4.4. Major IPsec Databases Many of the details associated with processing IP traffic in an IPsec implementation are largely a local matter, not subject to standardization. However, some external aspects of the processing must be standardized to ensure interoperability and to provide a minimum management capability that is essential for productive use of IPsec. This section describes a general model for processing IP traffic relative to IPsec functionality, in support of these interoperability and functionality goals. The model described below is nominal; implementations need not match details of this model as presented, but the external behavior of implementations MUST correspond to the externally observable characteristics of this model in order to be compliant. There are three nominal databases in this model: the Security Policy Database (SPD), the Security Association Database (SAD), and the Peer Authorization Database (PAD). The first specifies the policies that determine the disposition of all IP traffic inbound or outbound from a host or security gateway (Section 4.4.1). The second database contains parameters that are associated with each established (keyed) SA (Section 4.4.2). The third database, the PAD, provides a link between an SA management protocol (such as IKE) and the SPD (Section 4.4.3). Multiple Separate IPsec Contexts If an IPsec implementation acts as a security gateway for multiple subscribers, it MAY implement multiple separate IPsec contexts. Each context MAY have and MAY use completely independent identities, policies, key management SAs, and/or IPsec SAs. This is for the most part a local implementation matter. However, a means for associating inbound (SA) proposals with local contexts is required. To this end, if supported by the key management protocol in use, context identifiers MAY be conveyed from initiator to responder in the signaling messages, with the result that IPsec SAs are created with a binding to a particular context. For example, a security gateway that provides VPN service to multiple customers will be able to associate each customer's traffic with the correct VPN. Forwarding vs Security Decisions The IPsec model described here embodies a clear separation between forwarding (routing) and security decisions, to accommodate a wide range of contexts where IPsec may be employed. Forwarding may be trivial, in the case where there are only two interfaces, or it may be complex, e.g., if the context in which IPsec is implemented
employs a sophisticated forwarding function. IPsec assumes only that outbound and inbound traffic that has passed through IPsec processing is forwarded in a fashion consistent with the context in which IPsec is implemented. Support for nested SAs is optional; if required, it requires coordination between forwarding tables and SPD entries to cause a packet to traverse the IPsec boundary more than once. "Local" vs "Remote" In this document, with respect to IP addresses and ports, the terms "Local" and "Remote" are used for policy rules. "Local" refers to the entity being protected by an IPsec implementation, i.e., the "source" address/port of outbound packets or the "destination" address/port of inbound packets. "Remote" refers to a peer entity or peer entities. The terms "source" and "destination" are used for packet header fields. "Non-initial" vs "Initial" Fragments Throughout this document, the phrase "non-initial fragments" is used to mean fragments that do not contain all of the selector values that may be needed for access control (e.g., they might not contain Next Layer Protocol, source and destination ports, ICMP message type/code, Mobility Header type). And the phrase "initial fragment" is used to mean a fragment that contains all the selector values needed for access control. However, it should be noted that for IPv6, which fragment contains the Next Layer Protocol and ports (or ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type [Mobip]) will depend on the kind and number of extension headers present. The "initial fragment" might not be the first fragment, in this context. 4.4.1. The Security Policy Database (SPD) An SA is a management construct used to enforce security policy for traffic crossing the IPsec boundary. Thus, an essential element of SA processing is an underlying Security Policy Database (SPD) that specifies what services are to be offered to IP datagrams and in what fashion. The form of the database and its interface are outside the scope of this specification. However, this section specifies minimum management functionality that must be provided, to allow a user or system administrator to control whether and how IPsec is applied to traffic transmitted or received by a host or transiting a security gateway. The SPD, or relevant caches, must be consulted during the processing of all traffic (inbound and outbound), including traffic not protected by IPsec, that traverses the IPsec boundary. This includes IPsec management traffic such as IKE. An IPsec
implementation MUST have at least one SPD, and it MAY support multiple SPDs, if appropriate for the context in which the IPsec implementation operates. There is no requirement to maintain SPDs on a per-interface basis, as was specified in RFC 2401 [RFC2401]. However, if an implementation supports multiple SPDs, then it MUST include an explicit SPD selection function that is invoked to select the appropriate SPD for outbound traffic processing. The inputs to this function are the outbound packet and any local metadata (e.g., the interface via which the packet arrived) required to effect the SPD selection function. The output of the function is an SPD identifier (SPD-ID). The SPD is an ordered database, consistent with the use of Access Control Lists (ACLs) or packet filters in firewalls, routers, etc. The ordering requirement arises because entries often will overlap due to the presence of (non-trivial) ranges as values for selectors. Thus, a user or administrator MUST be able to order the entries to express a desired access control policy. There is no way to impose a general, canonical order on SPD entries, because of the allowed use of wildcards for selector values and because the different types of selectors are not hierarchically related. Processing Choices: DISCARD, BYPASS, PROTECT An SPD must discriminate among traffic that is afforded IPsec protection and traffic that is allowed to bypass IPsec. This applies to the IPsec protection to be applied by a sender and to the IPsec protection that must be present at the receiver. For any outbound or inbound datagram, three processing choices are possible: DISCARD, BYPASS IPsec, or PROTECT using IPsec. The first choice refers to traffic that is not allowed to traverse the IPsec boundary (in the specified direction). The second choice refers to traffic that is allowed to cross the IPsec boundary without IPsec protection. The third choice refers to traffic that is afforded IPsec protection, and for such traffic the SPD must specify the security protocols to be employed, their mode, security service options, and the cryptographic algorithms to be used. SPD-S, SPD-I, SPD-O An SPD is logically divided into three pieces. The SPD-S (secure traffic) contains entries for all traffic subject to IPsec protection. SPD-O (outbound) contains entries for all outbound traffic that is to be bypassed or discarded. SPD-I (inbound) is applied to inbound traffic that will be bypassed or discarded. All three of these can be decorrelated (with the exception noted above for native host implementations) to facilitate caching. If
an IPsec implementation supports only one SPD, then the SPD consists of all three parts. If multiple SPDs are supported, some of them may be partial, e.g., some SPDs might contain only SPD-I entries, to control inbound bypassed traffic on a per-interface basis. The split allows SPD-I to be consulted without having to consult SPD-S, for such traffic. Since the SPD-I is just a part of the SPD, if a packet that is looked up in the SPD-I cannot be matched to an entry there, then the packet MUST be discarded. Note that for outbound traffic, if a match is not found in SPD-S, then SPD-O must be checked to see if the traffic should be bypassed. Similarly, if SPD-O is checked first and no match is found, then SPD-S must be checked. In an ordered, non-decorrelated SPD, the entries for the SPD-S, SPD-I, and SPD-O are interleaved. So there is one lookup in the SPD. SPD Entries Each SPD entry specifies packet disposition as BYPASS, DISCARD, or PROTECT. The entry is keyed by a list of one or more selectors. The SPD contains an ordered list of these entries. The required selector types are defined in Section 18.104.22.168. These selectors are used to define the granularity of the SAs that are created in response to an outbound packet or in response to a proposal from a peer. The detailed structure of an SPD entry is described in Section 22.214.171.124. Every SPD SHOULD have a nominal, final entry that matches anything that is otherwise unmatched, and discards it. The SPD MUST permit a user or administrator to specify policy entries as follows: - SPD-I: For inbound traffic that is to be bypassed or discarded, the entry consists of the values of the selectors that apply to the traffic to be bypassed or discarded. - SPD-O: For outbound traffic that is to be bypassed or discarded, the entry consists of the values of the selectors that apply to the traffic to be bypassed or discarded. - SPD-S: For traffic that is to be protected using IPsec, the entry consists of the values of the selectors that apply to the traffic to be protected via AH or ESP, controls on how to create SAs based on these selectors, and the parameters needed to effect this protection (e.g., algorithms, modes, etc.). Note that an SPD-S entry also contains information such as "populate from packet" (PFP) flag (see paragraphs below on "How To Derive the Values for an SAD entry") and bits indicating whether the
SA lookup makes use of the local and remote IP addresses in addition to the SPI (see AH [Ken05b] or ESP [Ken05a] specifications). Representing Directionality in an SPD Entry For traffic protected by IPsec, the Local and Remote address and ports in an SPD entry are swapped to represent directionality, consistent with IKE conventions. In general, the protocols that IPsec deals with have the property of requiring symmetric SAs with flipped Local/Remote IP addresses. However, for ICMP, there is often no such bi-directional authorization requirement. Nonetheless, for the sake of uniformity and simplicity, SPD entries for ICMP are specified in the same way as for other protocols. Note also that for ICMP, Mobility Header, and non-initial fragments, there are no port fields in these packets. ICMP has message type and code and Mobility Header has mobility header type. Thus, SPD entries have provisions for expressing access controls appropriate for these protocols, in lieu of the normal port field controls. For bypassed or discarded traffic, separate inbound and outbound entries are supported, e.g., to permit unidirectional flows if required. OPAQUE and ANY For each selector in an SPD entry, in addition to the literal values that define a match, there are two special values: ANY and OPAQUE. ANY is a wildcard that matches any value in the corresponding field of the packet, or that matches packets where that field is not present or is obscured. OPAQUE indicates that the corresponding selector field is not available for examination because it may not be present in a fragment, it does not exist for the given Next Layer Protocol, or prior application of IPsec may have encrypted the value. The ANY value encompasses the OPAQUE value. Thus, OPAQUE need be used only when it is necessary to distinguish between the case of any allowed value for a field, vs. the absence or unavailability (e.g., due to encryption) of the field. How to Derive the Values for an SAD Entry For each selector in an SPD entry, the entry specifies how to derive the corresponding values for a new SA Database (SAD, see Section 4.4.2) entry from those in the SPD and the packet. The goal is to allow an SAD entry and an SPD cache entry to be created based on specific selector values from the packet, or from the matching SPD entry. For outbound traffic, there are SPD-S cache entries and SPD-O cache entries. For inbound traffic not
protected by IPsec, there are SPD-I cache entries and there is the SAD, which represents the cache for inbound IPsec-protected traffic (see Section 4.4.2). If IPsec processing is specified for an entry, a "populate from packet" (PFP) flag may be asserted for one or more of the selectors in the SPD entry (Local IP address; Remote IP address; Next Layer Protocol; and, depending on Next Layer Protocol, Local port and Remote port, or ICMP type/code, or Mobility Header type). If asserted for a given selector X, the flag indicates that the SA to be created should take its value for X from the value in the packet. Otherwise, the SA should take its value(s) for X from the value(s) in the SPD entry. Note: In the non-PFP case, the selector values negotiated by the SA management protocol (e.g., IKEv2) may be a subset of those in the SPD entry, depending on the SPD policy of the peer. Also, whether a single flag is used for, e.g., source port, ICMP type/code, and Mobility Header (MH) type, or a separate flag is used for each, is a local matter. The following example illustrates the use of the PFP flag in the context of a security gateway or a BITS/BITW implementation. Consider an SPD entry where the allowed value for Remote address is a range of IPv4 addresses: 192.0.2.1 to 192.0.2.10. Suppose an outbound packet arrives with a destination address of 192.0.2.3, and there is no extant SA to carry this packet. The value used for the SA created to transmit this packet could be either of the two values shown below, depending on what the SPD entry for this selector says is the source of the selector value: PFP flag value example of new for the Remote SAD dest. address addr. selector selector value --------------- ------------ a. PFP TRUE 192.0.2.3 (one host) b. PFP FALSE 192.0.2.1 to 192.0.2.10 (range of hosts) Note that if the SPD entry above had a value of ANY for the Remote address, then the SAD selector value would have to be ANY for case (b), but would still be as illustrated for case (a). Thus, the PFP flag can be used to prohibit sharing of an SA, even among packets that match the same SPD entry. Management Interface For every IPsec implementation, there MUST be a management interface that allows a user or system administrator to manage the SPD. The interface must allow the user (or administrator) to specify the security processing to be applied to every packet that traverses the IPsec boundary. (In a native host IPsec
implementation making use of a socket interface, the SPD may not need to be consulted on a per-packet basis, as noted at the end of Section 126.96.36.199 and in Section 5.) The management interface for the SPD MUST allow creation of entries consistent with the selectors defined in Section 188.8.131.52, and MUST support (total) ordering of these entries, as seen via this interface. The SPD entries' selectors are analogous to the ACL or packet filters commonly found in a stateless firewall or packet filtering router and which are currently managed this way. In host systems, applications MAY be allowed to create SPD entries. (The means of signaling such requests to the IPsec implementation are outside the scope of this standard.) However, the system administrator MUST be able to specify whether or not a user or application can override (default) system policies. The form of the management interface is not specified by this document and may differ for hosts vs. security gateways, and within hosts the interface may differ for socket-based vs. BITS implementations. However, this document does specify a standard set of SPD elements that all IPsec implementations MUST support. Decorrelation The processing model described in this document assumes the ability to decorrelate overlapping SPD entries to permit caching, which enables more efficient processing of outbound traffic in security gateways and BITS/BITW implementations. Decorrelation [CoSa04] is only a means of improving performance and simplifying the processing description. This RFC does not require a compliant implementation to make use of decorrelation. For example, native host implementations typically make use of caching implicitly because they bind SAs to socket interfaces, and thus there is no requirement to be able to decorrelate SPD entries in these implementations. Note: Unless otherwise qualified, the use of "SPD" refers to the body of policy information in both ordered or decorrelated (unordered) state. Appendix B provides an algorithm that can be used to decorrelate SPD entries, but any algorithm that produces equivalent output may be used. Note that when an SPD entry is decorrelated all the resulting entries MUST be linked together, so that all members of the group derived from an individual, SPD entry (prior to decorrelation) can all be placed into caches and into the SAD at the same time. For example, suppose one starts with an entry A (from an ordered SPD) that when decorrelated, yields entries A1, A2, and A3. When a packet comes along that matches, say A2, and triggers the creation of an SA, the SA management protocol (e.g., IKEv2) negotiates A. And all 3
decorrelated entries, A1, A2, and A3, are placed in the appropriate SPD-S cache and linked to the SA. The intent is that use of a decorrelated SPD ought not to create more SAs than would have resulted from use of a not-decorrelated SPD. If a decorrelated SPD is employed, there are three options for what an initiator sends to a peer via an SA management protocol (e.g., IKE). By sending the complete set of linked, decorrelated entries that were selected from the SPD, a peer is given the best possible information to enable selection of the appropriate SPD entry at its end, especially if the peer has also decorrelated its SPD. However, if a large number of decorrelated entries are linked, this may create large packets for SA negotiation, and hence fragmentation problems for the SA management protocol. Alternatively, the original entry from the (correlated) SPD may be retained and passed to the SA management protocol. Passing the correlated SPD entry keeps the use of a decorrelated SPD a local matter, not visible to peers, and avoids possible fragmentation concerns, although it provides less precise information to a responder for matching against the responder's SPD. An intermediate approach is to send a subset of the complete set of linked, decorrelated SPD entries. This approach can avoid the fragmentation problems cited above yet provide better information than the original, correlated entry. The major shortcoming of this approach is that it may cause additional SAs to be created later, since only a subset of the linked, decorrelated entries are sent to a peer. Implementers are free to employ any of the approaches cited above. A responder uses the traffic selector proposals it receives via an SA management protocol to select an appropriate entry in its SPD. The intent of the matching is to select an SPD entry and create an SA that most closely matches the intent of the initiator, so that traffic traversing the resulting SA will be accepted at both ends. If the responder employs a decorrelated SPD, it SHOULD use the decorrelated SPD entries for matching, as this will generally result in creation of SAs that are more likely to match the intent of both peers. If the responder has a correlated SPD, then it SHOULD match the proposals against the correlated entries. For IKEv2, use of a decorrelated SPD offers the best opportunity for a responder to generate a "narrowed" response. In all cases, when a decorrelated SPD is available, the decorrelated entries are used to populate the SPD-S cache. If the SPD is not decorrelated, caching is not allowed and an ordered
search of SPD MUST be performed to verify that inbound traffic arriving on an SA is consistent with the access control policy expressed in the SPD. Handling Changes to the SPD While the System Is Running If a change is made to the SPD while the system is running, a check SHOULD be made of the effect of this change on extant SAs. An implementation SHOULD check the impact of an SPD change on extant SAs and SHOULD provide a user/administrator with a mechanism for configuring what actions to take, e.g., delete an affected SA, allow an affected SA to continue unchanged, etc. 184.108.40.206. Selectors An SA may be fine-grained or coarse-grained, depending on the selectors used to define the set of traffic for the SA. For example, all traffic between two hosts may be carried via a single SA, and afforded a uniform set of security services. Alternatively, traffic between a pair of hosts might be spread over multiple SAs, depending on the applications being used (as defined by the Next Layer Protocol and related fields, e.g., ports), with different security services offered by different SAs. Similarly, all traffic between a pair of security gateways could be carried on a single SA, or one SA could be assigned for each communicating host pair. The following selector parameters MUST be supported by all IPsec implementations to facilitate control of SA granularity. Note that both Local and Remote addresses should either be IPv4 or IPv6, but not a mix of address types. Also, note that the Local/Remote port selectors (and ICMP message type and code, and Mobility Header type) may be labeled as OPAQUE to accommodate situations where these fields are inaccessible due to packet fragmentation. - Remote IP Address(es) (IPv4 or IPv6): This is a list of ranges of IP addresses (unicast, broadcast (IPv4 only)). This structure allows expression of a single IP address (via a trivial range), or a list of addresses (each a trivial range), or a range of addresses (low and high values, inclusive), as well as the most generic form of a list of ranges. Address ranges are used to support more than one remote system sharing the same SA, e.g., behind a security gateway. - Local IP Address(es) (IPv4 or IPv6): This is a list of ranges of IP addresses (unicast, broadcast (IPv4 only)). This structure allows expression of a single IP address (via a trivial range), or a list of addresses (each a trivial range), or a range of addresses (low and high values, inclusive), as well as the most generic form of a list of ranges. Address ranges are used to
support more than one source system sharing the same SA, e.g., behind a security gateway. Local refers to the address(es) being protected by this implementation (or policy entry). Note: The SPD does not include support for multicast address entries. To support multicast SAs, an implementation should make use of a Group SPD (GSPD) as defined in [RFC3740]. GSPD entries require a different structure, i.e., one cannot use the symmetric relationship associated with local and remote address values for unicast SAs in a multicast context. Specifically, outbound traffic directed to a multicast address on an SA would not be received on a companion, inbound SA with the multicast address as the source. - Next Layer Protocol: Obtained from the IPv4 "Protocol" or the IPv6 "Next Header" fields. This is an individual protocol number, ANY, or for IPv6 only, OPAQUE. The Next Layer Protocol is whatever comes after any IP extension headers that are present. To simplify locating the Next Layer Protocol, there SHOULD be a mechanism for configuring which IPv6 extension headers to skip. The default configuration for which protocols to skip SHOULD include the following protocols: 0 (Hop-by-hop options), 43 (Routing Header), 44 (Fragmentation Header), and 60 (Destination Options). Note: The default list does NOT include 51 (AH) or 50 (ESP). From a selector lookup point of view, IPsec treats AH and ESP as Next Layer Protocols. Several additional selectors depend on the Next Layer Protocol value: * If the Next Layer Protocol uses two ports (as do TCP, UDP, SCTP, and others), then there are selectors for Local and Remote Ports. Each of these selectors has a list of ranges of values. Note that the Local and Remote ports may not be available in the case of receipt of a fragmented packet or if the port fields have been protected by IPsec (encrypted); thus, a value of OPAQUE also MUST be supported. Note: In a non-initial fragment, port values will not be available. If a port selector specifies a value other than ANY or OPAQUE, it cannot match packets that are non-initial fragments. If the SA requires a port value other than ANY or OPAQUE, an arriving fragment without ports MUST be discarded. (See Section 7, "Handling Fragments".) * If the Next Layer Protocol is a Mobility Header, then there is a selector for IPv6 Mobility Header message type (MH type) [Mobip]. This is an 8-bit value that identifies a particular mobility message. Note that the MH type may not be available
in the case of receipt of a fragmented packet. (See Section 7, "Handling Fragments".) For IKE, the IPv6 Mobility Header message type (MH type) is placed in the most significant eight bits of the 16-bit local "port" selector. * If the Next Layer Protocol value is ICMP, then there is a 16-bit selector for the ICMP message type and code. The message type is a single 8-bit value, which defines the type of an ICMP message, or ANY. The ICMP code is a single 8-bit value that defines a specific subtype for an ICMP message. For IKE, the message type is placed in the most significant 8 bits of the 16-bit selector and the code is placed in the least significant 8 bits. This 16-bit selector can contain a single type and a range of codes, a single type and ANY code, and ANY type and ANY code. Given a policy entry with a range of Types (T-start to T-end) and a range of Codes (C-start to C-end), and an ICMP packet with Type t and Code c, an implementation MUST test for a match using (T-start*256) + C-start <= (t*256) + c <= (T-end*256) + C-end Note that the ICMP message type and code may not be available in the case of receipt of a fragmented packet. (See Section 7, "Handling Fragments".) - Name: This is not a selector like the others above. It is not acquired from a packet. A name may be used as a symbolic identifier for an IPsec Local or Remote address. Named SPD entries are used in two ways: 1. A named SPD entry is used by a responder (not an initiator) in support of access control when an IP address would not be appropriate for the Remote IP address selector, e.g., for "road warriors". The name used to match this field is communicated during the IKE negotiation in the ID payload. In this context, the initiator's Source IP address (inner IP header in tunnel mode) is bound to the Remote IP address in the SAD entry created by the IKE negotiation. This address overrides the Remote IP address value in the SPD, when the SPD entry is selected in this fashion. All IPsec implementations MUST support this use of names. 2. A named SPD entry may be used by an initiator to identify a user for whom an IPsec SA will be created (or for whom traffic may be bypassed). The initiator's IP source address (from inner IP header in tunnel mode) is used to replace the following if and when they are created:
- local address in the SPD cache entry - local address in the outbound SAD entry - remote address in the inbound SAD entry Support for this use is optional for multi-user, native host implementations and not applicable to other implementations. Note that this name is used only locally; it is not communicated by the key management protocol. Also, name forms other than those used for case 1 above (responder) are applicable in the initiator context (see below). An SPD entry can contain both a name (or a list of names) and also values for the Local or Remote IP address. For case 1, responder, the identifiers employed in named SPD entries are one of the following four types: a. a fully qualified user name string (email), e.g., firstname.lastname@example.org (this corresponds to ID_RFC822_ADDR in IKEv2) b. a fully qualified DNS name, e.g., foo.example.com (this corresponds to ID_FQDN in IKEv2) c. X.500 distinguished name, e.g., [WaKiHo97], CN = Stephen T. Kent, O = BBN Technologies, SP = MA, C = US (this corresponds to ID_DER_ASN1_DN in IKEv2, after decoding) d. a byte string (this corresponds to Key_ID in IKEv2) For case 2, initiator, the identifiers employed in named SPD entries are of type byte string. They are likely to be Unix UIDs, Windows security IDs, or something similar, but could also be a user name or account name. In all cases, this identifier is only of local concern and is not transmitted. The IPsec implementation context determines how selectors are used. For example, a native host implementation typically makes use of a socket interface. When a new connection is established, the SPD can be consulted and an SA bound to the socket. Thus, traffic sent via that socket need not result in additional lookups to the SPD (SPD-O and SPD-S) cache. In contrast, a BITS, BITW, or security gateway implementation needs to look at each packet and perform an SPD-O/SPD-S cache lookup based on the selectors.
220.127.116.11. Structure of an SPD Entry This section contains a prose description of an SPD entry. Also, Appendix C provides an example of an ASN.1 definition of an SPD entry. This text describes the SPD in a fashion that is intended to map directly into IKE payloads to ensure that the policy required by SPD entries can be negotiated through IKE. Unfortunately, the semantics of the version of IKEv2 published concurrently with this document [Kau05] do not align precisely with those defined for the SPD. Specifically, IKEv2 does not enable negotiation of a single SA that binds multiple pairs of local and remote addresses and ports to a single SA. Instead, when multiple local and remote addresses and ports are negotiated for an SA, IKEv2 treats these not as pairs, but as (unordered) sets of local and remote values that can be arbitrarily paired. Until IKE provides a facility that conveys the semantics that are expressed in the SPD via selector sets (as described below), users MUST NOT include multiple selector sets in a single SPD entry unless the access control intent aligns with the IKE "mix and match" semantics. An implementation MAY warn users, to alert them to this problem if users create SPD entries with multiple selector sets, the syntax of which indicates possible conflicts with current IKE semantics. The management GUI can offer the user other forms of data entry and display, e.g., the option of using address prefixes as well as ranges, and symbolic names for protocols, ports, etc. (Do not confuse the use of symbolic names in a management interface with the SPD selector "Name".) Note that Remote/Local apply only to IP addresses and ports, not to ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type. Also, if the reserved, symbolic selector value OPAQUE or ANY is employed for a given selector type, only that value may appear in the list for that selector, and it must appear only once in the list for that selector. Note that ANY and OPAQUE are local syntax conventions -- IKEv2 negotiates these values via the ranges indicated below: ANY: start = 0 end = <max> OPAQUE: start = <max> end = 0 An SPD is an ordered list of entries each of which contains the following fields. o Name -- a list of IDs. This quasi-selector is optional. The forms that MUST be supported are described above in Section 18.104.22.168 under "Name".
o PFP flags -- one per traffic selector. A given flag, e.g., for Next Layer Protocol, applies to the relevant selector across all "selector sets" (see below) contained in an SPD entry. When creating an SA, each flag specifies for the corresponding traffic selector whether to instantiate the selector from the corresponding field in the packet that triggered the creation of the SA or from the value(s) in the corresponding SPD entry (see Section 4.4.1, "How to Derive the Values for an SAD Entry"). Whether a single flag is used for, e.g., source port, ICMP type/code, and MH type, or a separate flag is used for each, is a local matter. There are PFP flags for: - Local Address - Remote Address - Next Layer Protocol - Local Port, or ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type (depending on the next layer protocol) - Remote Port, or ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type (depending on the next layer protocol) o One to N selector sets that correspond to the "condition" for applying a particular IPsec action. Each selector set contains: - Local Address - Remote Address - Next Layer Protocol - Local Port, or ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type (depending on the next layer protocol) - Remote Port, or ICMP message type/code or Mobility Header type (depending on the next layer protocol) Note: The "next protocol" selector is an individual value (unlike the local and remote IP addresses) in a selector set entry. This is consistent with how IKEv2 negotiates the Traffic Selector (TS) values for an SA. It also makes sense because one may need to associate different port fields with different protocols. It is possible to associate multiple protocols (and ports) with a single SA by specifying multiple selector sets for that SA. o Processing info -- which action is required -- PROTECT, BYPASS, or DISCARD. There is just one action that goes with all the selector sets, not a separate action for each set. If the required processing is PROTECT, the entry contains the following information. - IPsec mode -- tunnel or transport
- (if tunnel mode) local tunnel address -- For a non-mobile host, if there is just one interface, this is straightforward; if there are multiple interfaces, this must be statically configured. For a mobile host, the specification of the local address is handled externally to IPsec. - (if tunnel mode) remote tunnel address -- There is no standard way to determine this. See 4.5.3, "Locating a Security Gateway". - Extended Sequence Number -- Is this SA using extended sequence numbers? - stateful fragment checking -- Is this SA using stateful fragment checking? (See Section 7 for more details.) - Bypass DF bit (T/F) -- applicable to tunnel mode SAs - Bypass DSCP (T/F) or map to unprotected DSCP values (array) if needed to restrict bypass of DSCP values -- applicable to tunnel mode SAs - IPsec protocol -- AH or ESP - algorithms -- which ones to use for AH, which ones to use for ESP, which ones to use for combined mode, ordered by decreasing priority It is a local matter as to what information is kept with regard to handling extant SAs when the SPD is changed. 22.214.171.124. More Regarding Fields Associated with Next Layer Protocols Additional selectors are often associated with fields in the Next Layer Protocol header. A particular Next Layer Protocol can have zero, one, or two selectors. There may be situations where there aren't both local and remote selectors for the fields that are dependent on the Next Layer Protocol. The IPv6 Mobility Header has only a Mobility Header message type. AH and ESP have no further selector fields. A system may be willing to send an ICMP message type and code that it does not want to receive. In the descriptions below, "port" is used to mean a field that is dependent on the Next Layer Protocol. A. If a Next Layer Protocol has no "port" selectors, then the Local and Remote "port" selectors are set to OPAQUE in the relevant SPD entry, e.g., Local's next layer protocol = AH "port" selector = OPAQUE
Remote's next layer protocol = AH "port" selector = OPAQUE B. Even if a Next Layer Protocol has only one selector, e.g., Mobility Header type, then the Local and Remote "port" selectors are used to indicate whether a system is willing to send and/or receive traffic with the specified "port" values. For example, if Mobility Headers of a specified type are allowed to be sent and received via an SA, then the relevant SPD entry would be set as follows: Local's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = Mobility Header message type Remote's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = Mobility Header message type If Mobility Headers of a specified type are allowed to be sent but NOT received via an SA, then the relevant SPD entry would be set as follows: Local's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = Mobility Header message type Remote's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = OPAQUE If Mobility Headers of a specified type are allowed to be received but NOT sent via an SA, then the relevant SPD entry would be set as follows: Local's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = OPAQUE Remote's next layer protocol = Mobility Header "port" selector = Mobility Header message type C. If a system is willing to send traffic with a particular "port" value but NOT receive traffic with that kind of port value, the system's traffic selectors are set as follows in the relevant SPD entry:
Local's next layer protocol = ICMP "port" selector = <specific ICMP type & code> Remote's next layer protocol = ICMP "port" selector = OPAQUE D. To indicate that a system is willing to receive traffic with a particular "port" value but NOT send that kind of traffic, the system's traffic selectors are set as follows in the relevant SPD entry: Local's next layer protocol = ICMP "port" selector = OPAQUE Remote's next layer protocol = ICMP "port" selector = <specific ICMP type & code> For example, if a security gateway is willing to allow systems behind it to send ICMP traceroutes, but is not willing to let outside systems run ICMP traceroutes to systems behind it, then the security gateway's traffic selectors are set as follows in the relevant SPD entry: Local's next layer protocol = 1 (ICMPv4) "port" selector = 30 (traceroute) Remote's next layer protocol = 1 (ICMPv4) "port" selector = OPAQUE 4.4.2. Security Association Database (SAD) In each IPsec implementation, there is a nominal Security Association Database (SAD), in which each entry defines the parameters associated with one SA. Each SA has an entry in the SAD. For outbound processing, each SAD entry is pointed to by entries in the SPD-S part of the SPD cache. For inbound processing, for unicast SAs, the SPI is used either alone to look up an SA or in conjunction with the IPsec protocol type. If an IPsec implementation supports multicast, the SPI plus destination address, or SPI plus destination and source addresses are used to look up the SA. (See Section 4.1 for details on the algorithm that MUST be used for mapping inbound IPsec datagrams to SAs.) The following parameters are associated with each entry in
the SAD. They should all be present except where otherwise noted, e.g., AH Authentication algorithm. This description does not purport to be a MIB, only a specification of the minimal data items required to support an SA in an IPsec implementation. For each of the selectors defined in Section 126.96.36.199, the entry for an inbound SA in the SAD MUST be initially populated with the value or values negotiated at the time the SA was created. (See the paragraph in Section 4.4.1 under "Handling Changes to the SPD while the System is Running" for guidance on the effect of SPD changes on extant SAs.) For a receiver, these values are used to check that the header fields of an inbound packet (after IPsec processing) match the selector values negotiated for the SA. Thus, the SAD acts as a cache for checking the selectors of inbound traffic arriving on SAs. For the receiver, this is part of verifying that a packet arriving on an SA is consistent with the policy for the SA. (See Section 6 for rules for ICMP messages.) These fields can have the form of specific values, ranges, ANY, or OPAQUE, as described in Section 188.8.131.52, "Selectors". Note also that there are a couple of situations in which the SAD can have entries for SAs that do not have corresponding entries in the SPD. Since this document does not mandate that the SAD be selectively cleared when the SPD is changed, SAD entries can remain when the SPD entries that created them are changed or deleted. Also, if a manually keyed SA is created, there could be an SAD entry for this SA that does not correspond to any SPD entry. Note: The SAD can support multicast SAs, if manually configured. An outbound multicast SA has the same structure as a unicast SA. The source address is that of the sender, and the destination address is the multicast group address. An inbound, multicast SA must be configured with the source addresses of each peer authorized to transmit to the multicast SA in question. The SPI value for a multicast SA is provided by a multicast group controller, not by the receiver, as for a unicast SA. Because an SAD entry may be required to accommodate multiple, individual IP source addresses that were part of an SPD entry (for unicast SAs), the required facility for inbound, multicast SAs is a feature already present in an IPsec implementation. However, because the SPD has no provisions for accommodating multicast entries, this document does not specify an automated way to create an SAD entry for a multicast, inbound SA. Only manually configured SAD entries can be created to accommodate inbound, multicast traffic. Implementation Guidance: This document does not specify how an SPD-S entry refers to the corresponding SAD entry, as this is an implementation-specific detail. However, some implementations (based on experience from RFC 2401) are known to have problems in this regard. In particular, simply storing the (remote tunnel header IP
address, remote SPI) pair in the SPD cache is not sufficient, since the pair does not always uniquely identify a single SAD entry. For instance, two hosts behind the same NAT could choose the same SPI value. The situation also may arise if a host is assigned an IP address (e.g., via DHCP) previously used by some other host, and the SAs associated with the old host have not yet been deleted via dead peer detection mechanisms. This may lead to packets being sent over the wrong SA or, if key management ensures the pair is unique, denying the creation of otherwise valid SAs. Thus, implementors should implement links between the SPD cache and the SAD in a way that does not engender such problems. 184.108.40.206. Data Items in the SAD The following data items MUST be in the SAD: o Security Parameter Index (SPI): a 32-bit value selected by the receiving end of an SA to uniquely identify the SA. In an SAD entry for an outbound SA, the SPI is used to construct the packet's AH or ESP header. In an SAD entry for an inbound SA, the SPI is used to map traffic to the appropriate SA (see text on unicast/multicast in Section 4.1). o Sequence Number Counter: a 64-bit counter used to generate the Sequence Number field in AH or ESP headers. 64-bit sequence numbers are the default, but 32-bit sequence numbers are also supported if negotiated. o Sequence Counter Overflow: a flag indicating whether overflow of the sequence number counter should generate an auditable event and prevent transmission of additional packets on the SA, or whether rollover is permitted. The audit log entry for this event SHOULD include the SPI value, current date/time, Local Address, Remote Address, and the selectors from the relevant SAD entry. o Anti-Replay Window: a 64-bit counter and a bit-map (or equivalent) used to determine whether an inbound AH or ESP packet is a replay. Note: If anti-replay has been disabled by the receiver for an SA, e.g., in the case of a manually keyed SA, then the Anti-Replay Window is ignored for the SA in question. 64-bit sequence numbers are the default, but this counter size accommodates 32-bit sequence numbers as well. o AH Authentication algorithm, key, etc. This is required only if AH is supported.
o ESP Encryption algorithm, key, mode, IV, etc. If a combined mode algorithm is used, these fields will not be applicable. o ESP integrity algorithm, keys, etc. If the integrity service is not selected, these fields will not be applicable. If a combined mode algorithm is used, these fields will not be applicable. o ESP combined mode algorithms, key(s), etc. This data is used when a combined mode (encryption and integrity) algorithm is used with ESP. If a combined mode algorithm is not used, these fields are not applicable. o Lifetime of this SA: a time interval after which an SA must be replaced with a new SA (and new SPI) or terminated, plus an indication of which of these actions should occur. This may be expressed as a time or byte count, or a simultaneous use of both with the first lifetime to expire taking precedence. A compliant implementation MUST support both types of lifetimes, and MUST support a simultaneous use of both. If time is employed, and if IKE employs X.509 certificates for SA establishment, the SA lifetime must be constrained by the validity intervals of the certificates, and the NextIssueDate of the Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) used in the IKE exchange for the SA. Both initiator and responder are responsible for constraining the SA lifetime in this fashion. Note: The details of how to handle the refreshing of keys when SAs expire is a local matter. However, one reasonable approach is: (a) If byte count is used, then the implementation SHOULD count the number of bytes to which the IPsec cryptographic algorithm is applied. For ESP, this is the encryption algorithm (including Null encryption) and for AH, this is the authentication algorithm. This includes pad bytes, etc. Note that implementations MUST be able to handle having the counters at the ends of an SA get out of synch, e.g., because of packet loss or because the implementations at each end of the SA aren't doing things the same way. (b) There SHOULD be two kinds of lifetime -- a soft lifetime that warns the implementation to initiate action such as setting up a replacement SA, and a hard lifetime when the current SA ends and is destroyed. (c) If the entire packet does not get delivered during the SA's lifetime, the packet SHOULD be discarded. o IPsec protocol mode: tunnel or transport. Indicates which mode of AH or ESP is applied to traffic on this SA.
o Stateful fragment checking flag. Indicates whether or not stateful fragment checking applies to this SA. o Bypass DF bit (T/F) -- applicable to tunnel mode SAs where both inner and outer headers are IPv4. o DSCP values -- the set of DSCP values allowed for packets carried over this SA. If no values are specified, no DSCP-specific filtering is applied. If one or more values are specified, these are used to select one SA among several that match the traffic selectors for an outbound packet. Note that these values are NOT checked against inbound traffic arriving on the SA. o Bypass DSCP (T/F) or map to unprotected DSCP values (array) if needed to restrict bypass of DSCP values -- applicable to tunnel mode SAs. This feature maps DSCP values from an inner header to values in an outer header, e.g., to address covert channel signaling concerns. o Path MTU: any observed path MTU and aging variables. o Tunnel header IP source and destination address -- both addresses must be either IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. The version implies the type of IP header to be used. Only used when the IPsec protocol mode is tunnel. 220.127.116.11. Relationship between SPD, PFP flag, packet, and SAD For each selector, the following tables show the relationship between the value in the SPD, the PFP flag, the value in the triggering packet, and the resulting value in the SAD. Note that the administrative interface for IPsec can use various syntactic options to make it easier for the administrator to enter rules. For example, although a list of ranges is what IKEv2 sends, it might be clearer and less error prone for the user to enter a single IP address or IP address prefix.
Value in Triggering Resulting SAD Selector SPD Entry PFP Packet Entry -------- ---------------- --- ------------ -------------- loc addr list of ranges 0 IP addr "S" list of ranges ANY 0 IP addr "S" ANY list of ranges 1 IP addr "S" "S" ANY 1 IP addr "S" "S" rem addr list of ranges 0 IP addr "D" list of ranges ANY 0 IP addr "D" ANY list of ranges 1 IP addr "D" "D" ANY 1 IP addr "D" "D" protocol list of prot's* 0 prot. "P" list of prot's* ANY** 0 prot. "P" ANY OPAQUE**** 0 prot. "P" OPAQUE list of prot's* 0 not avail. discard packet ANY** 0 not avail. ANY OPAQUE**** 0 not avail. OPAQUE list of prot's* 1 prot. "P" "P" ANY** 1 prot. "P" "P" OPAQUE**** 1 prot. "P" *** list of prot's* 1 not avail. discard packet ANY** 1 not avail. discard packet OPAQUE**** 1 not avail. ***
If the protocol is one that has two ports, then there will be selectors for both Local and Remote ports. Value in Triggering Resulting SAD Selector SPD Entry PFP Packet Entry -------- ---------------- --- ------------ -------------- loc port list of ranges 0 src port "s" list of ranges ANY 0 src port "s" ANY OPAQUE 0 src port "s" OPAQUE list of ranges 0 not avail. discard packet ANY 0 not avail. ANY OPAQUE 0 not avail. OPAQUE list of ranges 1 src port "s" "s" ANY 1 src port "s" "s" OPAQUE 1 src port "s" *** list of ranges 1 not avail. discard packet ANY 1 not avail. discard packet OPAQUE 1 not avail. *** rem port list of ranges 0 dst port "d" list of ranges ANY 0 dst port "d" ANY OPAQUE 0 dst port "d" OPAQUE list of ranges 0 not avail. discard packet ANY 0 not avail. ANY OPAQUE 0 not avail. OPAQUE list of ranges 1 dst port "d" "d" ANY 1 dst port "d" "d" OPAQUE 1 dst port "d" *** list of ranges 1 not avail. discard packet ANY 1 not avail. discard packet OPAQUE 1 not avail. ***
If the protocol is mobility header, then there will be a selector for mh type. Value in Triggering Resulting SAD Selector SPD Entry PFP Packet Entry -------- ---------------- --- ------------ -------------- mh type list of ranges 0 mh type "T" list of ranges ANY 0 mh type "T" ANY OPAQUE 0 mh type "T" OPAQUE list of ranges 0 not avail. discard packet ANY 0 not avail. ANY OPAQUE 0 not avail. OPAQUE list of ranges 1 mh type "T" "T" ANY 1 mh type "T" "T" OPAQUE 1 mh type "T" *** list of ranges 1 not avail. discard packet ANY 1 not avail. discard packet OPAQUE 1 not avail. ***
If the protocol is ICMP, then there will be a 16-bit selector for ICMP type and ICMP code. Note that the type and code are bound to each other, i.e., the codes apply to the particular type. This 16-bit selector can contain a single type and a range of codes, a single type and ANY code, and ANY type and ANY code. Value in Triggering Resulting SAD Selector SPD Entry PFP Packet Entry --------- ---------------- --- ------------ -------------- ICMP type a single type & 0 type "t" & single type & and code range of codes code "c" range of codes a single type & 0 type "t" & single type & ANY code code "c" ANY code ANY type & ANY 0 type "t" & ANY type & code code "c" ANY code OPAQUE 0 type "t" & OPAQUE code "c" a single type & 0 not avail. discard packet range of codes a single type & 0 not avail. discard packet ANY code ANY type & 0 not avail. ANY type & ANY code ANY code OPAQUE 0 not avail. OPAQUE a single type & 1 type "t" & "t" and "c" range of codes code "c" a single type & 1 type "t" & "t" and "c" ANY code code "c" ANY type & 1 type "t" & "t" and "c" ANY code code "c" OPAQUE 1 type "t" & *** code "c" a single type & 1 not avail. discard packet range of codes a single type & 1 not avail. discard packet ANY code ANY type & 1 not avail. discard packet ANY code OPAQUE 1 not avail. ***
If the name selector is used: Value in Triggering Resulting SAD Selector SPD Entry PFP Packet Entry --------- ---------------- --- ------------ -------------- name list of user or N/A N/A N/A system names * "List of protocols" is the information, not the way that the SPD or SAD or IKEv2 have to represent this information. ** 0 (zero) is used by IKE to indicate ANY for protocol. *** Use of PFP=1 with an OPAQUE value is an error and SHOULD be prohibited by an IPsec implementation. **** The protocol field cannot be OPAQUE in IPv4. This table entry applies only to IPv6. 4.4.3. Peer Authorization Database (PAD) The Peer Authorization Database (PAD) provides the link between the SPD and a security association management protocol such as IKE. It embodies several critical functions: o identifies the peers or groups of peers that are authorized to communicate with this IPsec entity o specifies the protocol and method used to authenticate each peer o provides the authentication data for each peer o constrains the types and values of IDs that can be asserted by a peer with regard to child SA creation, to ensure that the peer does not assert identities for lookup in the SPD that it is not authorized to represent, when child SAs are created o peer gateway location info, e.g., IP address(es) or DNS names, MAY be included for peers that are known to be "behind" a security gateway The PAD provides these functions for an IKE peer when the peer acts as either the initiator or the responder. To perform these functions, the PAD contains an entry for each peer or group of peers with which the IPsec entity will communicate. An entry names an individual peer (a user, end system or security gateway) or specifies a group of peers (using ID matching rules defined below). The entry specifies the authentication protocol (e.g., IKEv1, IKEv2, KINK) method used (e.g., certificates or pre- shared secrets) and the authentication data (e.g., the pre-shared
secret or the trust anchor relative to which the peer's certificate will be validated). For certificate-based authentication, the entry also may provide information to assist in verifying the revocation status of the peer, e.g., a pointer to a CRL repository or the name of an Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) server associated with the peer or with the trust anchor associated with the peer. Each entry also specifies whether the IKE ID payload will be used as a symbolic name for SPD lookup, or whether the remote IP address provided in traffic selector payloads will be used for SPD lookups when child SAs are created. Note that the PAD information MAY be used to support creation of more than one tunnel mode SA at a time between two peers, e.g., two tunnels to protect the same addresses/hosts, but with different tunnel endpoints. 18.104.22.168. PAD Entry IDs and Matching Rules The PAD is an ordered database, where the order is defined by an administrator (or a user in the case of a single-user end system). Usually, the same administrator will be responsible for both the PAD and SPD, since the two databases must be coordinated. The ordering requirement for the PAD arises for the same reason as for the SPD, i.e., because use of "star name" entries allows for overlaps in the set of IKE IDs that could match a specific entry. Six types of IDs are supported for entries in the PAD, consistent with the symbolic name types and IP addresses used to identify SPD entries. The ID for each entry acts as the index for the PAD, i.e., it is the value used to select an entry. All of these ID types can be used to match IKE ID payload types. The six types are: o DNS name (specific or partial) o Distinguished Name (complete or sub-tree constrained) o RFC 822 email address (complete or partially qualified) o IPv4 address (range) o IPv6 address (range) o Key ID (exact match only) The first three name types can accommodate sub-tree matching as well as exact matches. A DNS name may be fully qualified and thus match exactly one name, e.g., foo.example.com. Alternatively, the name may encompass a group of peers by being partially specified, e.g., the string ".example.com" could be used to match any DNS name ending in these two domain name components.
Similarly, a Distinguished Name may specify a complete Distinguished Name to match exactly one entry, e.g., CN = Stephen, O = BBN Technologies, SP = MA, C = US. Alternatively, an entry may encompass a group of peers by specifying a sub-tree, e.g., an entry of the form "C = US, SP = MA" might be used to match all DNs that contain these two attributes as the top two Relative Distinguished Names (RDNs). For an RFC 822 e-mail addresses, the same options exist. A complete address such as email@example.com matches one entity, but a sub-tree name such as "@example.com" could be used to match all the entities with names ending in those two domain names to the right of the @. The specific syntax used by an implementation to accommodate sub-tree matching for distinguished names, domain names or RFC 822 e-mail addresses is a local matter. But, at a minimum, sub-tree matching of the sort described above MUST be supported. (Substring matching within a DN, DNS name, or RFC 822 address MAY be supported, but is not required.) For IPv4 and IPv6 addresses, the same address range syntax used for SPD entries MUST be supported. This allows specification of an individual address (via a trivial range), an address prefix (by choosing a range that adheres to Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)-style prefixes), or an arbitrary address range. The Key ID field is defined as an OCTET string in IKE. For this name type, only exact-match syntax MUST be supported (since there is no explicit structure for this ID type). Additional matching functions MAY be supported for this ID type. 22.214.171.124. IKE Peer Authentication Data Once an entry is located based on an ordered search of the PAD based on ID field matching, it is necessary to verify the asserted identity, i.e., to authenticate the asserted ID. For each PAD entry, there is an indication of the type of authentication to be performed. This document requires support for two required authentication data types: - X.509 certificate - pre-shared secret For authentication based on an X.509 certificate, the PAD entry contains a trust anchor via which the end entity (EE) certificate for the peer must be verifiable, either directly or via a certificate path. See RFC 3280 for the definition of a trust anchor. An entry used with certificate-based authentication MAY include additional data to facilitate certificate revocation status, e.g., a list of
appropriate OCSP responders or CRL repositories, and associated authentication data. For authentication based on a pre-shared secret, the PAD contains the pre-shared secret to be used by IKE. This document does not require that the IKE ID asserted by a peer be syntactically related to a specific field in an end entity certificate that is employed to authenticate the identity of that peer. However, it often will be appropriate to impose such a requirement, e.g., when a single entry represents a set of peers each of whom may have a distinct SPD entry. Thus, implementations MUST provide a means for an administrator to require a match between an asserted IKE ID and the subject name or subject alt name in a certificate. The former is applicable to IKE IDs expressed as distinguished names; the latter is appropriate for DNS names, RFC 822 e-mail addresses, and IP addresses. Since KEY ID is intended for identifying a peer authenticated via a pre-shared secret, there is no requirement to match this ID type to a certificate field. See IKEv1 [HarCar98] and IKEv2 [Kau05] for details of how IKE performs peer authentication using certificates or pre-shared secrets. This document does not mandate support for any other authentication methods, although such methods MAY be employed. 126.96.36.199. Child SA Authorization Data Once an IKE peer is authenticated, child SAs may be created. Each PAD entry contains data to constrain the set of IDs that can be asserted by an IKE peer, for matching against the SPD. Each PAD entry indicates whether the IKE ID is to be used as a symbolic name for SPD matching, or whether an IP address asserted in a traffic selector payload is to be used. If the entry indicates that the IKE ID is to be used, then the PAD entry ID field defines the authorized set of IDs. If the entry indicates that child SAs traffic selectors are to be used, then an additional data element is required, in the form of IPv4 and/or IPv6 address ranges. (A peer may be authorized for both address types, so there MUST be provision for both a v4 and a v6 address range.) 188.8.131.52. How the PAD Is Used During the initial IKE exchange, the initiator and responder each assert their identity via the IKE ID payload and send an AUTH payload to verify the asserted identity. One or more CERT payloads may be transmitted to facilitate the verification of each asserted identity.
When an IKE entity receives an IKE ID payload, it uses the asserted ID to locate an entry in the PAD, using the matching rules described above. The PAD entry specifies the authentication method to be employed for the identified peer. This ensures that the right method is used for each peer and that different methods can be used for different peers. The entry also specifies the authentication data that will be used to verify the asserted identity. This data is employed in conjunction with the specified method to authenticate the peer, before any CHILD SAs are created. Child SAs are created based on the exchange of traffic selector payloads, either at the end of the initial IKE exchange or in subsequent CREATE_CHILD_SA exchanges. The PAD entry for the (now authenticated) IKE peer is used to constrain creation of child SAs; specifically, the PAD entry specifies how the SPD is searched using a traffic selector proposal from a peer. There are two choices: either the IKE ID asserted by the peer is used to find an SPD entry via its symbolic name, or peer IP addresses asserted in traffic selector payloads are used for SPD lookups based on the remote IP address field portion of an SPD entry. It is necessary to impose these constraints on creation of child SAs to prevent an authenticated peer from spoofing IDs associated with other, legitimate peers. Note that because the PAD is checked before searching for an SPD entry, this safeguard protects an initiator against spoofing attacks. For example, assume that IKE A receives an outbound packet destined for IP address X, a host served by a security gateway. RFC 2401 [RFC2401] and this document do not specify how A determines the address of the IKE peer serving X. However, any peer contacted by A as the presumed representative for X must be registered in the PAD in order to allow the IKE exchange to be authenticated. Moreover, when the authenticated peer asserts that it represents X in its traffic selector exchange, the PAD will be consulted to determine if the peer in question is authorized to represent X. Thus, the PAD provides a binding of address ranges (or name sub-spaces) to peers, to counter such attacks. 4.5. SA and Key Management All IPsec implementations MUST support both manual and automated SA and cryptographic key management. The IPsec protocols, AH and ESP, are largely independent of the associated SA management techniques, although the techniques involved do affect some of the security services offered by the protocols. For example, the optional anti-replay service available for AH and ESP requires automated SA management. Moreover, the granularity of key distribution employed with IPsec determines the granularity of authentication provided. In general, data origin authentication in AH and ESP is limited by the
extent to which secrets used with the integrity algorithm (or with a key management protocol that creates such secrets) are shared among multiple possible sources. The following text describes the minimum requirements for both types of SA management. 4.5.1. Manual Techniques The simplest form of management is manual management, in which a person manually configures each system with keying material and SA management data relevant to secure communication with other systems. Manual techniques are practical in small, static environments but they do not scale well. For example, a company could create a virtual private network (VPN) using IPsec in security gateways at several sites. If the number of sites is small, and since all the sites come under the purview of a single administrative domain, this might be a feasible context for manual management techniques. In this case, the security gateway might selectively protect traffic to and from other sites within the organization using a manually configured key, while not protecting traffic for other destinations. It also might be appropriate when only selected communications need to be secured. A similar argument might apply to use of IPsec entirely within an organization for a small number of hosts and/or gateways. Manual management techniques often employ statically configured, symmetric keys, though other options also exist. 4.5.2. Automated SA and Key Management Widespread deployment and use of IPsec requires an Internet-standard, scalable, automated, SA management protocol. Such support is required to facilitate use of the anti-replay features of AH and ESP, and to accommodate on-demand creation of SAs, e.g., for user- and session-oriented keying. (Note that the notion of "rekeying" an SA actually implies creation of a new SA with a new SPI, a process that generally implies use of an automated SA/key management protocol.) The default automated key management protocol selected for use with IPsec is IKEv2 [Kau05]. This document assumes the availability of certain functions from the key management protocol that are not supported by IKEv1. Other automated SA management protocols MAY be employed. When an automated SA/key management protocol is employed, the output from this protocol is used to generate multiple keys for a single SA. This also occurs because distinct keys are used for each of the two
SAs created by IKE. If both integrity and confidentiality are employed, then a minimum of four keys are required. Additionally, some cryptographic algorithms may require multiple keys, e.g., 3DES. The Key Management System may provide a separate string of bits for each key or it may generate one string of bits from which all keys are extracted. If a single string of bits is provided, care needs to be taken to ensure that the parts of the system that map the string of bits to the required keys do so in the same fashion at both ends of the SA. To ensure that the IPsec implementations at each end of the SA use the same bits for the same keys, and irrespective of which part of the system divides the string of bits into individual keys, the encryption keys MUST be taken from the first (left-most, high-order) bits and the integrity keys MUST be taken from the remaining bits. The number of bits for each key is defined in the relevant cryptographic algorithm specification RFC. In the case of multiple encryption keys or multiple integrity keys, the specification for the cryptographic algorithm must specify the order in which they are to be selected from a single string of bits provided to the cryptographic algorithm. 4.5.3. Locating a Security Gateway This section discusses issues relating to how a host learns about the existence of relevant security gateways and, once a host has contacted these security gateways, how it knows that these are the correct security gateways. The details of where the required information is stored is a local matter, but the Peer Authorization Database (PAD) described in Section 4.4 is the most likely candidate. (Note: S* indicates a system that is running IPsec, e.g., SH1 and SG2 below.) Consider a situation in which a remote host (SH1) is using the Internet to gain access to a server or other machine (H2) and there is a security gateway (SG2), e.g., a firewall, through which H1's traffic must pass. An example of this situation would be a mobile host crossing the Internet to his home organization's firewall (SG2). This situation raises several issues: 1. How does SH1 know/learn about the existence of the security gateway SG2? 2. How does it authenticate SG2, and once it has authenticated SG2, how does it confirm that SG2 has been authorized to represent H2? 3. How does SG2 authenticate SH1 and verify that SH1 is authorized to contact H2?
4. How does SH1 know/learn about any additional gateways that provide alternate paths to H2? To address these problems, an IPsec-supporting host or security gateway MUST have an administrative interface that allows the user/administrator to configure the address of one or more security gateways for ranges of destination addresses that require its use. This includes the ability to configure information for locating and authenticating one or more security gateways and verifying the authorization of these gateways to represent the destination host. (The authorization function is implied in the PAD.) This document does not address the issue of how to automate the discovery/verification of security gateways. 4.6. SAs and Multicast The receiver-orientation of the SA implies that, in the case of unicast traffic, the destination system will select the SPI value. By having the destination select the SPI value, there is no potential for manually configured SAs to conflict with automatically configured (e.g., via a key management protocol) SAs or for SAs from multiple sources to conflict with each other. For multicast traffic, there are multiple destination systems associated with a single SA. So some system or person will need to coordinate among all multicast groups to select an SPI or SPIs on behalf of each multicast group and then communicate the group's IPsec information to all of the legitimate members of that multicast group via mechanisms not defined here. Multiple senders to a multicast group SHOULD use a single Security Association (and hence SPI) for all traffic to that group when a symmetric key encryption or integrity algorithm is employed. In such circumstances, the receiver knows only that the message came from a system possessing the key for that multicast group. In such circumstances, a receiver generally will not be able to authenticate which system sent the multicast traffic. Specifications for other, more general multicast approaches are deferred to the IETF Multicast Security Working Group.