Network Working Group J. Rosenberg Request for Comments: 5079 Cisco Category: Standards Track December 2007 Rejecting Anonymous Requests in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited.
AbstractThe Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) allows for users to make anonymous calls. However, users receiving such calls have the right to reject them because they are anonymous. SIP has no way to indicate to the caller that the reason for call rejection was that the call was anonymous. Such an indication is useful to allow the call to be retried without anonymity. This specification defines a new SIP response code for this purpose. 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Server Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. UAC Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. 433 (Anonymity Disallowed) Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
RFC3261] allows for users to make anonymous calls. In RFC 3261, this is done by including a From header field whose display name has the value of "Anonymous". Greater levels of anonymity were subsequently defined in [RFC3323], which introduces the Privacy header field. The Privacy header field allows a requesting User Agent (UA) to ask for various levels of anonymity, including user level anonymity, header level anonymity, and session level anonymity. [RFC3325] additionally defined the P-Asserted-Identity header field, used to contain an asserted identity. RFC 3325 also defined the 'id' value for the Privacy header field, which is used to request the network to remove the P-Asserted-Identity header field. Though users need to be able to make anonymous calls, users that receive such calls retain the right to reject the call because it is anonymous. SIP does not provide a response code that allows the User Agent Server (UAS), or a proxy acting on its behalf, to explicitly indicate that the request was rejected because it was anonymous. The closest response code is 403 (Forbidden), which doesn't convey a specific reason. While it is possible to include a reason phrase in a 403 response that indicates to the human user that the call was rejected because it was anonymous, that reason phrase is not useful for automata and cannot be interpreted by callers that speak a different language. An indication that can be understood by an automaton would allow for programmatic handling, including user interface prompts, or conversion to equivalent error codes in the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) when the client is a gateway. To remedy this, this specification defines the 433 (Anonymity Disallowed) response code. RFC2119].
RFC 3261 explicitly calls out the usage of the display name as a way to declare anonymity. o The request contained a Privacy header field whose value indicates that the user wishes its identity withheld. Values meeting this criteria are 'id' [RFC3325] or 'user'. o The From header field contains a URI that has an explicit indication that it is anonymous. One such example of a mechanism that would meet this criteria is [coexistence]. This criteria is true even if the request has a validated Identity header field [RFC4474], which can be used in concert with anonymized From header fields. Lack of a network-asserted identity (such as the P-Asserted-Identity header field), in and of itself, SHOULD NOT be considered an indication of anonymity. Even though a Privacy header field value of 'id' will cause the removal of a network-asserted identity, there is no way to differentiate this case from one in which a network- asserted identity was not supported by the originating domain. As a consequence, a request without a network-asserted identity is considered anonymous only when there is some other indication of this, such as a From header field with a display name of 'Anonymous'. In addition, requests where the identity of the requestor cannot be determined or validated, but it is not a consequence of an explicit action on the part of the requestor, are not considered anonymous. For example, if a request contains a non-anonymous From header field, along with the Identity and Identity-Info header fields [RFC4474],
but the certificate could not be obtained from the reference in the Identity-Info header field, it is not considered an anonymous request, and the 433 response code SHOULD NOT be used. RFC5057]. A UAC that does not understand or care about the specific semantics of the 433 response will treat it as a 400 response. RFC 3261. RFC Number: RFC 5079 Response Code Number: 433 Default Reason Phrase: Anonymity Disallowed
sipping-spam] for a discussion of the problem. When anonymity services are being provided as a consequence of an anonymizer function acting as a back-to-back user agent (B2BUA) [RFC3323], and the anonymizer receives a 433 response, the anonymizer MUST NOT retry the request without anonymization unless it has been explicitly configured by the user to do so. In essence, the same rules that apply to a UA in processing of a 433 response apply to a network-based anonymization function, and for the same reasons. tispan-req], and has benefited from the concepts in [hautakorpi]. Thanks to Keith Drage, Paul Kyzivat, and John Elwell for their reviews of this document.
[RFC3261] Rosenberg, J., Schulzrinne, H., Camarillo, G., Johnston, A., Peterson, J., Sparks, R., Handley, M., and E. Schooler, "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 3261, June 2002. [RFC3323] Peterson, J., "A Privacy Mechanism for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 3323, November 2002. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC4474] Peterson, J. and C. Jennings, "Enhancements for Authenticated Identity Management in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)", RFC 4474, August 2006. [RFC3325] Jennings, C., Peterson, J., and M. Watson, "Private Extensions to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Asserted Identity within Trusted Networks", RFC 3325, November 2002. [coexistence] Rosenberg, J., "Coexistence of P-Asserted-ID and SIP Identity", Work in Progress, June 2006. [tispan-req] Jesske, R., "Input Requirements for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) in support for the European Telecommunications Standards Institute", Work in Progress, July 2007. [hautakorpi] Hautakorpi, J. and G. Camarillo, "Extending the Session Initiation Protocol Reason Header with Warning Codes", Work in Progress, October 2005. [RFC5057] Sparks, R., "Multiple Dialog Usages in the Session Initiation Protocol", RFC in 5057, November 2007. [sipping-spam] Jennings, C. and J. Rosenberg, "The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Spam", Work in Progress, August 2007.
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