                  <synopsis>
                       The FE heartbeat policy 0
                  </synopsis>
                </specialValue>
                <specialValue value="1">
                   <name>FEHBPolicy1</name>
                   <synopsis>
                        The FE heartbeat policy 1
                   </synopsis>
                  </specialValue>
               </specialValues>
               </atomic>
         </dataTypeDef>

         <dataTypeDef>
         <name>FERestartPolicyValues</name>
               <synopsis>
                   The possible values of FE restart policy
               </synopsis>
              <atomic>
              <baseType>uchar</baseType>
              <specialValues>
                 <specialValue value="0">
                   <name>FERestartPolicy0</name>
                   <synopsis>
                        The FE restart policy 0
                   </synopsis>
                   </specialValue>
               </specialValues>
               </atomic>
         </dataTypeDef>

         <dataTypeDef>
         <name>CEFailoverPolicyValues</name>
               <synopsis>
                   The possible values of CE failover policy
               </synopsis>
              <atomic>
              <baseType>uchar</baseType>
              <specialValues>
                <specialValue value="0">
                   <name>CEFailoverPolicy0</name>
                   <synopsis>
                        The CE failover policy 0
                   </synopsis>
                 </specialValue>
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               <specialValue value="1">
                  <name>CEFailoverPolicy1</name>
                  <synopsis>
                       The CE failover policy 1
                  </synopsis>
                </specialValue>
               </specialValues>
               </atomic>
         </dataTypeDef>

        <dataTypeDef>
           <name>FEHACapab</name>
                  <synopsis>
                      The supported HA features
                  </synopsis>
              <atomic>
              <baseType>uchar</baseType>
              <specialValues>
                 <specialValue value="0">
                   <name>GracefullRestart</name>
                   <synopsis>
                        The FE supports Graceful Restart
                   </synopsis>
                   </specialValue>
                 <specialValue value="1">
                    <name>HA</name>
                    <synopsis>
                         The FE supports HA
                    </synopsis>
                 </specialValue>
               </specialValues>
               </atomic>
         </dataTypeDef>
     </dataTypeDefs>

     <LFBClassDefs>
       <LFBClassDef LFBClassID="2">
         <name>FEPO</name>
         <synopsis>
            The FE Protocol Object
         </synopsis>
         <version>1.0</version>

     <components>
           <component componentID="1" access="read-only">
               <name>CurrentRunningVersion</name>
               <synopsis>Currently running ForCES version</synopsis>
               <typeRef>uchar</typeRef>
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             </component>
           <component componentID="2" access="read-only">
             <name>FEID</name>
             <synopsis>Unicast FEID</synopsis>
             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="3" access="read-write">
              <name>MulticastFEIDs</name>
              <synopsis>
                 the table of all multicast IDs
              </synopsis>
              <array type="variable-size">
               <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
              </array>
           </component>
           <component componentID="4" access="read-write">
             <name>CEHBPolicy</name>
             <synopsis>
              The CE Heartbeat Policy
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>CEHBPolicyValues</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="5" access="read-write">
             <name>CEHDI</name>
             <synopsis>
               The CE Heartbeat Dead Interval in millisecs
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="6" access="read-write">
             <name>FEHBPolicy</name>
             <synopsis>
               The FE Heartbeat Policy
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>FEHBPolicyValues</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="7" access="read-write">
             <name>FEHI</name>
             <synopsis>
               The FE Heartbeat Interval in millisecs
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="8" access="read-write">
             <name>CEID</name>
             <synopsis>
                The Primary CE this FE is associated with
             </synopsis>
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             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>

           <component componentID="9" access="read-write">
              <name>BackupCEs</name>
              <synopsis>
                 The table of all backup CEs other than the primary
              </synopsis>
              <array type="variable-size">
               <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
              </array>
           </component>
           <component componentID="10" access="read-write">
             <name>CEFailoverPolicy</name>
             <synopsis>
               The CE Failover Policy
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>CEFailoverPolicyValues</typeRef>
           </component>

           <component componentID="11" access="read-write">
             <name>CEFTI</name>
             <synopsis>
               The CE Failover Timeout Interval in millisecs
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="12" access="read-write">
             <name>FERestartPolicy</name>
             <synopsis>
                The FE Restart Policy
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>FERestartPolicyValues</typeRef>
           </component>
           <component componentID="13" access="read-write">
             <name>LastCEID</name>
             <synopsis>
                The Primary CE this FE was last associated with
             </synopsis>
             <typeRef>uint32</typeRef>
           </component>
         </components>

        <capabilities>
             <capability componentID="30">
                <name>SupportableVersions</name>
                <synopsis>
                   the table of ForCES versions that FE supports
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                </synopsis>
                <array type="variable-size">
                 <typeRef>uchar</typeRef>
                </array>
              </capability>
           <capability componentID="31">
              <name>HACapabilities</name>
              <synopsis>
                 the table of HA capabilities the FE supports
              </synopsis>
              <array type="variable-size">
               <typeRef>FEHACapab</typeRef>
              </array>
           </capability>
         </capabilities>

         <events baseID="61">
           <event eventID="1">
             <name>PrimaryCEDown</name>
             <synopsis>
                 The pimary CE has changed
             </synopsis>
             <eventTarget>
                 <eventField>LastCEID</eventField>
             </eventTarget>
             <eventChanged/>
             <eventReports>
                <eventReport>
                  <eventField>LastCEID</eventField>
                </eventReport>
             </eventReports>
           </event>
         </events>

       </LFBClassDef>
     </LFBClassDefs>
   </LFBLibrary>
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B.1. Capabilities

Supportable Versions enumerates all ForCES versions that an FE supports. FEHACapab enumerates the HA capabilities of the FE. If the FE is not capable of graceful restarts or HA, then it will not be able to participate in HA as described in Section 8.1.

B.2. Components

All components are explained in Section 7.3.1.
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Appendix C. Data Encoding Examples

In this section a few examples of data encoding are discussed. These example, however, do not show any padding. ========== Example 1: ========== Structure with three fixed-lengthof, mandatory fields. struct S { uint16 a uint16 b uint16 c } (a) Describing all fields using SPARSEDATA-TLV PATH-DATA-TLV Path to an instance of S ... SPARSEDATA-TLV ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a) ComponentIDof(b), lengthof(b), valueof(b) ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c) (b) Describing a subset of fields PATH-DATA-TLV Path to an instance of S ... SPARSEDATA-TLV ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a) ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c) Note: Even though there are non-optional components in structure S, since one can uniquely identify components, one can selectively send components of structure S (e.g., in the case of an update from CE to FE). (c) Describing all fields using a FULLDATA-TLV PATH-DATA-TLV Path to an instance of S ... FULLDATA-TLV valueof(a) valueof(b) valueof(c)
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   ==========
   Example 2:
   ==========

   Structure with three fixed-lengthof fields, one mandatory, two
   optional.

           struct T {
           uint16 a
           uint16 b (optional)
           uint16 c (optional)
           }

   This example is identical to example 1, as illustrated below.

   (a) Describing all fields using SPARSEDATA-TLV

           PATH-DATA-TLV
             Path to an instance of S ...
             SPARSEDATA-TLV
               ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
               ComponentIDof(b), lengthof(b), valueof(b)
               ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c)

   (b) Describing a subset of fields using SPARSEDATA-TLV

           PATH-DATA-TLV
             Path to an instance of S ...
             SPARSEDATA-TLV
               ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
               ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c)

   (c) Describing all fields using a FULLDATA-TLV

           PATH-DATA-TLV
             Path to an instance of S ...
             FULLDATA-TLV
               valueof(a)
               valueof(b)
               valueof(c)

   Note: FULLDATA-TLV _cannot_ be used unless all fields are being
   described.
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   ==========
   Example 3:
   ==========

   Structure with a mix of fixed-lengthof and variable-lengthof fields,
   some mandatory, some optional.  Note in this case, b is variable
   sized.

           struct U {
           uint16 a
           string b (optional)
           uint16 c (optional)
           }

   (a) Describing all fields using SPARSEDATA-TLV

           Path to an instance of U ...
           SPARSEDATA-TLV
             ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
             ComponentIDof(b), lengthof(b), valueof(b)
             ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c)

   (b) Describing a subset of fields using SPARSEDATA-TLV

           Path to an instance of U ...
           SPARSEDATA-TLV
             ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
             ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c)

   (c) Describing all fields using FULLDATA-TLV

           Path to an instance of U ...
             FULLDATA-TLV
               valueof(a)
               FULLDATA-TLV
                 valueof(b)
               valueof(c)

   Note: The variable-length field requires the addition of a FULLDATA-
   TLV within the outer FULLDATA-TLV as in the case of component b
   above.
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   ==========
   Example 4:
   ==========

   Structure containing an array of another structure type.

           struct V {
           uint32 x
           uint32 y
           struct U z[]
           }

   (a) Encoding using SPARSEDATA-TLV, with two instances of z[], also
   described with SPARSEDATA-TLV, assuming only the 10th and 15th
   subscripts of z[] are encoded.

        path to instance of V ...
        SPARSEDATA-TLV
         ComponentIDof(x), lengthof(x), valueof(x)
         ComponentIDof(y), lengthof(y), valueof(y)
         ComponentIDof(z), lengthof(all below)
           ComponentID = 10 (i.e index 10 from z[]), lengthof(all below)
               ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
               ComponentIDof(b), lengthof(b), valueof(b)
           ComponentID = 15 (index 15 from z[]), lengthof(all below)
               ComponentIDof(a), lengthof(a), valueof(a)
               ComponentIDof(c), lengthof(c), valueof(c)

   Note the holes in the components of z (10 followed by 15).  Also note
   the gap in index 15 with only components a and c appearing but not b.
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Appendix D. Use Cases

Assume LFB with the following components for the following use cases. foo1, type u32, ID = 1 foo2, type u32, ID = 2 table1: type array, ID = 3 components are: t1, type u32, ID = 1 t2, type u32, ID = 2 // index into table2 KEY: nhkey, ID = 1, V = t2 table2: type array, ID = 4 components are: j1, type u32, ID = 1 j2, type u32, ID = 2 KEY: akey, ID = 1, V = { j1,j2 } table3: type array, ID = 5 components are: someid, type u32, ID = 1 name, type string variable sized, ID = 2 table4: type array, ID = 6 components are: j1, type u32, ID = 1 j2, type u32, ID = 2 j3, type u32, ID = 3 j4, type u32, ID = 4 KEY: mykey, ID = 1, V = { j1} table5: type array, ID = 7 components are: p1, type u32, ID = 1 p2, type array, ID = 2, array components of type-X Type-X: x1, ID 1, type u32 x2, ID2 , type u32 KEY: tkey, ID = 1, V = { x1} All examples will use valueof(x) to indicate the value of the referenced component x. In the case where F_SEL** are missing (bits equal to 00) then the flags will not show any selection.
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 108
   All the examples only show use of FULLDATA-TLV for data encoding;
   although SPARSEDATA-TLV would make more sense in certain occasions,
   the emphasis is on showing the message layout.  Refer to Appendix C
   for examples that show usage of both FULLDATA-TLV and SPARSEDATA-TLV.

   1.   To get foo1

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV: IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
   Result:
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags=0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV L = 4+4, V =  valueof(foo1)

   2.   To set foo2 to 10

   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0,  IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L = 4+4, V=10

   Result:
   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0,  IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV

   3.   To dump table2

      OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
      Result:
      OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L = XXX, V=
                        a series of: index, valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                        representing the entire table

        Note:   One should be able to take a GET-RESPONSE-TLV and
           convert it to a SET-TLV.  If the result in the above example
           is sent back in a SET-TLV (instead of a GET-RESPONSE_TLV),
           then the entire contents of the table will be replaced at
           that point.
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 109
   4.   Multiple operations example.  To create entry 0-5 of table2
        (Error conditions are ignored)

   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0 , IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 0
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 1
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 2
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 3
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                     flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
                     FULLDATA-TLV valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of entry 5

   Result:
   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0 , IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                       RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                       RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                       RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                       RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                       RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
                       RESULT-TLV
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 110
   5.   Block operations (with holes) example.  Replace entry 0,2 of
        table2.

   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                flags =  0 , IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                   FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of 0
                PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2) of 2

   Result:
   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                flags =  0 , IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                PATH-DATA-TLV
                    flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                    RESULT-TLV
                PATH-DATA-TLV
                    flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                    RESULT-TLV

   6.   Getting rows example.  Get first entry of table2.

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   IDCount = 2, IDs = 4.0

   Result:
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   IDCount = 2, IDs = 4.0
                    FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 111
   7.   Get entry 0-5 of table2.

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5

   Result:
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 0
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                       flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
                       FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 112
   8.   Create a row in table2, index 5.

   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                flags = 0, IDCount = 2, IDs = 4.5
                FULLDATA-TLV containing valueof(j1), valueof(j2)

   Result:
   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 4.5
                RESULT-TLV

   9.   Dump contents of table1.

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3

   Result:
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX
                           (depending on size of table1)
                           index, valueof(t1),valueof(t2)
                           index, valueof(t1),valueof(t2)
                           .
                           .
                           .
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 113
   10.  Using keys.  Get row entry from table4 where j1=100.  Recall, j1
        is a defined key for this table and its KeyID is 1.

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = F_SELKEY  IDCount = 1, IDs = 6
                   KEYINFO-TLV = KeyID=1, KEY_DATA=100

   Result:
   If j1=100 was at index 10
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 6.10
                   FULLDATA-TLV containing
                     valueof(j1), valueof(j2),valueof(j3),valueof(j4)

   11.  Delete row with KEY match (j1=100, j2=200) in table2.  Note that
        the j1,j2 pair is a defined key for the table2.


   OPER = DEL-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = F_SELKEY  IDCount = 1, IDs = 4
                   KEYINFO-TLV:  {KeyID =1 KEY_DATA=100,200}

   Result:
   If (j1=100, j2=200) was at entry 15:
   OPER = DELETE-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 2, IDs = 4.15
                   RESULT-TLV
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 114
   12.  Dump contents of table3.  It should be noted that this table has
        a column with a component name that is variable sized.  The
        purpose of this use case is to show how such a component is to
        be encoded.

   OPER = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                flags = 0 IDCount = 1, IDs = 5

   Result:
   OPER = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
       PATH-DATA-TLV:
          flags = 0  IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
              FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX
               index, someidv, TLV: T=FULLDATA-TLV, L = 4+strlen(namev),
                      V = valueof(v)
               index, someidv, TLV: T=FULLDATA-TLV, L = 4+strlen(namev),
                      V = valueof(v)
               index, someidv, TLV: T=FULLDATA-TLV, L = 4+strlen(namev),
                      V = valueof(v)
               index, someidv, TLV: T=FULLDATA-TLV, L = 4+strlen(namev),
                      V = valueof(v)
                  .
                  .
                  .
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 115
   13.  Multiple atomic operations.

        Note 1:   This emulates adding a new nexthop entry and then
           atomically updating the L3 entries pointing to an old NH to
           point to a new one.  The assumption is that both tables are
           in the same LFB.

        Note:   Observe the two operations on the LFB instance; both are
           SET operations.

   //Operation 1: Add a new entry to table2 index #20.
   OPER = SET-TLV
           Path-TLV:
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 2,  IDs = 4.20
                   FULLDATA-TLV, V= valueof(j1),valueof(j2)

   // Operation 2: Update table1 entry which
   // was pointing with t2 = 10 to now point to 20
   OPER = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV:
                   flags = F_SELKEY, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   KEYINFO-TLV = KeyID=1 KEY_DATA=10
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0  IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                           FULLDATA-TLV, V= 20

   Result:
   //first operation, SET
   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0 IDCount = 3, IDs = 4.20
                   RESULT-TLV code = success
                           FULLDATA-TLV, V = valueof(j1),valueof(j2)
   // second operation SET - assuming entry 16 was updated
   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0 IDCount = 2, IDs = 3.16
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0  IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                           RESULT-TLV code = success
                                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX v=20
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 116
   14.  Selective setting.  On table4 -- for indices 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9.
        Replace j1 to 100, j2 to 200, j3 to 300.  Leave j4 as is.

   PER = SET-TLV
       PATH-DATA-TLV
           flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 6
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {100}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {200}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {300}
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {100}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {200}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {300}
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 117
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {100}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {200}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {300}
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 7
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {100}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {200}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {300}
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 9
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {100}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {200}
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   FULLDATA-TLV, Length = XXXX, V = {300}

   response:

   OPER = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
       PATH-DATA-TLV
           flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 6
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 118
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 5
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 7
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
               flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 9
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 1
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 2
                   RESULT-TLV
               PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs = 3
                   RESULT-TLV
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 119
   15.  Manipulation of table of table examples.  Get x1 from table10
        row with index 4, inside table5 entry 10.

   operation = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 5, IDs=7.10.2.4.1

   Results:
   operation = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 5, IDs=7.10.2.4.1
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX, V = valueof(x1)

   16.  From table5's row 10 table10, get X2s based on the value of x1
        equaling 10 (recall x1 is KeyID 1).

   operation = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flag = F_SELKEY, IDCount=3, IDS = 7.10.2
                   KEYINFO-TLV, KeyID = 1, KEYDATA = 10
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           IDCount = 1, IDS = 2 //select x2

   Results:
   If x1=10 was at entry 11:
   operation = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flag = 0, IDCount=5, IDS = 7.10.2.11
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0  IDCount = 1, IDS = 2
                           FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX, V = valueof(x2)

   17.  Further example of manipulating a table of tables

   Consider table6, which is defined as:
   table6: type array, ID = 8
           components are:
           p1, type u32, ID = 1
           p2, type array, ID = 2, array components of type type-A

   type-A:
           a1, type u32, ID 1,
           a2, type array ID2 ,array components of type type-B

   type-B:
           b1, type u32, ID 1
           b2, type u32, ID 2
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 120
   If for example one wanted to set by replacing:
   table6.10.p1 to 111
   table6.10.p2.20.a1 to 222
   table6.10.p2.20.a2.30.b1 to 333

   in one message and one operation.

   There are two ways to do this:
      a) using nesting
      b) using a flat path data

   A. Method using nesting
      in one message with a single operation

   operation = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 2, IDs=6.10
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs=1
                           FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                                   V = {111}
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0  IDCount = 2, IDs=2.20
                           PATH-DATA-TLV
                                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs=1
                                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                                           V = {222}
                           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                                   flags = 0, IDCount = 3, IDs=2.30.1
                                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                                           V = {333}
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 121
   Result:
   operation = SET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 2, IDs=6.10
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs=1
                           RESULT-TLV
                   PATH-DATA-TLV
                           flags = 0  IDCount = 2, IDs=2.20
                           PATH-DATA-TLV
                                   flags = 0, IDCount = 1, IDs=1
                                   RESULT-TLV
                           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                                   flags = 0, IDCount = 3, IDs=2.30.1
                                   RESULT-TLV

   B. Method using a flat path data in
      one message with a single operation

   operation = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 3, IDs=6.10.1
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                           V = {111}
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 5, IDs=6.10.1.20.1
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                           V = {222}
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 7, IDs=6.10.1.20.1.30.1
                   FULLDATA-TLV: L=XXXX,
                           V = {333}
   Result:
   operation = SET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 3, IDs=6.10.1
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 5, IDs=6.10.1.20.1
                   RESULT-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV :
                   flags = 0, IDCount = 7, IDs=6.10.1.20.1.30.1
                   RESULT-TLV
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 122
   18.  Get a whole LFB (all its components, etc.).

        For example:   At startup a CE might well want the entire FE
           Object LFB.  So, in a request targeted at class 1, instance
           1, one might find:

   operation = GET-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 0

   result:
   operation = GET-RESPONSE-TLV
           PATH-DATA-TLV
                   flags = 0  IDCount = 0
                   FULLDATA-TLV encoding of the FE Object LFB
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 123

Authors' Addresses

Avri Doria (editor) Lulea University of Technology Rainbow Way Lulea SE-971 87 Sweden Phone: +46 73 277 1788 EMail: avri@ltu.se Jamal Hadi Salim (editor) Znyx Ottawa, Ontario Canada Phone: EMail: hadi@mojatatu.com Robert Haas (editor) IBM Saumerstrasse 4 8803 Ruschlikon Switzerland Phone: EMail: rha@zurich.ibm.com Hormuzd M Khosravi (editor) Intel 2111 NE 25th Avenue Hillsboro, OR 97124 USA Phone: +1 503 264 0334 EMail: hormuzd.m.khosravi@intel.com
Top   ToC   RFC5810 - Page 124
   Weiming Wang  (editor)
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18, Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R. China

   Phone: +86-571-28877721
   EMail: wmwang@zjgsu.edu.cn


   Ligang Dong
   Zhejiang Gongshang University
   18, Xuezheng Str., Xiasha University Town
   Hangzhou  310018
   P.R. China

   Phone: +86-571-28877751
   EMail: donglg@zjgsu.edu.cn


   Ram Gopal
   Nokia
   5, Wayside Road
   Burlington, MA  310035
   USA

   Phone: +1-781-993-3685
   EMail: ram.gopal@nsn.com


   Joel Halpern
   P.O. Box 6049
   Leesburg, VA  20178
   USA

   Phone: +1-703-371-3043
   EMail: jmh@joelhalpern.com