Network Working Group T. Bates Request for Comments: 4760 Cisco Systems Obsoletes: 2858 R. Chandra Category: Standards Track Sonoa Systems D. Katz Y. Rekhter Juniper Networks January 2007 Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4 Status of This Memo This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for improvements. Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
AbstractThis document defines extensions to BGP-4 to enable it to carry routing information for multiple Network Layer protocols (e.g., IPv6, IPX, L3VPN, etc.). The extensions are backward compatible - a router that supports the extensions can interoperate with a router that doesn't support the extensions.
BGP-4] that are IPv4 specific are (a) the NEXT_HOP attribute (expressed as an IPv4 address), (b) AGGREGATOR (contains an IPv4 address), and (c) NLRI (expressed as IPv4 address prefixes). This document assumes that any BGP speaker (including the one that supports multiprotocol capabilities defined in this document) has to have an IPv4 address (which will be used, among other things, in the AGGREGATOR attribute). Therefore, to enable BGP-4 to support routing for multiple Network Layer protocols, the only two things that have to be added to BGP-4 are (a) the ability to associate a particular Network Layer protocol with the next hop information, and (b) the ability to associate a particular Network Layer protocol with NLRI. To identify individual Network Layer protocols associated with the next hop information and semantics of NLRI, this document uses a combination of Address Family, as defined in [IANA-AF], and Subsequent Address Family (as described in this document). One could further observe that the next hop information (the information provided by the NEXT_HOP attribute) is meaningful (and necessary) only in conjunction with the advertisements of reachable destinations - in conjunction with the advertisements of unreachable destinations (withdrawing routes from service), the next hop information is meaningless. This suggests that the advertisement of reachable destinations should be grouped with the advertisement of the next hop to be used for these destinations, and that the advertisement of reachable destinations should be segregated from the advertisement of unreachable destinations. To provide backward compatibility, as well as to simplify introduction of the multiprotocol capabilities into BGP-4, this document uses two new attributes, Multiprotocol Reachable NLRI (MP_REACH_NLRI) and Multiprotocol Unreachable NLRI (MP_UNREACH_NLRI). The first one (MP_REACH_NLRI) is used to carry the set of reachable destinations together with the next hop information to be used for forwarding to these destinations. The second one (MP_UNREACH_NLRI) is used to carry the set of unreachable destinations. Both of these attributes are optional and non-transitive. This way, a BGP speaker that doesn't support the multiprotocol capabilities will just ignore the information carried in these attributes and will not pass it to other BGP speakers. RFC2119].
Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI): This field in combination with the Address Family Identifier field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols to which the address carried in the Next Hop must belong, the way in which the address of the next hop is encoded, and the semantics of the Network Layer Reachability Information that follows. If the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than one Network Layer protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST provide a way to determine its Network Layer protocol. Length of Next Hop Network Address: A 1-octet field whose value expresses the length of the "Network Address of Next Hop" field, measured in octets. Network Address of Next Hop: A variable-length field that contains the Network Address of the next router on the path to the destination system. The Network Layer protocol associated with the Network Address of the Next Hop is identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI> carried in the attribute. Reserved: A 1 octet field that MUST be set to 0, and SHOULD be ignored upon receipt. Network Layer Reachability Information (NLRI): A variable length field that lists NLRI for the feasible routes that are being advertised in this attribute. The semantics of NLRI is identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI> carried in the attribute. When the Subsequent Address Family Identifier field is set to one of the values defined in this document, each NLRI is encoded as specified in the "NLRI encoding" section of this document. The next hop information carried in the MP_REACH_NLRI path attribute defines the Network Layer address of the router that SHOULD be used as the next hop to the destinations listed in the MP_NLRI attribute in the UPDATE message.
The rules for the next hop information are the same as the rules for the information carried in the NEXT_HOP BGP attribute (see Section 5.1.3 of [BGP-4]). An UPDATE message that carries the MP_REACH_NLRI MUST also carry the ORIGIN and the AS_PATH attributes (both in EBGP and in IBGP exchanges). Moreover, in IBGP exchanges such a message MUST also carry the LOCAL_PREF attribute. An UPDATE message that carries no NLRI, other than the one encoded in the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute, SHOULD NOT carry the NEXT_HOP attribute. If such a message contains the NEXT_HOP attribute, the BGP speaker that receives the message SHOULD ignore this attribute. An UPDATE message SHOULD NOT include the same address prefix (of the same <AFI, SAFI>) in more than one of the following fields: WITHDRAWN ROUTES field, Network Reachability Information fields, MP_REACH_NLRI field, and MP_UNREACH_NLRI field. The processing of an UPDATE message in this form is undefined.
Presently defined values for the Address Family Identifier field are specified in the IANA's Address Family Numbers registry [IANA-AF]. Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI): This field in combination with the Address Family Identifier field identifies the set of Network Layer protocols to which the address carried in the Next Hop must belong, the way in which the address of the next hop is encoded, and the semantics of the Network Layer Reachability Information that follows. If the Next Hop is allowed to be from more than one Network Layer protocol, the encoding of the Next Hop MUST provide a way to determine its Network Layer protocol. Withdrawn Routes Network Layer Reachability Information: A variable-length field that lists NLRI for the routes that are being withdrawn from service. The semantics of NLRI is identified by a combination of <AFI, SAFI> carried in the attribute. When the Subsequent Address Family Identifier field is set to one of the values defined in this document, each NLRI is encoded as specified in the "NLRI encoding" section of this document. An UPDATE message that contains the MP_UNREACH_NLRI is not required to carry any other path attributes.
BGP-CAP] to determine whether the speaker could use Multiprotocol Extensions with a particular peer. The fields in the Capabilities Optional Parameter are set as follows. The Capability Code field is set to 1 (which indicates Multiprotocol Extensions capabilities). The Capability Length field is set to 4. The Capability Value field is defined as: 0 7 15 23 31 +-------+-------+-------+-------+ | AFI | Res. | SAFI | +-------+-------+-------+-------+ The use and meaning of this field is as follow: AFI - Address Family Identifier (16 bit), encoded the same way as in the Multiprotocol Extensions Res. - Reserved (8 bit) field. SHOULD be set to 0 by the sender and ignored by the receiver. Note that not setting the field value to 0 may create issues for a receiver not ignoring the field. In addition, this definition is problematic if it is ever attempted to redefine the field.
SAFI - Subsequent Address Family Identifier (8 bit), encoded the same way as in the Multiprotocol Extensions. A speaker that supports multiple <AFI, SAFI> tuples includes them as multiple Capabilities in the Capabilities Optional Parameter. To have a bi-directional exchange of routing information for a particular <AFI, SAFI> between a pair of BGP speakers, each such speaker MUST advertise to the other (via the Capability Advertisement mechanism) the capability to support that particular <AFI, SAFI> route. RFC 2858 for a use that was never fully implemented, so it is deprecated by this document. - SAFI values 5 through 63 are to be assigned by IANA using either the Standards Action process, defined in [RFC2434], or the Early IANA Allocation process, defined in [RFC4020]. - SAFI values 67 through 127 are to be assigned by IANA, using the "First Come First Served" policy, defined in RFC 2434. - SAFI values 0 and 255 are reserved. - SAFI values 128 through 240 are part of the previous "private use" range. At the time of approval of this document, the unused values were provided to IANA by the Routing Area Director. These unused values, namely, 130, 131, 135 through 139, and 141 through 240, are considered reserved in order to avoid conflicts. - SAFI values 241 through 254 are for "private use", and values in this range are not to be assigned by IANA.
RFC 2858 SAFI values 128 through 240 were part of the "private use" range. This document specifies that of this range, allocations that are currently in use are to be recognized by IANA, and that unused values, namely 130, 131, 135 through 139, and 141 through 240, should be considered reserved. This document renames the Number of SNPAs field to Reserved and removes the rest of the SNPA-related information from the MP_REACH_NLRI attribute.
[BGP-CAP] Chandra, R. and J. Scudder, "Capabilities Advertisement with BGP-4", RFC 3392, November 2002. [BGP-4] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and S. Hares, "A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006. [IANA-AF] "Address Family Numbers", Reachable from http://www.iana.org/numbers.html [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC2434] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998. [RFC4020] Kompella, K. and A. Zinin, "Early IANA Allocation of Standards Track Code Points", BCP 100, RFC 4020, February 2005.
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