5. Detailed Protocol Operation This section describes the detailed interactions of senders and receivers participating in a NORM session. A simple synopsis of protocol operation is given here:
1) The sender periodically transmits NORM_CMD(CC) messages as needed to initialize and collect roundtrip timing and congestion control feedback from the receiver set. 2) The sender transmits an ordinal set of NormObjects segmented in the form of NORM_DATA messages labeled with NormTransportIds and logically identified with FEC encoding block numbers and symbol identifiers. NORM_INFO messages may optionally precede the transmission of data content for NORM transport objects. 3) As receivers detect missing content from the sender, they initiate repair requests with NORM_NACK messages. Note the receivers track the sender's most recent objectId::fecPayloadId transmit position and NACK _only_ for content ordinally prior to that transmit position. The receivers schedule random backoff timeouts before generating NORM_NACK messages and wait an appropriate amount of time before repeating the NORM_NACK if their repair request is not satisfied. 4) The sender aggregates repair requests from the receivers and logically "rewinds" its transmit position to send appropriate repair messages. The sender sends repairs for the earliest ordinal transmit position first and maintains this ordinal repair transmission sequence. Previously untransmitted FEC parity content for the applicable FEC coding block is used for repair transmissions to the greatest extent possible. If the sender exhausts its available FEC parity content on multiple repair cycles for the same coding block, it resorts to an explicit repair strategy (possibly using parity content) to complete repairs. (The use of explicit repair is expected to be an exception in general protocol operation, but the possibility does exist for extreme conditions). The sender immediately assumes transmission of new content once it has sent pending repairs. 5) The sender transmits NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages when it reaches the end of enqueued transmit content and pending repairs. Receivers respond to the NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages with NORM_NACK transmissions (following the same suppression backoff timeout strategy as for data) if they require further repair. 6) The sender transmissions are subject to rate control limits determined by congestion control mechanisms. In the baseline NORM-CC operation, each sender in a NormSession maintains its own independent congestion control state. Receivers provide congestion control feedback in NORM_NACK and NORM_ACK messages. NORM_ACK feedback for congestion control purposes is governed using a suppression mechanism similar to that for NORM_NACK messages.
While this overall concept is relatively simple, there are details to each of these aspects that need to be addressed for successful, efficient, robust, and scalable NORM protocol operation. 5.1. Sender Initialization and Transmission Upon startup, the NORM sender immediately begins sending NORM_CMD(CC) messages to collect round trip timing and other information from the potential group. If NORM-CC congestion control operation is enabled, the NORM-CC Rate header extension MUST be included in these messages. Congestion control operation SHALL be observed at all times when operating in the general Internet. Even if congestion control operation is disabled at the sender, it may be desirable to use the NORM_CMD(CC) messaging to collect feedback from the group using the baseline NORM-CC feedback mechanisms. This proactive feedback collection can be used to establish a GRTT estimate prior to data transmission and potential NACK operation. In some cases, applications may wish for the sender to also proceed with data transmission immediately. In other cases, the sender may wish to defer data transmission until it has received some feedback or request from the receiver set indicating that receivers are indeed present. Note, in some applications (e.g., web push), this indication may come out-of-band with respect to the multicast session via other means. As noted, the periodic transmission of NORM_CMD(CC) messages may precede actual data transmission in order to have an initial GRTT estimate. With inclusion of the OPTIONAL NORM FEC Object Transmission Information Header Extension, the NORM protocol sender message headers can contain all information necessary to prepare receivers for subsequent reliable reception. This includes FEC coding parameters, the sender NormSegmentSize, and other information. If this header extension is not used, it is presumed that receivers have received the FEC Object Transmission Information via other means. Additionally, applications may leverage the use of NORM_INFO messages associated with the session data objects in the session to provide application-specific context information for the session and data being transmitted. These mechanisms allow for operation with minimal pre-coordination among the senders and receivers. The NORM sender begins segmenting application-enqueued data into NORM_DATA segments and transmitting it to the group. The segmentation algorithm is described in Section 5.1.1. The rate of transmission is controlled via congestion control mechanisms or is a fixed rate if desired for closed network operations. The receivers participating in the multicast group provide feedback to the sender as needed. When the sender reaches the end of data it has enqueued
for transmission or any pending repairs, it transmits a series of NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages at a rate of one per 2*GRTT. Receivers may respond to these NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages with additional repair requests. A protocol parameter "NORM_ROBUST_FACTOR" determines the number of flush messages sent. If receivers request repair, the repair is provided and flushing occurs again at the end of repair transmission. The sender may attach an OPTIONAL "acking_node_list" to NORM_CMD(FLUSH) containing the NormNodeIds for receivers from which it expects explicit positive acknowledgment of reception. The NORM_CMD(FLUSH) message may be also used for this optional function any time prior to the end of data enqueued for transmission with the NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages multiplexed with ongoing data transmissions. The OPTIONAL NORM positive acknowledgment procedure is described in Section 5.5.3. 5.1.1. Object Segmentation Algorithm NORM senders and receivers must use a common algorithm for logically segmenting transport data into FEC encoding blocks and symbols so that appropriate NACKs can be constructed to request repair of missing data. NORM FEC coding blocks are comprised of multi-byte symbols which are transmitted in the payload of NORM_DATA messages. Each NORM_DATA message contains one source or encoding symbol and the NormSegmentSize sender parameter defines the maximum symbol size in bytes. The FEC encoding type and associated parameters govern the source block size (number of source symbols per coding block). NORM senders and receivers use these FEC parameters, along with the NormSegmentSize and transport object size to compute the source block structure for transport objects. These parameters are provided in the FEC Transmission Information for each object. The algorithm given below is used to compute a source block structure such that all source blocks are as close to being equal length as possible. This helps avoid the performance disadvantages of "short" FEC blocks. Note this algorithm applies only to the statically-sized NORM_OBJECT_DATA and NORM_OBJECT_FILE transport object types where the object size is fixed and predetermined. For NORM_OBJECT_STREAM objects, the object is segmented according to the maximum source block length given in the FEC Transmission Information, unless the FEC Payload ID indicates an alternative size for a given block. The NORM block segmentation algorithm is defined as follows. For a transport object of a given length (L_obj) in bytes, a first number of FEC source blocks (N_large) is delineated of a larger block size (B_large), and a second number of source blocks (N_small) is delineated of a smaller block size (B_small). Given the maximum FEC source block size (B_max) and the sender's NormSegmentSize, the block segmentation for a given NORM transport object is determined as follows:
Inputs: B_max = Maximum source block length (i.e., maximum number of source symbols per source block) L_sym = Encoding symbol length in bytes (i.e., NormSegmentSize) L_obj = Object length in bytes Outputs: N_total = The total number of source blocks into which the transport object is partitioned. N_large = Number of larger source blocks (first set of blocks) B_large = Size (in encoding symbols) of the larger source blocks N_small = Number of smaller source blocks (second set of blocks) B_small = Size (in encoding symbols) of the smaller source blocks L_final = Length (in bytes) of the last source symbol of the last source block (All other symbols are of length L_sym). Algorithm: 1) The total number of source symbols in the transport object is computed as: S_total = L_obj/L_sym [rounded up to the nearest integer] 2) The transport object is partitioned into N_total source blocks, where: N_total = S_total/B_max [rounded up to the nearest integer] 3) The average length of a source block is computed as: B_ave = S_total/N_total (this may be non-integer) 4) The size of the first set of larger blocks is computed as: B_large = B_ave [rounded up to the nearest integer] (Note it will always be the case that B_large <= B_max) 5) The size of the second set of smaller blocks is computed as: B_small = B_ave [rounded down to the nearest integer] (Note if B_ave is an integer B_small = B_large; otherwise B_small = B_large - 1)
6) The fractional part of B_ave is computed as: B_fraction = B_ave - B_small 7) The number of larger source blocks is computed as: N_large = B_fraction * N_total (Note N_large is an integer in the range 0 through N_total - 1) 8) The number of smaller source blocks is computed as: N_small = N_total - N_large 9) Each of the first N_large source blocks consists of B_large source symbols. Each of the remaining N_small source blocks consists of B_small source symbols. All symbols are L_sym bytes in length except for the final source symbol of the final source block which is of length (in bytes): L_final = L_obj - (N_large*B_large + N_small*B_small - 1) * L_sym 5.2. Receiver Initialization and Reception The NORM protocol is designed such that receivers may join and leave the group at will. However, some applications may be constrained such that receivers need to be members of the group prior to start of data transmission. NORM applications may use different policies to constrain the impact of new receivers joining the group in the middle of a session. For example, a useful implementation policy is for new receivers joining the group to limit or avoid repair requests for transport objects already in progress. The NORM sender implementation may wish to impose additional constraints to limit the ability of receivers to disrupt reliable multicast performance by joining, leaving, and rejoining the group often. Different receiver "join policies" may be appropriate for different applications and/or scenarios. For general purpose operation, default policy where receivers are allowed to request repair only for coding blocks with a NormTransportId and FEC coding block number greater than or equal to the first non-repair NORM_DATA or NORM_INFO message received upon joining the group is RECOMMENDED. For objects of type NORM_OBJECT_STREAM it is RECOMMENDED that the join policy constrain receivers to start reliable reception at the current FEC coding block for which non-repair content is received. 5.3. Receiver NACK Procedure When the receiver detects it is missing data from a sender's NORM transmissions, it initiates its NACKing procedure. The NACKing procedure SHALL be initiated _only_ at FEC coding block boundaries, NormObject boundaries, and upon receipt of a NORM_CMD(FLUSH) message.
The NACKing procedure begins with a random backoff timeout. The duration of the backoff timeout is chosen using the "RandomBackoff" algorithm described in the NORM Building Block document  using (Ksender*GRTTsender) for the "maxTime" parameter and the sender advertised group size (GSIZEsender) as the "groupSize" parameter. NORM senders provide values for GRTTsender, Ksender and GSIZEsender via the "grtt", "backoff", and "gsize" fields of transmitted messages. The GRTTsender value is determined by the sender based on feedback it has received from the group while the Ksender and GSIZEsender values may determined by application requirements and expectations or ancillary information. The backoff factor "Ksender" MUST be greater than one to provide for effective feedback suppression. A value of K = 4 is RECOMMENDED for the Any Source Multicast (ASM) model while a value of K = 6 is RECOMMENDED for Single Source Multicast (SSM) operation. Thus: T_backoff = RandomBackoff(Ksender*GRTTsender, GSIZEsender) To avoid the possibility of NACK implosion in the case of sender or network failure during SSM operation, the receiver SHALL automatically suppress its NACK and immediately enter the "holdoff" period described below when T_backoff is greater than (Ksender- 1)*GRTTsender. Otherwise, the backoff period is entered and the receiver MUST accumulate external pending repair state from NORM_NACK messages and NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) messages received. At the end of the backoff time, the receiver SHALL generate a NORM_NACK message only if the following conditions are met: 1) The sender's current transmit position (in terms of objectId::fecPayloadId) exceeds the earliest repair position of the receiver. 2) The repair state accumulated from NORM_NACK and NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) messages do not equal or supersede the receiver's repair needs up to the sender transmission position at the time the NACK procedure (backoff timeout) was initiated. If these conditions are met, the receiver immediately generates a NORM_NACK message when the backoff timeout expires. Otherwise, the receiver's NACK is considered to be "suppressed" and the message is not sent. At this time, the receiver begins a "holdoff" period during which it constrains itself to not reinitiate the NACKing process. The purpose of this timeout is to allow the sender worst- case time to respond to the repair needs before the receiver requests repair again. The value of this "holdoff" timeout (T_rcvrHoldoff) as described in  is:
T_rcvrHoldoff =(Ksender+2)*GRTTsender The NORM_NACK message contains repair request content beginning with lowest ordinal repair position of the receiver up through the coding block prior to the most recently heard ordinal transmission position for the sender. If the size of the NORM_NACK content exceeds the sender's NormSegmentSize, the NACK content is truncated so that the receiver only generates a single NORM_NACK message per NACK cycle for a given sender. In summary, a single NACK message is generated containing the receiver's lowest ordinal repair needs. For each partially-received FEC coding block requiring repair, the receiver SHALL, on its _first_ repair attempt for the block, request the parity portion of the FEC coding block beginning with the lowest ordinal _parity_ "encoding_symbol_id" (i.e., "encoding_symbol_id" = "source_block_len") and request the number of FEC symbols corresponding to its data segment erasure count for the block. On _subsequent_ repair cycles for the same coding block, the receiver SHALL request only those repair symbols from the first set it has not yet received up to the remaining erasure count for that applicable coding block. Note that the sender may have provided other different, additional parity segments for other receivers that could also be used to satisfy the local receiver's erasure-filling needs. In the case where the erasure count for a partially-received FEC coding block exceeds the maximum number of parity symbols available from the sender for the block (as indicated by the NORM_DATA "fec_num_parity" field), the receiver SHALL request all available parity segments plus the ordinally highest missing data segments required to satisfy its total erasure needs for the block. The goal of this strategy is for the overall receiver set to request a lowest common denominator set of repair symbols for a given FEC coding block. This allows the sender to construct the most efficient repair transmission segment set and enables effective NACK suppression among the receivers even with uncorrelated packet loss. This approach also requires no synchronization among the receiver set in their repair requests for the sender. For FEC coding blocks or NormObjects missed in their entirety, the NORM receiver constructs repair requests with NORM_NACK_BLOCK or NORM_NACK_OBJECT flags set as appropriate. The request for retransmission of NORM_INFO is accomplished by setting the NORM_NACK_INFO flag in a corresponding repair request. 5.4. Sender NACK Processing and Response The principle goal of the sender is to make forward progress in the transmission of data its application has enqueued. However, the sender must occasionally "rewind" its logical transmission point to
satisfy the repair needs of receivers who have NACKed. Aggregation of multiple NACKs is used to determine an optimal repair strategy when a NACK event occurs. Since receivers initiate the NACK process on coding block or object boundaries, there is some loose degree of synchronization of the repair process even when receivers experience uncorrelated data loss. 5.4.1. Sender Repair State Aggregation When a sender is in its normal state of transmitting new data and receives a NACK, it begins a procedure to accumulate NACK repair state from NORM_NACK messages before beginning repair transmissions. Note that this period of aggregating repair state does _not_ interfere with its ongoing transmission of new data. As described in , the period of time during which the sender aggregates NORM_NACK messages is equal to: T_sndrAggregate = (Ksender+1)*GRTT where "Ksender" is the same backoff scaling value used by the receivers, and "GRTT" is the sender's current estimate of the group's greatest round-trip time. When this period ends, the sender "rewinds" by incorporating the accumulated repair state into its pending transmission state and begins transmitting repair messages. After pending repair transmissions are completed, the sender continues with new transmissions of any enqueued data. Also, at this point in time, the sender begins a "holdoff" timeout during which time the sender constrains itself from initiating a new repair aggregation cycle, even if NORM_NACK messages arrive. As described in , the value of this sender "holdoff" period is: T_sndrHoldoff = (1*GRTT) If additional NORM_NACK messages are received during this sender "holdoff" period, the sender will immediately incorporate these "late messages" into its pending transmission state ONLY if the NACK content is ordinally greater than the sender's current transmission position. This "holdoff" time allows worst case time for the sender to propagate its current transmission sequence position to the group, thus avoiding redundant repair transmissions. After the holdoff timeout expires, a new NACK accumulation period can be begun (upon arrival of a NACK) in concert with the pending repair and new data transmission. Recall that receivers are not to initiate the NACK repair process until the sender's logical transmission position exceeds the lowest ordinal position of their repair needs. With the
new NACK aggregation period, the sender repeats the same process of incorporating accumulated repair state into its transmission plan and subsequently "rewinding" to transmit the lowest ordinal repair data when the aggregation period expires. Again, this is conducted in concert with ongoing new data and/or pending repair transmissions. 5.4.2. Sender FEC Repair Transmission Strategy The NORM sender should leverage transmission of FEC parity content for repair to the greatest extent possible. Recall that the receivers use a strategy to request a lowest common denominator of explicit repair (including parity content) in the formation of their NORM_NACK messages. Before falling back to explicitly satisfying different receivers' repair needs, the sender can make use of the general erasure-filling capability of FEC-generated parity segments. The sender can determine the maximum erasure filling needs for individual FEC coding blocks from the NORM_NACK messages received during the repair aggregation period. Then, if the sender has a sufficient number (less than or equal to the maximum erasure count) of previously unsent parity segments available for the applicable coding blocks, the sender can transmit these in lieu of the specific packets the receiver set has requested. Only after exhausting its supply of "fresh" (unsent) parity segments for a given coding block should the sender resort to explicit transmission of the receiver set's repair needs. In general, if a sufficiently powerful FEC code is used, the need for explicit repair will be an exception, and the fulfillment of reliable multicast can be accomplished quite efficiently. However, the ability to resort to explicit repair allows the protocol to be reliable under even very extreme circumstances. NORM_DATA messages sent as repair transmissions SHALL be flagged with the NORM_FLAG_REPAIR flag. This allows receivers to obey any policies that limit new receivers from joining the reliable transmission when only repair transmissions have been received. Additionally, the sender SHOULD additionally flag NORM_DATA transmissions sent as explicit repair with the NORM_FLAG_EXPLICIT flag. Although NORM end system receivers do not make use of the NORM_FLAG_EXPLICIT flag, this message transmission status could be leveraged by intermediate systems wishing to "assist" NORM protocol performance. If such systems are properly positioned with respect to reciprocal reverse-path multicast routing, they need to sub-cast only a sufficient count of non-explicit parity repairs to satisfy a multicast routing sub-tree's erasure filling needs for a given FEC coding block. When the sender has resorted to explicit repair, then the intermediate systems should sub-cast all of the explicit repair
packets to those portions of the routing tree still requiring repair for a given coding block. Note the intermediate systems will be required to conduct repair state accumulation for sub-routes in a manner similar to the sender's repair state accumulation in order to have sufficient information to perform the sub-casting. Additionally, the intermediate systems could perform additional NORM_NACK suppression/aggregation as it conducts this repair state accumulation for NORM repair cycles. The detail of this type of operation are beyond the scope of this document, but this information is provided for possible future consideration. 5.4.3. Sender NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) Generation If the sender receives a NORM_NACK message for repair of data it is no longer supporting, the sender generates a NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) message to advertise its repair window and squelch any receivers from additional NACKing of invalid data. The transmission rate of NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) messages is limited to once per 2*GRTT. The "invalid_object_list" (if applicable) of the NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) message SHALL begin with the lowest "object_transport_id" from the invalid NORM_NACK messages received since the last NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) transmission. Lower ordinal invalid "object_transport_ids" should be included only while the NORM_CMD(SQUELCH) payload is less than the sender's NormSegmentSize parameter. 5.4.4. Sender NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) Generation When a NORM sender receives NORM_NACK messages from receivers via unicast transmission, it uses NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) messages to advertise its accumulated repair state to the receiver set since the receiver set is not directly sharing their repair needs via multicast communication. The NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) message is multicast to the receiver set by the sender. The payload portion of this message has content in the same format as the NORM_NACK receiver message payload. Receivers are then able to perform feedback suppression in the same manner as with NORM_NACK messages directly received from other receivers. Note the sender does not merely retransmit NACK content it receives, but instead transmits a representation of its aggregated repair state. The transmission of NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) messages are subject to the sender transmit rate limit and NormSegmentSize limitation. When the NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) message is of maximum size, receivers SHALL consider the maximum ordinal transmission position value embedded in the message as the senders "current" transmission position and implicitly suppress requests for ordinally higher repair. For congestion control operation, the sender may also need to provide information so that dynamic congestion control feedback can be suppressed as needed among receivers. This document specifies the NORM-CC Feedback Header Extension that is applied for
baseline NORM-CC operation. If other congestion control mechanisms are used within a NORM implementation, other header extensions may be defined. Whatever content format is used for this purpose should ensure that maximum possible suppression state is conveyed to the receiver set. 5.5. Additional Protocol Mechanisms In addition to the principal function of data content transmission and repair, there are some other protocol mechanisms that help NORM to adapt to network conditions and play fairly with other coexistent protocols. 5.5.1. Greatest Round-trip Time Collection For NORM receivers to appropriately scale backoff timeouts and the senders to use proper corresponding timeouts, the participants must agree on a common timeout basis. Each NORM sender monitors the round-trip time of active receivers and determines the group greatest round-trip time (GRTT). The sender advertises this GRTT estimate in every message it transmits so that receivers have this value available for scaling their timers. To measure the current GRTT, the sender periodically sends NORM_CMD(CC) messages that contain a locally generated timestamp. Receivers are expected to record this timestamp along with the time the NORM_CMD(CC) message is received. Then, when the receivers generate feedback messages to the sender, an adjusted version of the sender timestamp is embedded in the feedback message (NORM_NACK or NORM_ACK). The adjustment adds the amount of time the receiver held the timestamp before generating its response. Upon receipt of this adjusted timestamp, the sender is able to calculate the round-trip time to that receiver. The round-trip time for each receiver is fed into an algorithm that weights and smoothes the values for a conservative estimate of the GRTT. The algorithm and methodology are described in the NORM Building Block document  in the section entitled "One-to-Many Sender GRTT Measurement". A conservative estimate helps feedback suppression at a small cost in overall protocol repair delay. The sender's current estimate of GRTT is advertised in the "grtt" field found in all NORM sender messages. The advertised GRTT is also limited to a minimum of the nominal inter-packet transmission time given the sender's current transmission rate and system clock granularity. The reason for this additional limit is to keep the receiver somewhat "event driven" by making sure the sender has had adequate time to generate any response to repair requests from receivers given transmit rate limitations due to congestion control or configuration.
When the NORM-CC Rate header extension is present in NORM_CMD(CC) messages, the receivers respond to NORM_CMD(CC) messages as described in Section 5.5.2, "NORM Congestion Control Operation". The NORM_CMD(CC) messages are periodically generated by the sender as described for congestion control operation. This provides for proactive, but controlled, feedback from the group in the form of NORM_ACK messages. This provides for GRTT feedback even if no NORM_NACK messages are being sent. If operating without congestion control in a closed network, the NORM_CMD(CC) messages may be sent periodically without the NORM-CC Rate header extension. In this case, receivers will only provide GRTT measurement feedback when NORM_NACK messages are generated since no NORM_ACK messages are generated. In this case, the NORM_CMD(CC) messages may be sent less frequently, perhaps as little as once per minute, to conserve network capacity. Note that the NORM-CC Rate header extension may also be used proactively solicit RTT feedback from the receiver group per congestion control operation even though the sender may not be conducting congestion control rate adjustment. NORM operation without congestion control should be considered only in closed networks. 5.5.2. NORM Congestion Control Operation This section describes baseline congestion control operation for the NORM protocol (NORM-CC). The supporting NORM message formats and approach described here are an adaptation of the equation-based TCP- Friendly Multicast Congestion Control (TFMCC) approach described in . This congestion control scheme is REQUIRED for operation within the general Internet unless the NORM implementation is adapted to use another IETF-sanctioned reliable multicast congestion control mechanism (e.g., PGMCC ). With this TFMCC-based approach, the transmissions of NORM senders are controlled in a rate-based manner as opposed to window-based congestion control algorithms as in TCP. However, it is possible that the NORM protocol message set may alternatively be used to support a window-based multicast congestion control scheme such as PGMCC. The details of that alternative may be described separately or in a future revision of this document. In either case (rate-based TFMCC or window-based PGMCC), successful control of sender transmission depends upon collection of sender-to- receiver packet loss estimates and RTTs to identify the congestion control bottleneck path(s) within the multicast topology and adjust the sender rate accordingly. The receiver with loss and RTT estimates that correspond to the lowest result transmission rate is identified as the "current limiting receiver" (CLR).
As described in , a steady-state sender transmission rate, to be "friendly" with competing TCP flows can be calculated as: S Rsender = -------------------------------------------------------------- tRTT * (sqrt((2/3)*p) + 12 * sqrt((3/8)*p) * p * (1 + 32*(p^2))) where S = Nominal transmitted packet size. (In NORM, the "nominal" packet size can be determined by the sender as an exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) of transmitted packet sizes to account for variable message sizes). tRTT = The RTT estimate of the current "current limiting receiver" (CLR). p = The loss event fraction of the CLR. To support congestion control feedback collection and operation, the NORM sender periodically transmits NORM_CMD(CC) command messages. NORM_CMD(CC) messages are multiplexed with NORM data and repair transmissions and serve several purposes: 1) Stimulate explicit feedback from the general receiver set to collect congestion control information. 2) Communicate state to the receiver set on the sender's current congestion control status including details of the CLR. 3) Initiate rapid (immediate) feedback from the CLR in order to closely track the dynamics of congestion control for that current "worst path" in the group multicast topology. The format of the NORM_CMD(CC) message is describe in Section 4.2.3 of this document. The NORM_CMD(CC) message contains information to allow measurement of RTTs, to inform the group of the congestion control CLR, and to provide feedback of individual RTT measurements to the receivers in the group. The NORM_CMD(CC) also provides for exciting feedback from OPTIONAL "potential limiting receiver" (PLR) nodes that may be determined administratively or possibly algorithmically based on congestion control feedback. PLR nodes are receivers that have been identified to have potential for (perhaps soon) becoming the CLR and thus immediate, up-to-date feedback is beneficial for congestion control performance. The details of PLR selection are not discussed in this document.
188.8.131.52. NORM_CMD(CC) Transmission The NORM_CMD(CC) message is transmitted periodically by the sender along with its normal data transmission. Note that the repeated transmission of NORM_CMD(CC) messages may be initiated some time before transmission of user data content at session startup. This may be done to collect some estimation of the current state of the multicast topology with respect to group and individual RTT and congestion control state. A NORM_CMD(CC) message is immediately transmitted at sender startup. The interval of subsequent NORM_CMD(CC) message transmission is determined as follows: 1) By default, the interval is set according to the current sender GRTT estimate. A startup GRTT of 0.5 seconds is recommended when no feedback has yet been received from the group. 2) If a CLR has been identified (based on previous receiver feedback), the interval is the RTT between the sender and CLR. 3) Additionally, if the interval of nominal data message transmission is greater than the GRTT or RTT_clr interval, the NORM_CMD(CC) interval is set to this greater value. This ensures that the transmission of this control message is not done to the exclusion of user data transmission. The NORM_CMD(CC) "cc_sequence" field is incremented with each transmission of a NORM_CMD(CC) command. The greatest "cc_sequence" recently received by receivers is included in their feedback to the sender. This allows the sender to determine the "age" of feedback to assist in congestion avoidance. The NORM-CC Rate Header Extension is applied to the NORM_CMD(CC) message and the sender advertises its current transmission rate in the "send_rate" field. The rate information is used by receivers to initialize loss estimation during congestion control startup or restart. The "cc_node_list" contains a list of entries identifying receivers and their current congestion control state (status "flags", "rtt" and "loss" estimates). The list may be empty if the sender has not yet received any feedback from the group. If the sender has received feedback, the list will minimally contain an entry identifying the CLR. A NORM_FLAG_CC_CLR flag value is provided for the "cc_flags" field to identify the CLR entry. It is RECOMMENDED that the CLR entry be the first in the list for implementation efficiency. Additional entries in the list are used to provide sender-measured
individual RTT estimates to receivers in the group. The number of additional entries in this list is dependent upon the percentage of control traffic the sender application is willing to send with respect to user data message transmissions. More entries in the list may allow the sender to be more responsive to congestion control dynamics. The length of the list may be dynamically determined according to the current transmission rate and scheduling of NORM_CMD(CC) messages. The maximum length of the list corresponds to the sender's NormSegmentSize parameter for the session. The inclusion of additional entries in the list based on receiver feedback are prioritized with following rules: 1) Receivers that have not yet been provided RTT feedback get first priority. Of these, those with the greatest loss fraction receive precedence for list inclusion. 2) Secondly, receivers that have previously been provided RTT are included with receivers yielding the lowest calculated congestion rate getting precedence. There are "cc_flag" values in addition to NORM_FLAG_CC_CLR that are used for other congestion control functions. The NORM_FLAG_CC_PLR flag value is used to mark additional receivers from that the sender would like to have immediate, non-suppressed feedback. These may be receivers that the sender algorithmically identified as potential future CLRs or that have been pre-configured as potential congestion control points in the network. The NORM_FLAG_CC_RTT indicates the validity of the "cc_rtt" field for the associated receiver node. Normally, this flag will be set since the receivers in the list will typically be receivers from which the sender has received feedback. However, in the case that the NORM sender has been pre-configured with a set of PLR nodes, feedback from those receivers may not yet have been collected and thus the "cc_rtt" and "cc_rate" fields do not contain valid values when this flag is not set. 184.108.40.206. NORM_CMD(CC) Feedback Response Receivers explicitly respond to NORM_CMD(CC) messages in the form of a NORM_ACK(RTT) message. The goal of the congestion control feedback is to determine the receivers with the lowest congestion control rates. Receivers that are marked as CLR or PLR nodes in the NORM_CMD(CC) "cc_node_list" immediately provide feedback in the form of a NORM_ACK to this message. When a NORM_CMD(CC) is received, non-CLR or non-PLR nodes initiate random feedback backoff timeouts similar to that used when the receiver initiates a repair cycle (see Section 5.3) in response to detection of data loss. The backoff timeout for the congestion control response is generated as follows:
T_backoff = RandomBackoff(K*GRTTsender, GSIZEsender) The "RandomBackoff()" algorithm provides a truncated exponentially distributed random number and is described in the NORM Building Block document . The same backoff factor K = Ksender MAY be used as with NORM_NACK suppression. However, in cases where the application purposefully specifies a very small Ksender backoff factor to minimize the NACK repair process latency (trading off group size scalability), it may still be desirable to maintain a larger backoff factor for congestion control feedback, since there may often be a larger volume of congestion control feedback than NACKs in many cases and congestion control feedback latency may be tolerable where reliable delivery latency is not. As previously noted, a backoff factor value of K = 4 is generally recommended for ASM operation and K = 6 for SSM operation. A receiver SHALL cancel the backoff timeout and thus its pending transmission of a NORM_ACK(RTT) message under the following conditions: 1) The receiver generates another feedback message (NORM_NACK or other NORM_ACK) before the congestion control feedback timeout expires, 2) A NORM_CMD(CC) or other receiver feedback with an ordinally greater "cc_sequence" field value is received before the congestion control feedback timeout expires (this is similar to the TFMCC feedback round number), 3) When the T_backoff is greater than 1*GRTT. This prevents NACK implosion in the event of sender or network failure, 4) "Suppressing" congestion control feedback is heard from another receiver (in a NORM_ACK or NORM_NACK) or via a NORM_CMD(REPAIR_ADV) message from the sender. The local receiver's feedback is "suppressed" if the rate of the competing feedback (Rfb) is sufficiently close to or less than the local receiver's calculated rate (Rcalc). The local receiver's feedback is canceled when: Rcalc > (0.9 * Rfb) Also note receivers that have not yet received an RTT measurement from the sender are suppressed only by other receivers that have not yet measured RTT. Additionally, receivers whose RTT estimate has "aged" considerably (i.e., they haven't been included in the NORM_CMD(CC) "cc_node_list" in a long time) may wish to compete as a receiver with no prior RTT measurement after some expiration period.
When the backoff timer expires, the receiver SHALL generate a NORM_ACK(RTT) message to provide feedback to the sender and group. This message may be multicast to the group for most effective suppression in ASM topologies or unicast to the sender depending upon how the NORM protocol is deployed and configured. Whenever any feedback is generated (including this NORM_ACK(RTT) message), receivers include an adjusted version of the sender timestamp from the most recently received NORM_CMD(CC) message and the "cc_sequence" value from that command in the applicable NORM_ACK or NORM_NACK message fields. For NORM-CC operation, any generated feedback message SHALL also contain the NORM-CC Feedback header extension. The receiver provides its current "cc_rate" estimate, "cc_loss" estimate, "cc_rtt" if known, and any applicable "cc_flags" via this header extension. During slow start (when the receiver has not yet detected loss from the sender), the receiver uses a value equal to two times its measured rate from the sender in the "cc_rate" field. For steady- state congestion control operation, the receiver "cc_rate" value is from the equation-based value using its current loss event estimate and sender<->receiver RTT information. (The GRTT is used when the receiver has not yet measured its individual RTT). The "cc_loss" field value reflects the receiver's current loss event estimate with respect to the sender in question. When the receiver has a valid individual RTT measurement, it SHALL include this value in the "cc_rtt" field. The NORM_FLAG_CC_RTT MUST be set when the "cc_rtt" field is valid. After a congestion control feedback message is generated or when the feedback is suppressed, a non-CLR receiver begins a "holdoff" timeout period during which it will restrain itself from providing congestion control feedback, even if NORM_CMD(CC) messages are received from the sender (unless the receive becomes marked as a CLR or PLR node). The value of this holdoff timeout (T_ccHoldoff) period is: T_ccHoldoff = (K*GRTT) Thus, non-CLR receivers are constrained to providing explicit congestion control feedback once per K*GRTT intervals. Note, however, that as the session progresses, different receivers will be responding to different NORM_CMD(CC) messages and there will be relatively continuous feedback of congestion control information while the sender is active.
220.127.116.11. Congestion Control Rate Adjustment During steady-state operation, the sender will directly adjust its transmission rate to the rate indicated by the feedback from its currently selected CLR. As noted in , the estimation of parameters (loss and RTT) for the CLR will generally constrain the rate changes possible within acceptable bounds. For rate increases, the sender SHALL observe a maximum rate of increase of one packet per RTT at all times during steady-state operation. The sender processes congestion control feedback from the receivers and selects the CLR based on the lowest rate receiver. Receiver rates are either determined directly from the slow start "cc_rate" provided by the receiver in the NORM-CC Feedback header extension or by performing the equation-based calculation using individual RTT and loss estimates ("cc_loss") as feedback is received. The sender can calculate a current RTT for a receiver (RTT_rcvrNew) using the "grtt_response" timestamp included in feedback messages. When the "cc_rtt" value in a response is not valid, the sender simply uses this RTT_rcvrNew value as the receiver's current RTT (RTT_rcvr). For non-CLR and non-PLR receivers, the sender can use the "cc_rtt" value provided in the NORM-CC Feedback header extension as the receiver's previous RTT measurement (RTT_rcvrPrev) to smooth according to: RTT_rcvr = 0.5 * RTT_rcvrPrev + 0.5 * RTT_rcvrNew For CLR receivers where feedback is received more regularly, the sender SHOULD maintain a more smoothed RTT estimate upon new feedback from the CLR where: RTT_clr = 0.9 * RTT_clr + 0.1 * RTT_clrNew "RTT_clrNew" is the new RTT calculated from the timestamp in the feedback message received from the CLR. The RTT_clr is initialized to RTT_clrNew on the first feedback message received. Note that the same procedure is observed by the sender for PLR receivers and that if a PLR is "promoted" to CLR status, the smoothed estimate can be continued. There are some additional periods besides steady-state operation that need to be considered in NORM-CC operation. These periods are: 1) during session startup, 2) when no feedback is received from the CLR, and
3) when the sender has a break in data transmission. During session startup, the congestion control operation SHALL observe a "slow start" procedure to quickly approach its fair bandwidth share. An initial sender startup rate is assumed where: Rinitial = MIN(NormSegmentSize / GRTT, NormSegmentSize) bytes/second. The rate is increased only when feedback is received from the receiver set. The "slow start" phase proceeds until any receiver provides feedback indicating that loss has occurred. Rate increase during slow start is applied as: Rnew = Rrecv_min where "Rrecv_min" is the minimum reported receiver rate in the "cc_rate" field of congestion control feedback messages received from the group. Note that during "slow start", receivers use two times their measured rate from the sender in the "cc_rate" field of their feedback. Rate increase adjustment is limited to once per GRTT during slow start. If the CLR or any receiver intends to leave the group, it will set the NORM_FLAG_CC_LEAVE in its congestion control feedback message as an indication that the sender should not select it as the CLR. When the CLR changes to a lower rate receiver, the sender should immediately adjust to the new lower rate. The sender is limited to increasing its rate at one additional packet per RTT towards any new, higher CLR rate. The sender should also track the "age" of the feedback it has received from the CLR by comparing its current "cc_sequence" value (Seq_sender) to the last "cc_sequence" value received from the CLR (Seq_clr). As the "age" of the CLR feedback increases with no new feedback, the sender SHALL begin reducing its rate once per RTT_clr as a congestion avoidance measure. The following algorithm is used to determine the decrease in sender rate (Rsender bytes/sec) as the CLR feedback, unexpectedly, excessively ages: Age = Seq_sender - Seq_clr; if (Age > 4) Rsender = Rsender * 0.5; This rate reduction is limited to the lower bound on NORM transmission rate. After NORM_ROBUST_FACTOR consecutive NORM_CMD(CC) rounds without any feedback from the CLR, the sender SHOULD assume the CLR has left the group and pick the receiver with the next lowest
rate as the new CLR. Note this assumes that the sender does not have explicit knowledge that the CLR intentionally left the group. If no receiver feedback is received, the sender MAY wish to withhold further transmissions of NORM_DATA segments and maintain NORM_CMD(CC) transmissions only until feedback is detected. After such a CLR timeout, the sender will be transmitting with a minimal rate and should return to slow start as described here for a break in data transmission. When the sender has a break in its data transmission, it can continue to probe the group with NORM_CMD(CC) messages to maintain RTT collection from the group. This will enable the sender to quickly determine an appropriate CLR upon data transmission restart. However, the sender should exponentially reduce its target rate to be used for transmission restart as time since the break elapses. The target rate SHOULD be recalculated once per RTT_clr as: Rsender = Rsender * 0.5; If the minimum NORM rate is reached, the sender should set the NORM_FLAG_START flag in its NORM_CMD(CC) messages upon restart and the group should observer "slow start" congestion control procedures until any receiver experiences a new loss event. 5.5.3. NORM Positive Acknowledgment Procedure NORM provides options for the source application to request positive acknowledgment (ACK) of NORM_CMD(FLUSH) and NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) messages from members of the group. There are some specific acknowledgment requests defined for the NORM protocol and a range of acknowledgment request types that are left to be defined by the application. One predefined acknowledgment type is the NORM_ACK_FLUSH type. This acknowledgment is used to determine if receivers have achieved completion of reliable reception up through a specific logical transmission point with respect to the sender's sequence of transmission. The NORM_ACK_FLUSH acknowledgment may be used to assist in application flow control when the sender has information on a portion of the receiver set. Another predefined acknowledgment type is NORM_ACK(CC), which is used to explicitly provide congestion control feedback in response to NORM_CMD(CC) messages transmitted by the sender for NORM-CC operation. Note the NORM_ACK(CC) response does NOT follow the positive acknowledgment procedure described here. The NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) and NORM_ACK messages contain an "ack_type" field to identify the type of acknowledgment requested and provided. A range of "ack_type" values is provided for application-defined use. While the application is responsible for initiating the acknowledgment request and interprets application-defined "ack_type" values, the acknowledgment procedure
SHOULD be conducted within the protocol implementation to take advantage of timing and transmission scheduling information available to the NORM transport. The NORM positive acknowledgment procedure uses polling by the sender to query the receiver group for response. Note this polling procedure is not intended to scale to very large receiver groups, but could be used in large group setting to query a critical subset of the group. Either the NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ), or when applicable, the NORM_CMD(FLUSH) message is used for polling and contains a list of NormNodeIds for receivers that should respond to the command. The list of receivers providing acknowledgment is determined by the source application with "a priori" knowledge of participating nodes or via some other application-level mechanism. The ACK process is initiated by the sender that generates NORM_CMD(FLUSH) or NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) messages in periodic "rounds". For NORM_ACK_FLUSH requests, the NORM_CMD(FLUSH) contain a "object_transport_id" and "fec_payload_id" denoting the watermark transmission point for which acknowledgment is requested. This watermark transmission point is "echoed" in the corresponding fields of the NORM_ACK(FLUSH) message sent by the receiver in response. NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) messages contain an "ack_id" field which is similarly "echoed" in response so that the sender may match the response to the appropriate request. In response to the NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ), the listed receivers randomly spread NORM_ACK messages uniformly in time over a window of (1*GRTT). These NORM_ACK messages are typically unicast to the sender. (Note that NORM_ACK(CC) messages SHALL be multicast or unicast in the same manner as NORM_NACK messages). The ACK process is self-limiting and avoids ACK implosion in that: 1) Only a single NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) message is generated once per (2*GRTT), and, 2) The size of the "acking_node_list" of NormNodeIds from which acknowledgment is requested is limited to a maximum of the sender NormSegmentSize setting per round of the positive acknowledgment process. Because the size of the included list is limited to the sender's NormSegmentSize setting, multiple NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) rounds may be required to achieve responses from all receivers specified. The content of the attached NormNodeId list will be dynamically updated as this process progresses and NORM_ACK responses are received from the specified receiver set. As the sender receives valid responses
(i.e., matching watermark point or "ack_id") from receivers, it SHALL eliminate those receivers from the subsequent NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) message "acking_node_list" and add in any pending receiver NormNodeIds while keeping within the NormSegmentSize limitation of the list size. Each receiver is queried a maximum number of times (NORM_ROBUST_FACTOR, by default). Receivers not responding within this number of repeated requests are removed from the payload list to make room for other potential receivers pending acknowledgment. The transmission of the NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) is repeated until no further responses are required or until the repeat threshold is exceeded for all pending receivers. The transmission of NORM_CMD(ACK_REQ) or NORM_CMD(FLUSH) messages to conduct the positive acknowledgment process is multiplexed with ongoing sender data transmissions. However, the NORM_CMD(FLUSH) positive acknowledgment process may be interrupted in response to negative acknowledgment repair requests (NACKs) received from receivers during the acknowledgment period. The NORM_CMD(FLUSH) positive acknowledgment process is restarted for receivers pending acknowledgment once any the repairs have been transmitted. In the case of NORM_CMD(FLUSH) commands with an attached "acking_node_list", receivers will not ACK until they have received complete transmission of all data up to and including the given watermark transmission point. All receivers SHALL interpret the watermark point provided in the request NACK for repairs if needed as for NORM_CMD(FLUSH) commands with no attached "acking_node_list". 5.5.4. Group Size Estimate NORM sender messages contain a "gsize" field that is a representation of the group size and is used in scaling random backoff timer ranges. The use of the group size estimate within the NORM protocol does not require a precise estimation and works reasonably well if the estimate is within an order of magnitude of the actual group size. By default, the NORM sender group size estimate may be administratively configured. Also, given the expected scalability of the NORM protocol for general use, a default value of 10,000 is recommended for use as the group size estimate. It is possible that group size may be algorithmically approximated from the volume of congestion control feedback messages which follow the exponentially weighted random backoff. However, the specification of such an algorithm is currently beyond the scope of this document.
6. Security Considerations The same security considerations that apply to the NORM, and FEC Building Blocks also apply to the NORM protocol. In addition to vulnerabilities that any IP and IP multicast protocol implementation may be generally subject to, the NACK-based feedback of NORM may be exploited by replay attacks which force the NORM sender to unnecessarily transmit repair information. This MAY be addressed by network layer IP security implementations that guard against this potential security exploitation. It is RECOMMENDED that such IP security mechanisms be used when available. Another possible approach is for NORM senders to use the "sequence" field from the NORM Common Message Header to detect replay attacks. This can be accomplished if the NORM packets are cryptographically protected and the sender is willing to maintain state on receivers which are NACKing. A cache of receiver state may provide some protection against replay attacks. Note that the "sequence" field of NORM messages should be incremented with independent values for different destinations (e.g., group-addressed versus unicast-addressed messages versus "receiver" messages). Thus, the congestion control loss estimation function of the "sequence" field can be preserved for sender messages when receiver messages are unicast to the sender. The NORM protocol is compatible with the use of the IP security (IPsec) architecture described in . It is important to note that while NORM does leverage FEC-based repair for scalability, this does not alone guarantee integrity of received data. Application-level integrity-checking of data content is highly RECOMMENDED. 7. IANA Considerations No information in this specification is currently subject to IANA registration. However, several Header Extensions are defined within this document. If/when additional Header Extensions are developed, the first RFC MUST establish an IANA registry for them, with a "Specification Required" policy  and all Header Extensions, including those in the present document, MUST be registered thereafter. Additionally, building blocks components used by NORM may introduce additional IANA considerations. In particular, the FEC Building Block used by NORM does require IANA registration of the FEC codecs used. The registration instructions for FEC codecs are provided in . 8. Suggested Use The present NORM protocol is seen as useful tool for the reliable data transfer over generic IP multicast services. It is not the intention of the authors to suggest it is suitable for supporting all envisioned multicast reliability requirements. NORM provides a
simple and flexible framework for multicast applications with a degree of concern for network traffic implosion and protocol overhead efficiency. NORM-like protocols have been successfully demonstrated within the MBone for bulk data dissemination applications, including weather satellite compressed imagery updates servicing a large group of receivers and a generic web content reliable "push" application. In addition, this framework approach has some design features making it attractive for bulk transfer in asymmetric and wireless internetwork applications. NORM is capable of successfully operating independent of network structure and in environments with high packet loss, delay, and misordering. Hybrid proactive/reactive FEC-based repairing improve protocol performance in some multicast scenarios. A sender-only repair approach often makes additional engineering sense in asymmetric networks. NORM's unicast feedback capability may be suitable for use in asymmetric networks or in networks where only unidirectional multicast routing/delivery service exists. Asymmetric architectures supporting multicast delivery are likely to make up an important portion of the future Internet structure (e.g., DBS/cable/PSTN hybrids) and efficient, reliable bulk data transfer will be an important capability for servicing large groups of subscribed receivers. 9. Acknowledgments (and these are not Negative) The authors would like to thank Rick Jones, Vincent Roca, Rod Walsh, Toni Paila, Michael Luby, and Joerg Widmer for their valuable input and comments on this document. The authors would also like to thank the RMT working group chairs, Roger Kermode and Lorenzo Vicisano, for their support in development of this specification, and Sally Floyd for her early input into this document. 10. References 10.1. Normative References  Kermode, R. and L. Vicisano, "Author Guidelines for Reliable Multicast Transport (RMT) Building Blocks and Protocol Instantiation documents", RFC 3269, April 2002.  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", STD 5, RFC 1112, August 1989.
 Adamson, B., Bormann, C., Handley, M., and J. Macker, "Negative-Acknowledgment (NACK)-Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM) Building Blocks", RFC 3941, November 2004.  Luby, M., Vicisano, L., Gemmell, J., Rizzo, L., Handley, M., and J. Crowcroft, "Forward Error Correction (FEC) Building Block", RFC 3452, December 2002.  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 2434, October 1998. 10.2. Informative References  Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.  Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session Announcement Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000.  S. Pingali, D. Towsley, J. Kurose, "A Comparison of Sender- Initiated and Receiver-Initiated Reliable Multicast Protocols", In Proc. INFOCOM, San Francisco CA, October 1993.  Luby, M., Vicisano, L., Gemmell, J., Rizzo, L., Handley, M., and J. Crowcroft, "The Use of Forward Error Correction (FEC) in Reliable Multicast", RFC 3453, December 2002.  Macker, J. and B. Adamson, "The Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) Toolkit", Proc. IEEE MILCOM 99, October 1999.  Nonnenmacher, J. and E. Biersack, "Optimal Multicast Feedback", Proc. IEEE INFOCOMM, p. 964, March/April 1998.  J. Macker, B. Adamson, "Quantitative Prediction of Nack Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM) Feedback", Proc. IEEE MILCOM 2002, October 2002.  H.W. Holbrook, "A Channel Model for Multicast", Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford University, Department of Computer Science, Stanford, California, August 2001.  D. Gossink, J. Macker, "Reliable Multicast and Integrated Parity Retransmission with Channel Estimation", IEEE GLOBECOMM 98', September 1998.  Whetten, B., Vicisano, L., Kermode, R., Handley, M., Floyd, S., and M. Luby, "Reliable Multicast Transport Building Blocks for One-to-Many Bulk-Data Transfer", RFC 3048, January 2001.
 Mankin, A., Romanow, A., Bradner, S., and V. Paxson, "IETF Criteria for Evaluating Reliable Multicast Transport and Application Protocols", RFC 2357, June 1998.  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.  J. Widmer and M. Handley, "Extending Equation-Based Congestion Control to Multicast Applications", Proc ACM SIGCOMM 2001, San Diego, August 2001.  L. Rizzo, "pgmcc: A TCP-Friendly Single-Rate Multicast Congestion Control Scheme", Proc ACM SIGCOMM 2000, Stockholm, August 2000.  J. Padhye, V. Firoiu, D. Towsley, and J. Kurose, "Modeling TCP Throughput: A Simple Model and its Empirical Validation", Proc ACM SIGCOMM 1998.  Kent, S. and R. Atkinson, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 2401, November 1998.
11. Authors' Addresses Brian Adamson Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC, USA, 20375 EMail: email@example.com Carsten Bormann Universitaet Bremen TZI Postfach 330440 D-28334 Bremen, Germany EMail: firstname.lastname@example.org Mark Handley Department of Computer Science University College London Gower Street London WC1E 6BT UK EMail: M.Handley@cs.ucl.ac.uk Joe Macker Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC, USA, 20375 EMail: email@example.com
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