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RFC 4346

The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.1

Pages: 87
Obsoletes:  2246
Obsoleted by:  5246
Updated by:  43664680468157466176746575077919
Part 1 of 4 – Pages 1 to 14
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Network Working Group                                          T. Dierks
Request for Comments: 4346                                   Independent
Obsoletes: 2246                                              E. Rescorla
Category: Standards Track                                     RTFM, Inc.
                                                              April 2006


              The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
                              Version 1.1

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

This document specifies Version 1.1 of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. The TLS protocol provides communications security over the Internet. The protocol allows client/server applications to communicate in a way that is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, or message forgery.
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Table of Contents

1. Introduction ....................................................4 1.1. Differences from TLS 1.0 ...................................5 1.2. Requirements Terminology ...................................5 2. Goals ...........................................................5 3. Goals of This Document ..........................................6 4. Presentation Language ...........................................6 4.1. Basic Block Size ...........................................7 4.2. Miscellaneous ..............................................7 4.3. Vectors ....................................................7 4.4. Numbers ....................................................8 4.5. Enumerateds ................................................8 4.6. Constructed Types ..........................................9 4.6.1. Variants ...........................................10 4.7. Cryptographic Attributes ..................................11 4.8. Constants .................................................12 5. HMAC and the Pseudorandom Function .............................12 6. The TLS Record Protocol ........................................14 6.1. Connection States .........................................15 6.2. Record layer ..............................................17 6.2.1. Fragmentation ......................................17 6.2.2. Record Compression and Decompression ...............19 6.2.3. Record Payload Protection ..........................19 6.2.3.1. Null or Standard Stream Cipher ............20 6.2.3.2. CBC Block Cipher ..........................21 6.3. Key Calculation ...........................................24 7. The TLS Handshaking Protocols ..................................24 7.1. Change Cipher Spec Protocol ...............................25 7.2. Alert Protocol ............................................26 7.2.1. Closure Alerts .....................................27 7.2.2. Error Alerts .......................................28 7.3. Handshake Protocol Overview ...............................31 7.4. Handshake Protocol ........................................34 7.4.1. Hello Messages .....................................35 7.4.1.1. Hello request .............................35 7.4.1.2. Client Hello ..............................36 7.4.1.3. Server Hello ..............................39 7.4.2. Server Certificate .................................40 7.4.3. Server Key Exchange Message ........................42 7.4.4. Certificate request ................................44 7.4.5. Server Hello Done ..................................46 7.4.6. Client certificate .................................46 7.4.7. Client Key Exchange Message ........................47 7.4.7.1. RSA Encrypted Premaster Secret Message ....47 7.4.7.2. Client Diffie-Hellman Public Value ........50 7.4.8. Certificate verify .................................50 7.4.9. Finished ...........................................51
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   8. Cryptographic Computations .....................................52
      8.1. Computing the Master Secret ...............................52
           8.1.1. RSA ................................................53
           8.1.2. Diffie-Hellman .....................................53
   9. Mandatory Cipher Suites ........................................53
   10. Application Data Protocol .....................................53
   11. Security Considerations .......................................53
   12. IANA Considerations ...........................................54
   Appendix A. Protocol constant values ............................55
           A.1. Record layer .........................................55
           A.2. Change cipher specs message ..........................56
           A.3. Alert messages .......................................56
           A.4. Handshake protocol ...................................57
           A.4.1. Hello messages .....................................57
           A.4.2. Server authentication and key exchange messages ....58
           A.4.3. Client authentication and key exchange messages ....59
           A.4.4. Handshake finalization message .....................60
           A.5. The CipherSuite ......................................60
           A.6. The Security Parameters ..............................63
   Appendix B. Glossary ..............................................64
   Appendix C. CipherSuite definitions ...............................68
   Appendix D. Implementation Notes ..................................69
           D.1 Random Number Generation and Seeding ..................70
           D.2 Certificates and authentication .......................70
           D.3 CipherSuites ..........................................70
   Appendix E. Backward Compatibility With SSL .......................71
           E.1. Version 2 client hello ...............................72
           E.2. Avoiding man-in-the-middle version rollback ..........74
   Appendix F. Security analysis .....................................74
           F.1. Handshake protocol ...................................74
           F.1.1. Authentication and key exchange ....................74
           F.1.1.1. Anonymous key exchange ...........................75
           F.1.1.2. RSA key exchange and authentication ..............75
           F.1.1.3. Diffie-Hellman key exchange with authentication ..76
           F.1.2. Version rollback attacks ...........................77
           F.1.3. Detecting attacks against the handshake protocol ...77
           F.1.4. Resuming sessions ..................................78
           F.1.5. MD5 and SHA ........................................78
           F.2. Protecting application data ..........................78
           F.3. Explicit IVs .........................................79
           F.4  Security of Composite Cipher Modes ...................79
           F.5  Denial of Service ....................................80
           F.6. Final notes ..........................................80
   Normative References ..............................................81
   Informative References ............................................82
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1. Introduction

The primary goal of the TLS Protocol is to provide privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications. The protocol is composed of two layers: the TLS Record Protocol and the TLS Handshake Protocol. At the lowest level, layered on top of some reliable transport protocol (e.g., TCP[TCP]), is the TLS Record Protocol. The TLS Record Protocol provides connection security that has two basic properties: - The connection is private. Symmetric cryptography is used for data encryption (e.g., DES [DES], RC4 [SCH] etc.). The keys for this symmetric encryption are generated uniquely for each connection and are based on a secret negotiated by another protocol (such as the TLS Handshake Protocol). The Record Protocol can also be used without encryption. - The connection is reliable. Message transport includes a message integrity check using a keyed MAC. Secure hash functions (e.g., SHA, MD5, etc.) are used for MAC computations. The Record Protocol can operate without a MAC, but is generally only used in this mode while another protocol is using the Record Protocol as a transport for negotiating security parameters. The TLS Record Protocol is used for encapsulation of various higher- level protocols. One such encapsulated protocol, the TLS Handshake Protocol, allows the server and client to authenticate each other and to negotiate an encryption algorithm and cryptographic keys before the application protocol transmits or receives its first byte of data. The TLS Handshake Protocol provides connection security that has three basic properties: - The peer's identity can be authenticated using asymmetric, or public key, cryptography (e.g., RSA [RSA], DSS [DSS], etc.). This authentication can be made optional, but is generally required for at least one of the peers. - The negotiation of a shared secret is secure: the negotiated secret is unavailable to eavesdroppers, and for any authenticated connection the secret cannot be obtained, even by an attacker who can place himself in the middle of the connection. - The negotiation is reliable: no attacker can modify the negotiation communication without being detected by the parties to the communication. One advantage of TLS is that it is application protocol independent. Higher level protocols can layer on top of the TLS Protocol
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   transparently.  The TLS standard, however, does not specify how
   protocols add security with TLS; the decisions on how to initiate TLS
   handshaking and how to interpret the authentication certificates
   exchanged are left to the judgment of the designers and implementors
   of protocols that run on top of TLS.

1.1. Differences from TLS 1.0

This document is a revision of the TLS 1.0 [TLS1.0] protocol, and contains some small security improvements, clarifications, and editorial improvements. The major changes are: - The implicit Initialization Vector (IV) is replaced with an explicit IV to protect against CBC attacks [CBCATT]. - Handling of padding errors is changed to use the bad_record_mac alert rather than the decryption_failed alert to protect against CBC attacks. - IANA registries are defined for protocol parameters. - Premature closes no longer cause a session to be nonresumable. - Additional informational notes were added for various new attacks on TLS. In addition, a number of minor clarifications and editorial improvements were made.

1.2. Requirements Terminology

In this document, the keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT" and "MAY" are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [REQ].

2. Goals

The goals of TLS Protocol, in order of their priority, are as follows: 1. Cryptographic security: TLS should be used to establish a secure connection between two parties. 2. Interoperability: Independent programmers should be able to develop applications utilizing TLS that can successfully exchange cryptographic parameters without knowledge of one another's code.
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   3. Extensibility: TLS seeks to provide a framework into which new
      public key and bulk encryption methods can be incorporated as
      necessary.  This will also accomplish two sub-goals: preventing
      the need to create a new protocol (and risking the introduction of
      possible new weaknesses) and avoiding the need to implement an
      entire new security library.

   4. Relative efficiency: Cryptographic operations tend to be highly
      CPU intensive, particularly public key operations.  For this
      reason, the TLS protocol has incorporated an optional session
      caching scheme to reduce the number of connections that need to be
      established from scratch.  Additionally, care has been taken to
      reduce network activity.

3. Goals of This Document

This document and the TLS protocol itself are based on the SSL 3.0 Protocol Specification as published by Netscape. The differences between this protocol and SSL 3.0 are not dramatic, but they are significant enough that TLS 1.1, TLS 1.0, and SSL 3.0 do not interoperate (although each protocol incorporates a mechanism by which an implementation can back down prior versions). This document is intended primarily for readers who will be implementing the protocol and for those doing cryptographic analysis of it. The specification has been written with this in mind, and it is intended to reflect the needs of those two groups. For that reason, many of the algorithm-dependent data structures and rules are included in the body of the text (as opposed to in an appendix), providing easier access to them. This document is not intended to supply any details of service definition or of interface definition, although it does cover select areas of policy as they are required for the maintenance of solid security.

4. Presentation Language

This document deals with the formatting of data in an external representation. The following very basic and somewhat casually defined presentation syntax will be used. The syntax draws from several sources in its structure. Although it resembles the programming language "C" in its syntax and XDR [XDR] in both its syntax and intent, it would be risky to draw too many parallels. The purpose of this presentation language is to document TLS only; it has no general application beyond that particular goal.
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4.1. Basic Block Size

The representation of all data items is explicitly specified. The basic data block size is one byte (i.e., 8 bits). Multiple byte data items are concatenations of bytes, from left to right, from top to bottom. From the bytestream, a multi-byte item (a numeric in the example) is formed (using C notation) by: value = (byte[0] << 8*(n-1)) | (byte[1] << 8*(n-2)) | ... | byte[n-1]; This byte ordering for multi-byte values is the commonplace network byte order or big endian format.

4.2. Miscellaneous

Comments begin with "/*" and end with "*/". Optional components are denoted by enclosing them in "[[ ]]" double brackets. Single-byte entities containing uninterpreted data are of type opaque.

4.3. Vectors

A vector (single dimensioned array) is a stream of homogeneous data elements. The size of the vector may be specified at documentation time or left unspecified until runtime. In either case, the length declares the number of bytes, not the number of elements, in the vector. The syntax for specifying a new type, T', that is a fixed- length vector of type T is T T'[n]; Here, T' occupies n bytes in the data stream, where n is a multiple of the size of T. The length of the vector is not included in the encoded stream. In the following example, Datum is defined to be three consecutive bytes that the protocol does not interpret, while Data is three consecutive Datum, consuming a total of nine bytes. opaque Datum[3]; /* three uninterpreted bytes */ Datum Data[9]; /* 3 consecutive 3 byte vectors */ Variable-length vectors are defined by specifying a subrange of legal lengths, inclusively, using the notation <floor..ceiling>. When
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   these are encoded, the actual length precedes the vector's contents
   in the byte stream.  The length will be in the form of a number
   consuming as many bytes as required to hold the vector's specified
   maximum (ceiling) length.  A variable-length vector with an actual
   length field of zero is referred to as an empty vector.

       T T'<floor..ceiling>;

   In the following example, mandatory is a vector that must contain
   between 300 and 400 bytes of type opaque.  It can never be empty.
   The actual length field consumes two bytes, a uint16, sufficient to
   represent the value 400 (see Section 4.4).  On the other hand, longer
   can represent up to 800 bytes of data, or 400 uint16 elements, and it
   may be empty.  Its encoding will include a two-byte actual length
   field prepended to the vector.  The length of an encoded vector must
   be an even multiple of the length of a single element (for example, a
   17-byte vector of uint16 would be illegal).

       opaque mandatory<300..400>;
             /* length field is 2 bytes, cannot be empty */
       uint16 longer<0..800>;
             /* zero to 400 16-bit unsigned integers */

4.4. Numbers

The basic numeric data type is an unsigned byte (uint8). All larger numeric data types are formed from fixed-length series of bytes concatenated as described in Section 4.1 and are also unsigned. The following numeric types are predefined. uint8 uint16[2]; uint8 uint24[3]; uint8 uint32[4]; uint8 uint64[8]; All values, here and elsewhere in the specification, are stored in "network" or "big-endian" order; the uint32 represented by the hex bytes 01 02 03 04 is equivalent to the decimal value 16909060.

4.5. Enumerateds

An additional sparse data type is available called enum. A field of type enum can only assume the values declared in the definition. Each definition is a different type. Only enumerateds of the same type may be assigned or compared. Every element of an enumerated must be assigned a value, as demonstrated in the following example. Since the elements of the enumerated are not ordered, they can be assigned any unique value, in any order.
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       enum { e1(v1), e2(v2), ... , en(vn) [[, (n)]] } Te;

   Enumerateds occupy as much space in the byte stream as would its
   maximal defined ordinal value.  The following definition would cause
   one byte to be used to carry fields of type Color.

       enum { red(3), blue(5), white(7) } Color;

   One may optionally specify a value without its associated tag to
   force the width definition without defining a superfluous element.
   In the following example, Taste will consume two bytes in the data
   stream but can only assume the values 1, 2, or 4.

       enum { sweet(1), sour(2), bitter(4), (32000) } Taste;

   The names of the elements of an enumeration are scoped within the
   defined type.  In the first example, a fully qualified reference to
   the second element of the enumeration would be Color.blue.  Such
   qualification is not required if the target of the assignment is well
   specified.

       Color color = Color.blue;     /* overspecified, legal */
       Color color = blue;           /* correct, type implicit */

   For enumerateds that are never converted to external representation,
   the numerical information may be omitted.

       enum { low, medium, high } Amount;

4.6. Constructed Types

Structure types may be constructed from primitive types for convenience. Each specification declares a new, unique type. The syntax for definition is much like that of C. struct { T1 f1; T2 f2; ... Tn fn; } [[T]]; The fields within a structure may be qualified using the type's name, with a syntax much like that available for enumerateds. For example, T.f2 refers to the second field of the previous declaration. Structure definitions may be embedded.
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4.6.1. Variants

Defined structures may have variants based on some knowledge that is available within the environment. The selector must be an enumerated type that defines the possible variants the structure defines. There must be a case arm for every element of the enumeration declared in the select. The body of the variant structure may be given a label for reference. The mechanism by which the variant is selected at runtime is not prescribed by the presentation language. struct { T1 f1; T2 f2; .... Tn fn; select (E) { case e1: Te1; case e2: Te2; .... case en: Ten; } [[fv]]; } [[Tv]]; For example: enum { apple, orange } VariantTag; struct { uint16 number; opaque string<0..10>; /* variable length */ } V1; struct { uint32 number; opaque string[10]; /* fixed length */ } V2; struct { select (VariantTag) { /* value of selector is implicit */ case apple: V1; /* VariantBody, tag = apple */ case orange: V2; /* VariantBody, tag = orange */ } variant_body; /* optional label on variant */ } VariantRecord; Variant structures may be qualified (narrowed) by specifying a value for the selector prior to the type. For example, an orange VariantRecord is a narrowed type of a VariantRecord containing a variant_body of type V2.
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4.7. Cryptographic Attributes

The four cryptographic operations digital signing, stream cipher encryption, block cipher encryption, and public key encryption are designated digitally-signed, stream-ciphered, block-ciphered, and public-key-encrypted, respectively. A field's cryptographic processing is specified by prepending an appropriate key word designation before the field's type specification. Cryptographic keys are implied by the current session state (see Section 6.1). In digital signing, one-way hash functions are used as input for a signing algorithm. A digitally-signed element is encoded as an opaque vector <0..2^16-1>, where the length is specified by the signing algorithm and key. In RSA signing, a 36-byte structure of two hashes (one SHA and one MD5) is signed (encrypted with the private key). It is encoded with PKCS #1 block type 1, as described in [PKCS1A]. Note: The standard reference for PKCS#1 is now RFC 3447 [PKCS1B]. However, to minimize differences with TLS 1.0 text, we are using the terminology of RFC 2313 [PKCS1A]. In DSS, the 20 bytes of the SHA hash are run directly through the Digital Signing Algorithm with no additional hashing. This produces two values, r and s. The DSS signature is an opaque vector, as above, the contents of which are the DER encoding of: Dss-Sig-Value ::= SEQUENCE { r INTEGER, s INTEGER } In stream cipher encryption, the plaintext is exclusive-ORed with an identical amount of output generated from a cryptographically secure keyed pseudorandom number generator. In block cipher encryption, every block of plaintext encrypts to a block of ciphertext. All block cipher encryption is done in CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) mode, and all items that are block-ciphered will be an exact multiple of the cipher block length. In public key encryption, a public key algorithm is used to encrypt data in such a way that it can be decrypted only with the matching private key. A public-key-encrypted element is encoded as an opaque vector <0..2^16-1>, where the length is specified by the signing algorithm and key.
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   An RSA-encrypted value is encoded with PKCS #1 block type 2, as
   described in [PKCS1A].

   In the following example,

       stream-ciphered struct {
           uint8 field1;
           uint8 field2;
           digitally-signed opaque hash[20];
       } UserType;

   the contents of hash are used as input for the signing algorithm, and
   then the entire structure is encrypted with a stream cipher.  The
   length of this structure, in bytes, would be equal to two bytes for
   field1 and field2, plus two bytes for the length of the signature,
   plus the length of the output of the signing algorithm.  This is
   known because the algorithm and key used for the signing are known
   prior to encoding or decoding this structure.

4.8. Constants

Typed constants can be defined for purposes of specification by declaring a symbol of the desired type and assigning values to it. Under-specified types (opaque, variable length vectors, and structures that contain opaque) cannot be assigned values. No fields of a multi-element structure or vector may be elided. For example: struct { uint8 f1; uint8 f2; } Example1; Example1 ex1 = {1, 4}; /* assigns f1 = 1, f2 = 4 */

5. HMAC and the Pseudorandom Function

A number of operations in the TLS record and handshake layer require a keyed MAC; this is a secure digest of some data protected by a secret. Forging the MAC is infeasible without knowledge of the MAC secret. The construction we use for this operation is known as HMAC, and is described in [HMAC]. HMAC can be used with a variety of different hash algorithms. TLS uses it in the handshake with two different algorithms, MD5 and SHA- 1, denoting these as HMAC_MD5(secret, data) and HMAC_SHA(secret, data). Additional hash algorithms can be defined by cipher suites
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   and used to protect record data, but MD5 and SHA-1 are hard coded
   into the description of the handshaking for this version of the
   protocol.

   In addition, a construction is required to do expansion of secrets
   into blocks of data for the purposes of key generation or validation.
   This pseudo-random function (PRF) takes as input a secret, a seed,
   and an identifying label and produces an output of arbitrary length.

   In order to make the PRF as secure as possible, it uses two hash
   algorithms in a way that should guarantee its security if either
   algorithm remains secure.

   First, we define a data expansion function, P_hash(secret, data) that
   uses a single hash function to expand a secret and seed into an
   arbitrary quantity of output:

       P_hash(secret, seed) = HMAC_hash(secret, A(1) + seed) +
                              HMAC_hash(secret, A(2) + seed) +
                              HMAC_hash(secret, A(3) + seed) + ...

   Where + indicates concatenation.

   A() is defined as:

       A(0) = seed
       A(i) = HMAC_hash(secret, A(i-1))

   P_hash can be iterated as many times as is necessary to produce the
   required quantity of data.  For example, if P_SHA-1 is being used to
   create 64 bytes of data, it will have to be iterated 4 times (through
   A(4)), creating 80 bytes of output data; the last 16 bytes of the
   final iteration will then be discarded, leaving 64 bytes of output
   data.

   TLS's PRF is created by splitting the secret into two halves and
   using one half to generate data with P_MD5 and the other half to
   generate data with P_SHA-1, then exclusive-ORing the outputs of these
   two expansion functions together.

   S1 and S2 are the two halves of the secret, and each is the same
   length.  S1 is taken from the first half of the secret, S2 from the
   second half.  Their length is created by rounding up the length of
   the overall secret, divided by two; thus, if the original secret is
   an odd number of bytes long, the last byte of S1 will be the same as
   the first byte of S2.
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       L_S = length in bytes of secret;
       L_S1 = L_S2 = ceil(L_S / 2);


   The secret is partitioned into two halves (with the possibility of
   one shared byte) as described above, S1 taking the first L_S1 bytes,
   and S2 the last L_S2 bytes.

   The PRF is then defined as the result of mixing the two pseudorandom
   streams by exclusive-ORing them together.

       PRF(secret, label, seed) = P_MD5(S1, label + seed) XOR
                                  P_SHA-1(S2, label + seed);

   The label is an ASCII string.  It should be included in the exact
   form it is given without a length byte or trailing null character.
   For example, the label "slithy toves" would be processed by hashing
   the following bytes:

       73 6C 69 74 68 79 20 74 6F 76 65 73

   Note that because MD5 produces 16-byte outputs and SHA-1 produces
   20-byte outputs, the boundaries of their internal iterations will not
   be aligned.  Generating an 80-byte output will require that P_MD5
   iterate through A(5), while P_SHA-1 will only iterate through A(4).



(page 14 continued on part 2)

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